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33d ComuBSS, > HOUSE OF EEPEESENTATIYES. ( Ex Doc 

1st Session, ( ] -.^ * -Z^^' 
- ^ _^^ / iNo. 121. 


THE 


U. S. MVAL ASTKONOMICAL EXPEDITION 


THE SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE, 


THE TEARS 1849-'50-'51-'52. 


Lieut. AacHiBALD MacRae, 

Master S. Led yard Phelps, [ Assistants, 

Captain's Clerk E. R. SxMith, 


VOLUME III. 

OBSERYATIOIS TO DETEUmE THE 80LAE PAEALLAX. 


BY LIEUT. J. M. GILLISS, LL.D. 

SUPERINTENDENT, 


WASHINGTON: 

A. O. P. NICHOLSON, PRINTER. 
MDCCCLVL 


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In the House of EepeesentatiVes, July 13, 1854. 
July 13, ISS^.^-Laid upon the table, and ordered to be printed. 
July 25, 1854. -Offeree?, That 6, 000 copies of the Keport and 2, 000 copies of the Observations be printed ; 500 copies of 
elch for the use of the Secretary of the Navy, and 250 copies of each for the Superintendent of the Expedition. 


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CONTENTS. 


ORIGIN AND OPERATIONS OF THE EXPEDITION i-xlii 

Dr. C. L. Gerling suggests a new mode for determining the solar parallax iii-iv 

An expedition to the southern hemisphere proposed iv 

A brief account of the climate of Chile - v-vni 

The instruments necessary for the observations viii-ix 

Opinions of American astronomers x-xi 

Results which may possibly be obtained xi-xiv 

Resolutions of the American Philosophical Society and Academy of Arts and Sciences - - - . - xiv-xv 

Report of the Naval Committee of the House of Representatives in favor of sending out an expedition - - xv-xvii 

Appropriation of funds by Congress xviu 

Proposed plan of operations xviii-xxii 

Approbation of the programme by the Societies and Department xxii-xxiii 

The Meridian circle ordered from Messrs. Pistor & Martins - - xxiii 

Defective condition of the instruments supposed available i . . - xxiv 

The Smithsonian Institution authorizes the purchase of a 6J-inch Equatorial, to be loaned to the expedition - xxiv 

Telescope made by Wm. J. Young and Henry Fitz satisfactorily tried xxv 

Congress appropriates money to pay for the telescope, &c. - xxvi 

Interest manifested in the expedition and valuable services rendered by scientific men in England - - - xxvi 

Officers ordered as assistants, and preparation of the ephemerides .-----.- xxvi-xxvii 

Circular to the friends of astronomical science --. xxvii-xxix 

Sailing of the assistants with the equipment xxix 

Instructions from the Secretary of the Navy xxix 

Instructions from the same to Lieutenant Maury, Superintendent Naval Observatory xxx 

Departure from the United States and arrival in Chile xxx 

Favorable reception by the government at Santiago de Chile xxxi 

Reasons for selecting Santiago for the observations xxxi 

The site chosen for the observations xxxii 

Arrival of the assistants and equipment xxxii 

Erection of the observatories on Santa Lucia xxxii 

The instruments mounted and work commenced xxxiii 

The government desires to have some of its young men instructed in practical astronomy - . - - xxxiii 

Interest and curiosity of the public xxxiii 

Progress of the observations of the planets Mars and Venus - - - - - - xxxiv-xxxv 

Extraordinarily favorable condition of the atmosphere xxxiv 

Visit to the northern provinces of Chile - xxxv 

Zone observations and star magnitudes ------ - - - - xxxvi 

Variations in the brilliancy of n Argus xxxvi-xxxvii 

Visit to Talca and the river Maule xxxvii 

Establishment of the Observatorio Nacional xxxviii 

Observations during our last year in Chile xxxviii-xxxix 

Two occultations of /? Geminorum on the same evening xxxix 

Meridional distance between Santiago and Valparaiso xxxix 

Magnetical. and meteorological observations xxxix-xl 

Transfer the observatory and take leave of the government xl 

Lieut MacRae is instructed to proceed across the Andes and Argentine provinces for special observations - xl-xli 

Return of the expedition to the United States - - xlii 

OBSER\^ATIONS OF THE PLANETS MARS AND VENUS. 

INTRODUCTION— 

Description of the observatory xlv 

Description of the Equatorial - - xlvi 

Observations to determine the position of the instrument xlvii 

Instrumental deviations - - xlviii 

Value of a revolution of the micrometer screw xlviii 

Diameter of the micrometer wire xlviii 


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(iv) 


CONTENTS. 


Latitude of the obseryatory = -- = -..„ -„ »„. xlix-1 

Longitude of the observatory -».-*-„„ „-„_ l-li 

Mode of observing in differential measures --».„„„. ». „ = li_lii 

Expl'J'Ination of the printed equatorial observations - . . * - ^ - ^ lii-liii 

Equatorial intervals of the micrometer system --.---._,= „ lii 

Description of the Meridian circle and its adjustments .-.„---»-.„, liii-liv 

Explanation of the printed meridian circle observations »-----.-.= liv 

Mean places of certain of the pre- selected stars ,_ . Iv-lvi 

3Iode of deducing the horizontal and vertical diameters of Mars and Venus from the differential measures - - - - Ivi 

Mean apparent errors of the Nautical Almanac diameter of Mars - - Ivii 

Mean apparent error of the Nautical Almanac vertical diameter of Yenus - Ivii 

Reference of the observations to Dr. B. A. Gould, jr -»-.- = ---.-- Ivii 
THE SOLAR PARALLAX— 

^ 1 . Lxtroductory and historical -.-^--». »---.- Ixi 

§ 2. General statement of the problem - - - . , „.--.. Ixviii 

$ 3. Method pursued -.-..-„- .. Ixxii 

§ 4. Ephemerides and auxiliary tables -..-»-» Ixxvii 

§ 5. Comparison-stars- ---»-----„----.. xcvii 

$ 6. Observations ----.--.----„__.. cxliv 

$ 7. Observations compared with ephemeris -- clxxxvi 

§ 8. Solar parallax from correspondent observations .-- ccix 

§ 9. Equations of condition ---..„ „__ ccxiii 

§ 10. Weights and mean errors --..- ccxlvi 

'§ 11. Fundamental equations » -- cclix . 

§ 12. Preliminary solutions - ccxlix 

^ J3. Final solutions cclxxv 

§ 14. Diameters cclxxix 

§ 15. Results . - - . cclxxxiv 

Santiago observations — 

Micrometrical observations of Mars and pre-selected stars near the opposition of 1849-'50 - - - 1-84 

Micrometrical observations of Mars and pre-selected stars near the opposition of 1851-'52 - - - 85-213 

Micrometrical observations of Venus and pre-selected stars near the inferior conjunction of 1850-'51 - 216-280 

Micrometrical observations of Venus and pre-selected stars near the inferior conjunction of 1852 - - 281-305 

Meridian circle observations of Mars and certain stars near the opposition of 1851-52 . . - . 309-318 

Meridian circle observations of Venus and certain stars near the inferior conjunction of 1850-51 - - 319-326 

Meridian circle observations of Venus and certain stars near the inferior conjunction of 1852 - - - 327-332 

Deduced diameters of Mars, 1849-'50, compared Avith the Nautical Almanac 335-336 

Deduced diameters of Mars, 1851-'52, compared with the Nautical Almanac 337-338 

Deduced and measured diameters of Venus, 1850-'51, compared with the Nautical Almanac - - - 339-340 

Deduced and measured diameters of Venus, 1852, compared with the Nautical Almanac - - - - 341 

Washington observations — 

Letter from Lieutenant M. F. Maury, LL.D., &c.. Superintendent - 345 

Description of the equatorial, and explanation of the observations, by J. Ferguson, esq., ass't astronomer 345-347 

Micrometrical observations of Mars and pre-selected stars near the opposition of 1849-50 - - - 351-378 

Micrometrical observations of Mars and pre-selected stars near the opposition of 1851-'52 - - - 379-385 

Micrometrical observations of Venus and pre-selected stars near the inferior conjunction of 1850-'51 - 389-405 

Micrometrical observations of Venus and pre-selected stars near the inferior conjunction of 1852 - - 406-414 

Cambridge (Mass.) observations— 

Introductory remarks, by Professor Wm. C. Bond, director of the observatory 417 

Eight-ascensions of Mars (by transits) near the opposition of 1849-50 418-447 

Right-ascensions of Mars, by micrometer measurements, near the opposition of 1849-'50 . - - - 448-452 

Declinations of Mars, by micrometer measurements, near the opposition of 1849-50 - . - - 453-460 

Cape of Good Hope observations — 

Editorial notice 463 

Description of the Equatorial by Thos. Maclear, esq., her Majesty's astronomer at the Cape - - - 463-465 

Value of a revolution of the micrometer-screw 466 

Adjustments of the Equatorial 466 

Particulars relating to the observations 467 

Barometers 468-469 

Rate and error of the clock 470 

Micrometrical observations of Mars and pre-selected stars near the opposition of 1849-50 - - 471-492 


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COMIGENDA, VOL. III. 


Page xxxii, line 36, for ''dips to the east," read ''dips to the west." 
Page 1, lines 4 and 5, transpose words ''sum " and ''producC 

Page Ixii, table, line 15, for " facaltate" read "facilitate." 

Page ixii, notes, line 2, after "Gassendi, Op. Omn. VI, 464," add "p. 455, Ed. 1658." 

Page Ixiii, notes, line 4, /or "VII p. 115" read "VIII p. 115." 

Page Ixiii, notes, lines 9,11, Through the kindness of Dr. Cogswell, of the Astor Xz5mry, I have obtained a copy of 
Halley s Southern Catalogue, Ed. Paris, 1679. The needed references are for the parallax, page 80, and for the citation 
irom Streete, page 82. 

Page Ixiv, notes, line 8, /or "483" read "443." 

Page Ixiv, notes, line 8, for " Ventensk" read " Vetenskaps." 

Page Ixv, notes, line 3, /or "I, p. 89" read "I, p. 4." 

Page Ixv, notes, line 6, for " 1768, p. 55" read " 1768, p. 355." 

Page Ixv, notes, line 7, /or "I, p. 4" read "I, p. 100." 

Pagelxvii, text, line 14, /or "2406J" read "24065." 

Page Ixxiii, text, lines 3, 11, 13, /or " Jp and Jco" read " 62 and boy." 

Page Ixxvi, text, lines 27, 28, /or " 0i " read " 0'. " 

Page cxxiv, star No. 19, column 6, for " 3'^ 2 and 2", 70 " read " 0^'. 2 and 1". 20." 

Page cxxvi, star No. 70, column a, for "8 19 26" read "8 19 29." 

Page cxxxiv, star No. 43, column a, for "7 33 49" read " 7 33 50." 

Page cxxxv, star No. 28, column J, /or "26 31 16.25" read "25 31 16\25." 

Page cxliv, star No. 28, line 2, column date, insert "Nov. 26." 

Page cclxviii, line 1,/or "All the terms containing n" read "All the terms containing u." 

Page cclxx, line 15, insert " w" after "— 5.949." 

Page cclxx, line 24, insert "z" after "+20. 674." 

Page cclxxi, the second equation should read " y z=: 2". 8970," &c. 

Page cclxxiv, in the first line of column 1 insert " «« " within the brackets. 

Page cclxxx, the equation line 10 should read " t =i + q." 

Page cclxxxv, line 6 from bottom, the first equation should read e = '» 

s. 
Page 310, No. 3, increase mean of wires and app. A. K. 0. 09. 

Page 310, No. 4:, diminish " '< 0.20. 

Page 310, No. 14, diminish " '' 0. 13. 

Page 310, No. 36, increase " " 0.05. 

Page 312, No. 30, f/mmM " <' 0. 26. 

Page 314, No. 41, increase " <' 10.00. 

Page 316, No. 4:, diminish " <« 0.05. 

Page 317, No. 2, increase " <' 0.07. 

Page 318, No. 21, mermse " <' 0.37. 

Page 320, No. 6, increase " " 0.03. 

Page 320, No. 19, increase " " 0.44, 

Page 320, No. 35, diminish " '< 0. 06. 

Page 321, No. 6, diminish " " 0.28. 

Page 324, No. 36, diminish " <^ q 02. 

Page 327, No. 31, diminish " '' 0. 20. 

Page 331, No. 41, c^immsA " <' 10.00. 

ap^re^to" ""' ""'"" *' """'' ""'' "' "'' '" '""^ "''" '' *^^ ""^^- ^ — P-^-8' animation correction was 
All other errors detected in the printed observations have been detailed by Dr, Gould, pages cxlv-clxxxv. 


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ADDITIONAL CORMGENDA, VOL. II. 


Page 6, line 18, omit ''and clear." 

Page 50, line IS, for ''Putano" read *'Puntano." 

Page 55, line S,for ''eight" read "eighteen." 


ADDITIONAL COERIGENDA, VOL. VI. 


Introduction, page xiv— 

For " A (A 4- V) z= 11. 318420" read "log tang i (A + V) = 11. 318420." 

^^ u ^ ^A - Y) =: 10. 216726" read " log tang ^ (A - V) =:z 10. 216726," and dele " tang" in two places below. 
Page XXIV, lines three, two, and one, from bottom, should read— 

. 0000054 log. 4. 7330296 -^ =:= • 00005339 log 5. 7275037 


16 


^ 1 ftnnooTl 1 — = 1.00000706 

^ zzz 0.99995367 


Page XXV, line six, should read — 


T. 


'■ i'-^ - ^>^'°^ '■''''''' ^'"^ ('-^ - ^)"^°^ '■''''''' 


and dele sign = on pages xxiv and xxv, between the numbers and their logs. , , „ ■■,.■,■ ^ 

Page xxvn, I have said of the inclinon>eter : " It is a modification, by Prof. Kreil and Dr. Lloyd, of the orcle devsed 
bv aauss " I was led to this by the following language in a brief notice of these instruments published, page 4 of the 
''Supplement to the Magnetical Instructions, Sfc, ly Capt. C. J. B. Riddell, R. A. London, 1846." "Anew dip-circle to be used 
with reading microscopes, has been devised by M. Gauss, and constructed, with modifications, by M. Krei and Dr. Lloyd, 
&c " It is stated on page xxvi of this volume that the magnetical and a portion of the meteorological instruments for the 
expedition were made under the direction of Col. (now General) Sabine, to whose earnest interest and assistance we are 
under the greatest obligations. This distinguished physicist informs me. Prof. Gauss never devised a dip-oircle and that 
the only instrument used by him was made by Eobinson, with a 9-inch needle and single reading lens. The application of 
verniers and microscopes, and the shortening of the needle permitted thereby, was a suggestion of Dr. Lloyd. Gauss never 
saw and probably never heard of one of the latter instruments, nor did Prof. Kreil ever see one until the summer of the 
year 1857, when a set of magnetic instruments, prepared at the request of the Austrian government, under the direction of 
Gen. Sabine, was forwarded by the latter to Vienna. 


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ORIGm AISTD OPERATIOITS 


OF THE 


tJ. S. MYIL ISTEOIOMICAL EXPEDITM. 


BO 


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OEIGm AND OPERATIONS 

OF THE 

U. S. NAYAL ASTKONOMICAL EXPEDITION. 


During the summer of 1847 a letter reached me from Dr. 0. L. Gerling, a distinguished 
mathematician of the Marburg University, in which he says: -Since the date of my last I 
have been occupied with the volume of astronomical observations you had the kindness to send 
me and It has occiirred to me that it might be acceptable to you to receive by letter, in advance 
of Its publication, the contents of a brief treatise which I shall transmit to M. Schumacher in a 
few days for publication m the ' Astronomiche Nachrichten.' Should you find my views correct 
this will enable you to commence observations in America this year, which, I fear, could not 
be the case if you awaited a printed copy of the paper. The subject is this : I am of opinion 
that astronomers act unwisely in considering the solar parallax deduced from the transits of 

r/\^f ^""^.^^^^ sufficiently correct, and do not avail themselves of more modern 
methods of observation for the purpose of gradually acquiring more accurate knowledge of it 
It is true, indeed, that the oppositions of Mars were long ago proposed for this purpose • but I 
am not aware that any effective use has been made of them since 1751, although the Nautical 
Almanac has regularly furnished an ephemeris. There is, however, a third method, which 
presented itself to me some time ago, and I cannot comprehend why it should have been so 
entirely neglected-I mean by observations of Venus during the period of its retrograde motion 
and more especially when the planet is stationary. ' 

- The delicate and faint crescent form of Venus at the conjunctions offers excellent opportu- 
nities for observation ; and from what I have been able to accomplish with my small instrument 
I have every reason to believe that most excellent results are obtainable with meridian instru' 
ments at observatories in opposite hemispheres, but lying nearly under the same meridian 
Furthermore at that time Venus is almost twice as near to the earth as is Mars when in opnol 
sition and observations upon it have the very important advantage that it is not absolutely 
essential they should be simultaneous, or nearly simultaneous. Again, when the planet is 
stationary the observations of one meridian may be readily referred to another by interpolation 
witnout risk of error, and at this time it is much nearer to the earth than Mars can be in the 
mostfayorable case. Finally, the distance of the planet from the sun being about 29° micro- 
metrical, may be combined with meridional observations. In my opinion, then, it should be 
our object to multiply meridian observations of Venus about the periods when it is stationary 
and endeavor to obtain micrometrical measurements from all parts of the earth, more especially 
from voyagers Let us suppose a traveller at a place. A, of the southern hemisphere, to observe 
the planet in the evening at a time T referring it to a projected point of the heavens A, and 
that It IS also observed on the meridian during adjacent days at an observatory B of the north 
ern hemisphere : the meridian of the earth, in whose plane projected, Venus was found to be at 
the time T, will be readily ascertained from its known right ascension, (corrected by the 
observations at^) This terrestrial meridian will also be intersected by the parallel of he 
observatory at 5 m a pomt C, where a simultaneous observation on the meridian has not 


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iv ORIGIN AND OPERATIONS 

indeed, been made, but the planet's place may be found for it by interpolation from tbe 
observations at 5. By this interpolated observation, let Venus be placed at a point C of the 
heavens ; then, the celestial arc A C is evidently the measure of the angle under which the 
known places A and O appear to Venus, and from this angle the horizontal parallax of the 
planet must be deducible — the more advantageously the nearer the terrestrial line approaches 
to a diameter of the earth. I also imagine that it will be of great advantage if astronomers 
will unite in making careful meridian observations and promoting micrometrical measurements 
at the stationary periods to the greatest possible extent. For the latter class of observations, 
however, it is not only necessary that the times should be previously considered, but also the 
attending circumstances, and a list of comparing stars be especially selected. No doubt this 
will soon be done, should astronomers be inclined to adopt my proposition ; but I send you 
what I have found for 1847, premising that partial examination has also been made for 1849, 
and that the local stationary point of the latter year offers much greater facilities to observation 
than the present. * * * * 

'' The preceding synopsis of my paper will, I hope, reach you in print after a while. Mean- 
time, I beg you will examine the subject, and should you coincide in my views I trust you will 
interest American astronomers as far as you can, for I flatter myself that observations will be 
instituted this year at European observatories ; and, indeed, I am sure that a greater number 
of accurate meridian observations are likely to be made during the months of September, Octo- 
ber, and November than is common. Besides this, it is more than probable that observatories 
having the requisite instruments will take advantage of the western stationary epoch to make 
micrometrical measurements. For the results and success of 1847 it is much to be desired that 
the few delicate meridian instruments in the southern hemisphere should be brought to co-op- 
erate with us ; and this, perhaps, it is in your power to facilitate. Of equal consequence will 
be micrometer observations from the same section of the globe ; but as the latter require no 
permanent observatory, and only a chronometer, a telescope fitted with a micrometer, and a 
knowledge of the neighboring stars, such observations may well be made by travellers. Whether 
there will remain time prior to the eastern period for the necessary instruction of voyagers to 
the southern hemisphere, I am not able to determine.'' 

This letter bears date 17th April, but was not received until the early part of July, and the 
next eastern stationary term was to occur in September. On conference with the late able 
astronomer, Prof. S. C. Walker, he suggested the immediate publication of the letter, as the 
mode most expeditious of making it generally known, and, in accordance with his advice, 
printed copies of a translation were forwarded to all the astronomers and observatories of the 
United States with as little delay as possible. There was too little time in which to perfect 
arrangements for more extended co-operation at that conjunction, and Dr. Gerling was shortly 
notified that the distribution of his letter was probably all that I should be able to do in the 
work for 1847. But to prove my interest in the prosecution of the problem to its new solution, 
I then proposed an expedition to Chile, to observe the planet near its stationary terms and 
opposition in 1849, should my views receive encouragement from astronomers to justify such an 
undertaking. Nearly on the same meridian as Washington is the island of Chiloe, a place of 
considerable trade with the nearer ports, and occasionally visited by American whale-ships. 
At all events, it was accessible without much difficulty, and I hoped to be able to induce the 
government to send me there, proposing to leave the United States in time to reach the island 
by the middle of March of that year at latest. To avoid expense, which it was supposed would 
prove the first and main obstacle, I contemplated only one assistant, who, like myself, would 
be an officer of the navy, and in the receipt of pay whether abroad or at home, and would take 
instruments already belonging to, or under control of the government. I proposed Chiloe, 
because it was the point farthest south on this continent at which a lengthened winter residence 
could be endured in exposure without incurring an outlay that might prove a serious impedi- 
ment, and because I thought that a passage to it could be obtained in a whale-ship from one of 


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OF THE EXPEDITION, V 

our northern ports. It being inhabited by a civilized and most hospitable people, would tend 
to render a residence of five or six months in the latter part of the autumn and winter not 
altogether uncomfortable. Its distance is about 5^000 miles due south from Washington; and 
a comparison of the observations I proposed to make there with those to be obtained at the 
Washington observatory, would give us a determination of the parallax from data wholly 
American. This last reason I hoped would benefit me, should it be necessary to seek the inter- 
position of Congress. 

On the 9th November following, I wrote Dr. Gerling more at length, telling him : ^^ When 
I proposed to you, on the 25th July last, an expedition to the island of Chiloe, for the purpose 
of making, between the stationary terms of Venus in 1849, nearly simultaneous observations 
with those of the Washington observatory on that planet, and from them to determine the solar 
parallax more accurately, as pointed out in your letter of 17th April last, my anticipations 
were limited to the results that a tolerably skilful and well equipped traveller might be expected 
to contribute to astronomical science, and my chief reliance was intended to have been on differ- 
ential micrometer observations. Since then I have had leisure to reflect on the importance of 
the undertaking, and, remembering the vast outlays Europe has encountered in efforts for the 
faithful solution of this very problem, as well as in other hundreds of scientific enterprises, and 
the fact that America, which participates so largely in the benefits derived from the labors of 
astronomers, has hitherto contributed so trifling an amount to the common stock, I am the 
more keenly sensible of the noble opportunity now within our grasp to present the world, from 
our own continent as a base, the dimensions of our common system. 

^^I hope my desires may not ^prove father to the thought;' but the more I consider the sub- 
ject, the more firmly am I impressed with the belief that the able minister who has for a length 
of time presided with universal approbation over the affairs of the navy will not now falter in 
interest for its advancement, but will hail the occasion offered, and add a new laurel to the 
chaplet of its renown, a gem to the national diadem. There is but one perceptible obstacle — 
pecuniary outlay ; yet when its very inconsiderable amount is contrasted with the grandeur and 
importance of the object to be attained, I cannot bring myself to believe that this objection will 
be suffered to weigh, and I therefore repeat the remark made in my former letter — give th*e 
proposition the encouragement of scientific men, and I stand pledged for its successful equip- 
ment. At all events, regarding it as a possible attainment only, two questions present them- 
selves for consideration, and it is time they were discussed: first, Is the locality proposed 
(Chiloe) the best which can be selected for the contemplated object? and, second, Will the 
instruments which have been specified to you permit the accomplishment of that object in the 
most satisfactory or desirable manner ? 

^'America offers greater advantages to observatories lying on the same or nearly the same 
meridian than any other country — its greatest length being north and south. Deeming a 
station on this continent of paramount consequence, for the reason already mentioned, that it 
may be a contribution from the New to the Old World, as cceteris paribus— the amount of the 
probable error of the parallax observed will be proportional to the length of the terrestrial base, 
it is evidently important that the stations from which observations are to be made should be 
separated as widely as possible. Now, the northern observatories are already established, 
therefore it becomes desirable that the southern station be made as near to the extremity of the 
continent as circumstances will justify ; and these circumstances are, climate, accessibility, and 
means of sustenance for the observers during their residence. 

'' On the first of these points I transcribe somewhat at length the information gathered from 
various writers on Chile respecting the island named, I now fear too hastily. An islet (Caylin) 
near its southern shore is called by the natives 'la fin de la cristiandad/ If the name have 
meaning, as, in the sequel, you will probably have cause to believe, even did the climate per- 
mit, it would not be possible to establish an observatory farther south than Chiloe, without a 
special ship to convey and take off the observers and their means of sustenance, because it would 


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vi ORiaiN AND OPERATIONS 

be manifestly improper to rely for support during so lo^g a period on the Indians of Patagonia. 
Meridionally, the island of Campana is better suited, and is also some 400 miles farther to the 
soutk; but if Chiloe really has the climate described by voyagers and others, you will probably 
agree with me, that even this island is too far south for our purpose, Capt. King, E. N., having 
found it only one third as subject to rain as St. Martin's cove, near Cape Horn. But to the 
extracts from the volumes that I have examined. 

'' El padre P. Gr. de Agiieros, who resided six years on the island, and in 1791 published a 
' Bescripcion Historial de la Frovincia y ArcMpielago de Ohiloe/ in Chap. XI, says: ' The sum- 
mer is the most pleasant season, for though in the month of January it is excessively hot, from 
ten in the morning until three in the afternoon there is a refreshing sea-breeze which is called 
virazon. At this time the day is from seventeen to eighteen hours long, and conversely in the 
winter. During the latter season the temperature is low, but frosts are by no means so severe 
as in Europe. I have never seen ice even in the small streams, nor does snow lie any length of 
time on the ground. Grreater cold is experienced in Chiloe tlian at Santiago and Concepcion ; 
but we must' remember that it is nearer to the pole, and to the rigorous climate of Cape Horn. 
That which renders the winter, as well as some months of the other seasons, most disagreeable, 
are the continued rains, with violent storms from the north, northwest, and west. It frequently 
occurs that rains fall without ceasing through an entire lunation, and are sometimes accompa- 
nied by hurricanes so furious that one is not secure within the house, and the largest trees are 
torn up by the roots. Nor can the weather be depended on when it is fine, even in sum- 
mer, for I have frequently experienced as heavy rains and gales as violent in January as in 
the winter. It is only during the prevalent south wind of summer that fair weather can be 
hoped for.' 

^^Capt. King, K. N., in the narrative of the surveying voyage of H. B. M. ships Adventure 
and Beagle, gives the following account ; and this is the most recent information accessible, 
unless I should be able to obtain data extending through a longer period from the Chilean am- 
bassador. Says Capt. King : ' Cant. Fitzroy (commanding the Beagle) arrived there (at San 
Qprlos) in July, during the latter part of which, and the month of August, the weather was 
very wet, with some heavy gales from the northwest ; but in bis meteorological journal for these 
months there is no record of the thermometer falling below 38°; and it is recorded to have 
fallen to that point only on one occasion, the general height being from 45^ to 50°. The first 
part and middle of September were boisterous and wet ; but towards the end of the month the 
wind was chiefly from the southward, and the weather dry and exceedingly fine. In October it 
was rather changeable ; but for the last ten days, with the exception of one, on which there was 
a fresh gale, with a heavy fall of rain, it was fine and dry, and the winds were moderate. The 
month of November was generally fine, but the first half of December continued tempestuous 
and wet. ^ * * * The greatest quantity of rain in the gauge at the end of the month of 
November did not exceed 2,6 inches. At St. Martin's cove, near Cape Horn, after thirty days 
of observation, the rain gauge contained 8 inches ; so that, although Chiloe bears the character 
of being a very wet place^ it is not one third so bad as Cape Horn. The time of our visit to 
San Carlos was certainly the finest part of the year, and I believe that the weather we expe- 
rienced was unusually dry, even for the season. I do not, however, think that it is by any 
means so bad as has been represented. 

cc c There is a marked difference of climate between the east and west sides of Chiloe, as to 
quantity of wind and rain. A portion of both appears to be arrested, as it were, on the wind- 
ward side of the heights, so that the neighborhood of Castro, and the islands in the gulf of 
Ancud, enjoy much finer weather than is met with about San Carlos. But even here, the in- 
habitants say a change has taken place gradually, and they have not now nearly so much rain 
as they had formerly. They attribute this to the wood being cleared away, &g.' 

''My. Darwin, who was naturalist to the expedition, and accompanied it on board the Beagle, 
states in his account : ' The island is about ninety miles long, with a breadth of rather less 


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OF THE EXPEDITION. VU 

than thirty. The land is hilly, but not mountainous, and is everywhere covered by one dense 
forest, excepting a few scattered green patches which have been cleared around the thatched 
cottage^. * * * Ij2 winter the climate is detestable^ and in summer it is only a little bet- 
ter. I should think that there are no parts of the world, within the temperate regions, where 
so much rain falls. The winds are very boisterous, and the sky nearly always clouded; to have 
a week of fine weather is something wonderful. It is even difficult to get a single glimpse of 
the Cordillera ; during our first visit only one opportunity occurred, and that was before sun- 
rise^ when the volcano of Osorno stood out in bold relief, and it was curious to watch, as the sun 
rose, the outline gradually fading away in the glare of the eastern sky.' 

'' Don Alonzo de Ercilla (see American translation of Abbe Molina's History of Chile, page 
263) gives this brief, but emphatic opinion, confirming those already quoted : ' The land, like 
all the other islands, is mountainous, and covered with almost impenetrable forests. The rains 
are excessive, and only in the autumn do the inhabitants enjoy fifteen or twenty days of fair 
weather in succession. At any other season, were eight days to pass without rain it would be 
regarded very singular. ^The atmosphere, of course, is very humid, and springs are to be found 
in every part.' 

'' The account of Chiloe, therefore, is the reverse of flattering ; and as it is more than intimated 
that the constant rains of this section of Chile are much influenced by the height and contour 
of the land, and the success of the proposed Expedition will be mainly dependent on the num- 
ber of complete comparative observations which may be made, it becomes a duty to inquire 
whether a slight change of locality will afford us an atmosphere less obstructed by rains, at 
which the observations may be made in such number as will justify the undertaking. Taking 
up the latter part of this question at once — with great deference to your more experienced judg- 
ment—it appears to me, that as the great object of the southern station will be to furnish com- 
parative observations of the planet's declination, and the changes of the declination when near 
the inferior conjunction are not only about a minimum, but are also sufficiently well known to 
admit of interpolation for at least one hour before and after the transit at Washington, a 
movement of the station on the parallel cannot materially afiect the accuracy of the results. 
But this cannot be effected in that latitude, for there is no land to the west, or any roads which 
are traversable with instruments over the Cordilleras to the east ; and the necessary consequence 
is, we must take Chiloe as we find it described, and hope for good weather, or move northward 
to a more suitable place on the continent, which, from the configuration of the shore, must also 
be somewhat more to the eastward of the meridian of Washington. As has just been said, I do 
not believe that a degree or two of longitude will be of much consideration, more especially as 
we have observatories at Philadelphia, West Point, and Cambridge, Mass., whose equipments 
justify the expectation that they will take part in the observations ; and there is but one to the 
westward of us at all likely to co-operate, viz : at Hudson, Ohio. 

" There is universal testimony to the excellence and serenity of the atmosphere of northern 
Chile ; and to satisfy you of the fact in case you have not examined for yourself, I quote from 
one or two books in my possession, the volumes of Agiieros, King, &c., having been found at 
the library of Congress, which has been closed for a week or two past. In the History of Chile 
by Abbe Molina, which, I believe, has also been translated into your language, at page 12 he 
says : ' The rainy season on the continent usually commences in April and continues till the 
last of August. In the northern provinces of Coquimbo and Copiapo it very rarely rains ; in 
those of the centre it usually rains three or four days in succession, and the pleasant weather 
continues fifteen or twenty days. In the southern the rains are much more frequent, and often 
continue for nine or ten days without cessation,' 

^^On page 19 of the same work I find a note extracted from a volume entitled ^History of the 
European Settlements in America,' which says: ^Contiguous to Peru is situated the province 
of Chile, which extends in a long and narrow strip upon the coast of the South sea. The air 
is remarkably clear and serene, and for three quarters of the year this country enjoys an almost 


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Vm ORIGIN AND OPERATIONS 

constant temperature, as it rains very little during that time.' Bormycastle, wlio compiled a 
work on America, has nothing but what has been copied from the above authors ; but the 
information most direct and recent has been obtained from a small volume entitled ^ Eepertorio 
Chileno, ano de 1835,' published at Santiago, a city nearly midway between the northern 
and southern boundaries, and some sixty or more miles from the ocean. This was loaned to 
me by the secretary of the Chilean legation near this government, and whose personal expe- 
rience enables him to confirm its statements. It is most unfortunate, however, that the 
meteorological journal ceases at a period of the year just half way between our interesting 
epochs. I make a free translation for you from page 1 : ' Chile, from the brightness of its 
atmosphere, the benignity of its climate, and the fertility and productiveness of its soil, is 
reputed to be one of the best and most delightful countries of the globe. Although the four 
seasons are distinctly marked, the transition from heat to cold is scarcely sensible. Spring 
begins on the 21st of September, summer in December, autumn in March, and winter on the 21st 
of June. From the commencement of spring to the middle of autumn, from Copiapo to Talca, 
the air is perfectly dry, it being very rare that any others than light rains fall in any year. 
The rainy season sets in regularly about the end of April, and continues until the middle of 
September. In the province of Coquimbo it only rains two or three times in the year, and 
then but for a few hours ; in that of Aconcagua, Santiago^ and Colchagua, two, three, or four 
consecutive days of rain are followed by twelve, fifteen, or twenty of clear weather, and so on, 
progressively increasing to the extremity of Chiloe, where rain falls all the year, and for entire 
months at a time. Dew, which is deposited copiously-, throughout the state during spring, 
summer, and autumn, measurably supplies the want of rain in the northern section.' 

^' The meteorological journal alluded to as being in the volume was kept at Santiago by Don 
F. C. Albo, whose records tell as follows: From February 15, 1835, to April 10, of the same 
year, there were four observations daily, viz : at 4 and 10 A. m.^ and 4 and 12 p. m. During 
these fifty-five days, there are 146 records ^ clear,' 1 ^ very clear,' 3 ^exceedingly fair,' and 
2 ' fair;' in all 152, or thirty-eight entire days of fine weather, leaving but seventeen, or one 
day in three, cloudy. From April 10 to May 12, both days included, there were only 100 
records, or three per diem. These were made at times (specified) near 9 A. m., 3 and 11 p. m. 
Of the 100 notations, 64, or very nearly two thirds, are ^fair,' and the larger portion of the 
remainder are either ^ cloudy' or ^partially cloudy.' There were only eight rains in the whole 
thirty-eight days, and this, too, the middle of autumn in central Chile — certainly a state of the 
atmosphere not known to this part of the globe at the most favored season of the year. 

^^ Now^ I pray you will not misunderstand my motives for the remarks and quotations respect- 
ing the climate of Chile, but remember, there can be no personal preference for a station. My 
desire is to contribute the utmost to the solution of the great problem, and to render the most 
eff'ective service which the locality selected, and the instruments committed to my charge, will 
permit. If astronomers say, take the longest base and go to Chiloa, or even to a more southern 
station, I will cheerfully acquiesce, and undertake the task with the same alacrity as though 
the duties were to be rendered at Copiapo or Valparaiso ; but it is due to the object to be accom- 
plished, as well as to myself, to submit these points, that I may not hereafter be charged with 
the selection of a station unsuited to observations. Eefiect on the subject and advise me what 
shall be done. 

'' Fortunately, the second question propounded may be more briefly despatched, viz : "Will the 
instruments named in my former letter permit the accomplishment of the object in the most 
satisfactory or desirable manner ? I have already told you, that in writing that letter, my 
expectations were limited to the results of micrometrical measurements. But as meridional 
observations of the declination are free from the errors necessarily tending to vitiate those made 
diff'erentially near the horizon with even a permanently placed parallactic telescope, I am 
satisfied that the objects of the enterprise can only be properly fulfilled by furnishing it with a 
circle of not less than thirty inches diameter, whose divisions shall be read with micrometer 


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OF THE EXPEDITION. IX 

microscopes, and with which, as expressed in your letter of 2d September, ' BecUnatiGns, 
Bestimmungen gemacht werden, welche in Genanigkeit denen von Washington gleich komen/ 
^^ We have not such a spare instrument belonging to the navy. One Avas shown to me a few 
years ago at Cambridge, Massachusetts, (I think,) and in 1843 Mr. William Simms told me in 
London he had recently (then) constructed one about that size for the university at Tuscaloosa, 
in Alabama. One or the other of these may probably be obtained for the Expedition. If they 
cannot, or are unsuited to the purpose, either Mr. Simms or one of your G-erman artists could 
construct one by next July, and I leel confident the Minister of Marine will authorize it should 
he determine to patronise the enterprise. 

^^ I think additional value would be given to certain of the differential micrometer observations, 
if they could be made at the two observatories with the same stars at the same, pre-appointed, 
instants ; it being understood that both before and after these instants the greatest number of 
measurements be made which the condition of the atmosphere will permit. Of course, the 
circumstances of the refraction at the two stations v/ill be different, but interpolations for 
changes of declination will be avoided; and I know, from long experience in the term-day obser- 
vations of the Grerman magnetical association, how much accuracy one strives to attain, as well 
in the instants of time as in the coincidence of the observed object with the micrometer wire 
when he knows there are other observers whose faculties are directed to the same end at the 
same moments, and whose results are to be competitors. 

^^One other instrument will be found necessary, as well to inspire the observer with confidence 
in his work, as to afford the means of obtaining satisfactory determinations of the planet's 
right ascension, which may be used for comparison with the Cape of Good Hope and Paramatta 
observatories. I mean a good astronomical clock ; for experience has taught me that the rate 
of chronometers from day to day is not sufficiently uniform to be relied on for work so delicate. 
Such a clock we already have, and as it is not employed on necessary service, it can doubtless 
be obtained ; and I take it for granted that the two observatories mentioned will co-operate with 
us as soon as they know that our station has been selected.'' 

A third letter from Dr. Gerling, transmitting the opinions of Gauss, Encke, and Boguslaw- 
ski, came very shortly afterwards; and on the 24th December he again wrote me, part of which, 
in reply to my last, is as follows : 

'^Whilst I promptly acknowledge the importance of yours, and the gratitude with which it 
inspires me, I candidly confess that the decision you ask of me respecting the proper locality 
for the observations of 1849 gives an importance to my judgment I would not voluntarily 
assume ; for it is evident to me that such a decision can only be properly arrived at by yourself 
and your American friends. Yet, in your ovai spirit of candor, I will tell you the reflections 
which would influence me in arriving at such determination. 

'^ From the greater length of the base of operations, Chiloe would possess an unquestionable 
advantage; whilst Valparaiso really appears a preferable station, by reason of its better climate, 
and not on account of its lying nearly on the parallel of the Cape of Good Hope, as Bogus- 
lawski, in my opinion, erroneously adduces. I coincide with you fully that a difference of lon- 
gitude of one or two degrees is altogether unimportant, if other benefits may be obtained by a 
change; and the question thus reduces itself to a comparison of the cZ^Vadvantage of shortening 
the base with the advantage of an increase in the number of observations. Now, assuming 
the latitude of Washington to be 38° 53^ north, Chiloe 43° 05^ and Valparaiso 33° 02^ south, 
(neglecting differences of longitude,) we have Washington-Chiloe 1.312 radii of the earth, and, 
on the other hand, Washington-Valparaiso 1.174. Consequently, this shortening of the base 
will diminish the value of the work in the proportion 1.174 : 1.312 — that is, approximately as 
17 : 19. But if by an increase in the number of observations this unfavorable change may be 
counterbalanced, we have to consider that (ca3teris paribus) the accuracy of the results increases 
only as the square root of their number. Hence it will be necessary to multiply observations 
in the proportion of 19^ to 17^ or 361 : 289, or nearly as 5 : 4, Consequently, Valparaiso will 


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X ORIGIN AND OPERATIONS 

be i3referable to Chiloe^ if it be probable that five observations of the planet may be obtained at 
the first as frequently as four can be made at the second station. You will, of course, under- 
stand me as meaning Valparaiso only as an example for your letter, and that the same principle 
of reasoning must be applied in the selection of any neighboring locality. Yet, I repeat, a 
decision of this question must rest wholly with you in America, where you, undoubtedly, have 
at command nearer and more copious sources of information respecting the climate than Ave, and 
more particularly than myself, who have never given thorough attention to subjects of this 
nature. But, whatever may be your decision, I can but congratulate myself that by the com- 
munication of my views relating to observations on Venus, I may prove the remote cause of so 
great and important an enterprise. 

^^I greatly rejoice that you have reasonable expectation to obtain a good circle for the Expe- 
dition, to serve you in the declination observations ; for I am confident such an instrument will 
give glorious results. And that a valuable clock is also probably at command, is a subject of 
much congratulation. Should you find the opinions of others useful in enabling you to pro- 
cure these instruments, that of Gauss, which was copied into my last letter for you, may prove 
of considerable weight. 

^' I fully concur with you in the belief that the value of the micrometrical observations will 
be much increased if they are made at the two stations on the same stars at periods as nearly as 
possible simultaneous ; and to this end I shall forward to you, at the earliest possible day, a 
list of stars selected from the Berlin charts. But I do not immediately perceive any great 
benefit likely to accrue from a comparison of the right ascension observations made on the meri- 
dians of the respective parallels, unless, as intimated, w^e should succeed in obtaining extra- 
meridional observations of Venus whilst the sun is above the horizon, and simultaneous measures 
of the eastern and western hemispheres maybe combined. Irrespective of the last contingency, 
I cannot but regard your vicYfS directly to the point, and am satisfied we should endeavor to 
make a multitude of observations in the northern and southern hemispheres^ if possible, abso- 
lutely simultaneous. By so doing we shall especially obviate a difficulty of an important char- 
acter, but one which did not occur to me until after I had despatched my last letter, viz : 
uncertainty in the time of the determination ; for, as the parallax of Venus Avhen approaching 
the horizon is ex|)ressed by the greatest numbers, so also at that time its variation is the most 
rapid, and the necessity for accurate knowledge of the instants of observation proportionately 
greater. The simultaneous observations you propose will certainly remove this disadvantage.'' 

Meanwhile, the early letters of Dr. Gerling had, with my own, been submitted to the Ameri- 
can Philosophical Society and the Academy of Arts and Sciences, to Professors A. D. Bache, 
Benjamin Peirce, S. C. Walker, Elias Loomis, and others eminent for mathematical and astro- 
nomical attainments, from each of which there was solicited impartial investigation of the 
method and proposed mode of carrying it into efiect, and a recommendation of the Expedition to 
the favorable consideration of the government, should they believe it likely to obtain useful 
results. Prof. Bache replied : 

^^ As was no doubt expected, the searching examination to which your proposal has given 
rise has nearly exhausted the various bearings of the problem. The importance of the inquiry 
is very generally admitted. In discussing the question of the probability of obtaining new data 
for the solar parallax which shall diminish the probable error of the value obtained from the 
transit of Venus, there are different shades of opinion expressed. I do not see, however, that 
the two reasons which strongly favor Dr. Gerling' s method are met by any opposing argu- 
ments. The large number of observations upon which results may be founded, and the inde- 
pendence of the new method with that formerly used, are, indeed, striking features in this 
method. Independent methods give the best confirmation of results, or show errors beyond the 
accidental error deduced from calculation of observations which are all made by the same 
method. 

'^ There can be no doubt that the instruments to be employed should be of the class used in 


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OF THE EXPEDITION. XI 

observatories, and not small, portable ones. The futility of an attempt with others is well 
pointed out in the correspondence. The procuring a suitable meridian circle will constitute, I 
suppose, the greatest expense of the Expedition. Without entirely suitable instruments and 
ample time for the observations, the Expedition would, of course, fail in accomplishing its main 
purpose. 

^^ As is well pointed out in the correspondence, if the Expedition should result in showing 
that no new strength could be given by this method to the value of the solar parallax, the indi- 
rect results from other observations would be most valuable ; no similar expedition has ever 
been barren of scientific results. In this view of the subject, meteorological and magnetical 
observations should be combined with the astronomical observations. 

^^ I have no doubt that you can present a plan to the honorable the Secretary of the Navy so 
well matured in its details, and so moderate in the expenditures required, that he will give it 
that favorable consideration which the character of his mind insures to such objects, and that 
if no untoward circumstances prevent, he will yield the plan so considered that hearty support 
which he has always extended to similar proposals for elevating the scientific character of our 
country.'' 

On the 18th December, Prof. Peirce informed me : ^' My long delay in answering your very 
interesting communications relative to your proposed expedition for determining the solar 
parallax demands a serious apology. I assure you most earnestly that it did not arise from a 
want of sympathy with the scientific zeal and devotion which have prompted you to this ardu- 
ous enterprise, nor from a want of appreciation of the importance of a new and more accurate 
solution of a problem which is the basis of all astronomical measurement, and of which there 
is now a single isolated determination. I have delayed only that I might give the question a 
calm, deliberate, and critical examination ; and^ although fully aware of the little weight which 
should attach to the opinion of one whose knowledge of practical astronomy is not derived from 
personal experience, yet, since you have done me the honor of asking it, I have felt that I should 
doubly err if I should answer without the most careful consideration, and should thus assist in 
sending a friend and most valuable and highly accomplished officer upon so dreary an expedi- 
tion with doubtful prospect of success. 

^^ A more accurate measurement of the sun's parallax in the method proposed by yourself 
and Dr. G-erling cannot be regarded as inferior in importance to any problem in practical 
astronomy ; and when sustained as to its practicability by the opinions of Dr. Bache and Mr. 
"Walker, Avhose authority upon the use of astronomical instruments can be weighed down by no 
living testimony, there can be no further question as to its expediency. Most cordially, there- 
fore, as well as deliberately, I send you my humble testimony in favor of the enterprise you 
have so much at heart and are so certain to accomplish, if it is, as it appears to be, within the 
bounds of reasonable possibility. Let me entreat you, however, not to be satisfied with any- 
thing inferior to the best possible instruments which art can furnish, for such instruments 
seem to me absolutely indispensable, while the admirable observations which you have pub- 
lished are a sufficient guaranty for the skill with which you will conduct their manipulation. 

'^I shall bring the subject before the Academy early in the month of January, and shall be 
greatly disappointed if a resolution is not immediately adopted in approbation of your project." 

When acknowledging the receipt of this personally complimentary letter, the arguments 
which had w^eighed with me to desire such an expedition were detailed somewhat at length. A 
note accompanied it, suggesting one or two obstacles almost sure to be encountered, and these 
were replied to at the same time. A part of my letter was as follows : '' Eemembering that 
the solar parallax deduced by various astronomers from the transit of Venus in 1769 was dis- 
crepant at least 0^^4; that, in a climate reputed as favorable as is (northern) Chile, we might 
expect to obtain observations on at least two out of each three days ; that therefore the ninety 
days during which it is proposed to continue observations will give us sixty determinations of 
the parallax, each of which might have a probable error of less than 1^', and the resulting final 


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Xll ORIGIN AND OPERATIONS 

error be as V^ divided by the square root of 60 = 0'M3 ; and, lastly, that the attainment of such 
a solution, if accordant in individual results, would, at all events, place the parallax beyond 
cavij, it did appear to ine an object worthy a great effort to achieve for our country and its 
navy. I am convinced such a result can be attained in a single inferior conjunction ; and that I 
can accomplish it, if a suitable instrument be given me, and as close an observer have charge of 
the northern circle, I am willing to hazard whatever of reputation as an observer may have 
been awarded to m^e. If the period of simultaneous observations is to be extended to another 
conjunction, the probable error will, of course, fall within O'M, and such continuation of the 
series appears to be the desire of all who have communicated with me on the subject. 

^^Entertaining these opinions, the letter of July 25 was written to Dr. Gerling, and in a 
short period the correctness of my judgment was confirmed by Messrs. Bache, Walker, and 
Loomis, all gentlemen thoroughly versed in the theory as well as in the manipulation of instru- 
ments. This was sufficient incitement to leave no effort untried to secure the honor of the 
observations for American science. Dr. G-erling's letter of September positively decided me ; 
and should he procure recommendations of the Expedition from German astronomers, as therein 
promised, I shall leave nothing undone to the fulfilment of my portion of the engagement. 

^^ Between the date of my letter and the receipt of that last alluded to, the subjects of parallax 
and climate of Chile were made matters of especial examination. It was not until then that I 
became acquainted with the close agreement of the results of Encke and Ferrer upon a discus- 
sion of all the observations of 1*769, and will candidly confess that this, together with the unfa- 
vorable accounts gathered of Chiloe, if not quite so dampening to my zeal as is the (reputed) 
climate of the station selected to the skins of Chilotes, was yet very far from a character to 
afford encouragement. But, as I have never suffered minor obstacles to deter me from the pros- 
ecution of a worthy task, and the following good reasons exist why the work should go onward, 
I am prepared to make every promise good to its fullest extent. 

^^ First. The solar parallax rests on the isolated deductions from the transit of Yenus, as 
observed in 1^69, a part of which observations are, demonstrably, forgeries, a part supposed to 
have been ^coaxed,' (as generally termed ^cooked,') and another part, viz: at Santa Ana, in 
California, made or manufactured by one scarcely rational. Those of Mars at opposition in the 
last century, which are referred to by Encke in his Venus diirchgang von 1769, and by Dr. 
Gerling in his letter of April 17, I have not been able to find here, and, apparently, there is 
but one other occasion when this method has been made use of. Prof. Henderson made a com- 
parison of the Cape of Good Hope observations of Mars, at opposition with nearly simultaneous 
ones at Cambridge, (England,) Greenwich, Edinburg, and Altona; and though those made at 
the first named northern observatory, combined with the Cape measures, gave a parallax agree- 
ing very well with the received amount, the comparison with the others afforded a result 
exceeding 9'^ These two modes, and the only ones tried, do not rest on a sufficient number of 
observations. The advanced state of astronomy demands their confirmation, and the removal 
of whatever of doubt may hang over the solution of the problem. 

^^ Second. The method, proposed by Dr. Gerling is the only one remaining untried by which 
we can ever arrive at a knowledge of the parallax ; and as this element may be positively ascer- 
tained during two inferior conjunctions within the limits of 0''.09, its investigation, in the 
manner matured by him, is not only desirable, but its accomplishment will be alike honorable 
to the nation that directs and the astronomer who accomplishes it. 

'^ Third. Considering the second reason incontrovertible, the magnitude of the object involved 
renders it well worthy the patronage of the government. Now, as we can hope to enlist our 
countrymen in scientific enterprises only by their so frequent recurrence as compels belief in 
their national utility, and as many years have elapsed since voluntary part has been taken in 
any work of this character, (vide the Exploring Expedition, 1835), unless we wish all interest in 
like pursuits to be lost, it is time rulers were again called on to act, and the present occasion, 
perhaps, emphatically addresses itself to us — there being high honors attainable at little cost. 


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OF THE EXPEDITION. Xlll 

'^ As they are of much weight, there are collateral reasons which it is proper that I should 
state to you. On the second page of the preface to his Venus durcligang^ Encke says : ^ Until 
1874, there is no hope of obtaining in this manner (by transits of Venus) a more accurate 
knowledge of the solar parallax. The celebrated measures for the parallax of Mars, in the 
middle of the last century, gave that of the sun within the eighth or twelfth part ; but this 
latter method is of no other practical use than as it encourages a hope that, by a greater per- 
fection of instruments, we may become more independent of the transits of Venus, which occur 
so seldom.' And on page 109, he says : 

'^ ' The probable error in the observation of a contact being seven seconds^ is so great as to ren- 
der the determination of the sun's parallax within O'^Ol almost hopeless for the next two centu- 
ries. Such precision would have required a hundred observers at Wardhus, and a like number 
at Otaheite ; whilst the difficulty of placing even thirty good and independent observers in the 
vicinity of each of the best stations is so great, that it can hardly be expected we shall attain 
such accuracy from any one transit. 

'^ ^ All the observations of 1761, together, have but a value equal to three complete observa- 
tions of the duration at Wardhus, compared with as many at Otaheite. If the weather had 
been good at the eight northern stations in 1769, and there had been eight good observations 
of the duration at the Friendly islands, these eight comparisons would have been as valuable as 
the two hundred and fifty observations of the two transits actually made. In comparison with 
that of 1769;, the next two transits will be so unfavorable, that nothing short of perfection in 
the construction of instruments, and art of observing, can be expected to compensate for it.' 

^^ We must, therefore, assent to the present calculated parallax for more than a century and a 
half longer ; make another essay with Mars, or adopt the plan proposed by Dr. Gerling. Now, 
does the present state of astronomical science require this trial by us, or will it be advanced 
thereby? I feel confident that you, and all who reflect on these facts, will agree with me, that 
to confirm the accepted 8^^5776 within 0'^09, even should no other astronomical result be derived 
from it, is well worthy the expedition proposed to southern Chile, and the honor of its achieve- 
ment not unworthy of American emulation. Moreover, though I need not have reminded you 
of it, perhaps, should the observations be continued through the stationary terms of Venus in 
December and January, 1850-'51, as several astronomers regard essential^ the intermediate op- 
position of Mars will occur, which may be made use of with greater probability of success than 
at the Cape of Good Hope on the previous occasion, it being at that time the summer of the 
southern hemisphere; and we shall also be enabled to obtain a parallax in right ascension, as 
well as in declination. 

^^ A few words more directly in reply to the two difficulties suggested ascertain to prove 
obstacles in attaining ^ results comparable in accuracy with the old determinations of the paral- 
lax from the transit of Venus,' and I shall have done. And first, as to the probable error of 
absolute declinations from a series of observations. Messrs. Bessel, Struve, Airy, and Arge- 
lander, are such authorities, it would, apparently, be highly presumptuous to say that any one 
could make better measures. But did either of those distinguished astronomers ever follow uj) 
a star in declination for a year ? I greatly question it, as refers to the Germans, and know 
(from the Greenwich observations) that Mr. Airy leaves such, indeed ninety-five hundredths of 
all observations, to his assistants, with whose accuracy I trust I may be permitted to compare, 
for, if what Mr. Walker says be true, my probable error is less than that of any known ob- 
server. Encke admits, page 30 of the volume quoted, that the probable error of observa- 
tion at a station maybe only 0'^5. But I propose a form of instrument and method of observa- 
tion which, united, will necessarily cause many of the ordinary discordances of observation to 
disappear, and thus your apprehensions on this point be quieted; that is, I want a circle whose 
axis shall form a part of its telescope, and intend the nadir point to be examined immediately 
before and after each series of observations. This construction of the telescope to me presents 
one, or at most two, disadvantages. The first and most important is, greater instability in the 


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XIV ORIGIN AND OPERATIONS 

collimation line; and the other, partial loss of light by reflection from the prism. As the col- 
limating eye-piece and level may be made mutual checks, and theory gives us total reflection 
from a prism, I am not satisfied that either are valid objections. To counterbalance these, if 
actual demerits, the frequent uncertainty as to the amount of flexure and its positive source of 
error, the risk from mounting a tall ladder to examine the nadir point, and of disturbing the 
instrument when rising after the observation of an object near the zenith, are all in a great 
measure avoided^ whilst the labor of the observer is facilitated by having the micrometers next 
him, and the accomplishment of his task in a uniform position, and that, the most perfectly 
natural attitude of his body. Should the telescope have a micrometer at its eye-end for both 
vertical and horizontal measurements, the uncertainty of semi-diameter and the effect of irra- 
diation will be partially avoided, and a suitable screen can be constructed to shield it from solar 
heat, as well as from that of the person. Are there other objections to such construction of 
the instrument that I do not anticipate, and which would render it improper? 

^^ Secondly: I have not so great confidence in the results of micrometrical determinations, 
except on occasions when, in consequence of the orbit of Venus lying near large stars, we may 
be enabled to make comparisons by daylight. There will be two such j)eriods at each conjunc- 
tion — of 1849 and of 1850-'51 ; and if we obtain simultaneous observations from the Cape of 
Grood Hope and Paramatta, as I doubt not we shall, a parallax in right ascension will be 
measured at the same time. 

^^If the government be pleased to authorize the Expedition, be assured I would not even 
undertake its equipment without personal consultation with one whose ability and judgment 
command my admiration as warmly as his personal merits entitle him to my esteem.'' 

On the 7th January, 1848, a committee of the American Philosophical Society, consisting of 
Profs. E. M. Patterson, E. S. McCuUoh, and E. Otis Kendall, reported as follows : '' That the 
method for determining more accurately the dimensions of the solar system by similar observa- 
tions of Venus in the northern and southern hemispheres, at the conjunctions of that planet, 
proposed by Dr. G-erling in his letter to Lieut. Grilliss of April 17, 1847, is in their opinion 
practicable, and therefore worthy of attention and patronage. Also, that the plan of Lieut. 
Gilliss for carrying the views of Dr. Grerling into effect is well conceived, and if successfully 
accomplished, cannot fail to confer honor on our country and its naval service. 

'^ They respectfully remind the society that, in the year 1*769, observations of the transit of 
Venus, for the determination of this important astronomical problem, were made by Dr. Eit- 
tenhouse and others, under the liberal patronage of the government of Pennsylvania, then a 
British colony, which observations were of great value, and justly reflected much honor upon 
the colonial government, and particularly upon the distinguished men who were engaged in 
making them. As the subject is, therefore, one which is already connected with the history of 
American science, under the auspices of government patronage, as our country has hitherto 
contributed but little, comparatively with the other principal nations, to astronomy and navi- 
gation, and as the plan of Lieut. Grilliss is so truly American, your committee suggest that the 
society should commend it earnestly to the attention and patronage of the Navy Department ; 
or, if that department should not possess the legal authority to carry it into effect, to the favor- 
able action of Congress. And they therefore propose the following resolutions : 

'^ Besolved, That the proposed method of Dr. Grerling, of Marburg, for determining the solar 
parallax by observations of the planet Venus, when stationary and at the conjunctions, and 
the plan of Lieut. Grilliss for its accomplishment by means of similar observations at the Naval 
Observatory at Washington and in South America, would, if successfully carried out under the 
direction of the Navy Department, furnish valuable astronomical data, and confer honor upon 
our country. 

'^Resolved, therefore^ That this society do hereby commend the proposed plan to the favor 
and adoption of the present distinguished head of that department; or, if necessary, to the Con- 


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OF THE EXPEDITION. XV 

gress of the United States; and that, in testimony of the o^Dinion of this society upon this sub- 
ject, an official copy of these proceedings be transmitted to the Secretary of the Navy/' 

The ,resolutions were adopted unanimously on the same evening, and were transmitted 
through me. A few days afterwards I received from the Corresponding Secretary, Dr. Asa 
Gray, the opinion expressed by the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. It is in these 
words : 

^^ liesolved, That, in the opinion of this Academy, the enterprise for determining the solar 
parallax in the method proposed in the correspondence between Lieut. G-illiss and Dr. Gerling 
is worthy to be promoted by the government of the United States, by sending an expedition to 
Chiloe, both on account of the great uncertainty which attends the adopted value of this funda- 
mental basis of astronomical measurement, and from the probability that this attempt Avill 
prove successful, and thus redound to the honor of the country by which it is undertaken. 

^'liesolvedy That a copy of this resolution be transmitted by the Corresponding Secretary to 
Lieut. Gilliss, with a request that he will communicate it to the public authorities who may 
have the subject under their consideration.'' 

These quotations from a document printed by Congress (30th Congress, 1st session) will have 
shown the origin and initiatory steps leading to the Expedition, and it is scarcely necessary to 
republish in this place testimony from other correspondents repeating nearly the same ar^-u- 
ments. Foreign astronomers were far less sanguine of any results likely to set aside the value 
of the solar parallax adopted from discussion of the transits of Yenus ; but the question of col- 
lateral benefits to science from such enterprise was not mooted by either of them, or, doubtless, 
they would have been equally strong in its recommendation. So far as my personal support 
could go, my mind was fully made up. Eesolved to give the method of Dr. Gerling a faithful 
trial, and endeavor to accumulate other data to render the Expedition valuable in case no useful 
results should be deducible from the observations on Venus, on the 10th February the testimo- 
nials and correspondence were laid before the honorable Secretary of the Navy. Entreating 
their careful perusal by him, I proposed : 

That he should furnish me with instruments already within the control of the department ; 
one assistant, an officer of the navy; and authority to embark for Valparaiso, or other port in 
Chile, to make observations there from February, 1849, until April, 1851. Should he be 
pleased to grant this, I pledged myself that the expenses of every kind, exclusive of instru- 
ments, should not exceed five thousand dollars. 

Not only were there influences to prevent its favorable consideration by the department, but 
it was not until the last day of March that the alternative presented by the American Philo- 
sophical Society was adopted, and the honorable Secretary referred the matter to the action of 
Congress. There, the papers were appropriately sent to the Naval Committee, and within a 
fortnight the Hon. F. P. Stanton, of Tennessee, made the following report : 

^^ The Committee on Naval Affairs have had under consideration the correspondence sub- 
mitted by the Secretary of the Navy, in his letter of the 31st March, 1848, and they beg leave 
to present the following views of this interesting subject : 

^^It is proposed to set on foot an expedition to the most southern available position on the 
Western Continent, for the purpose of making observations on the planet Venus, during the 
period of her retrograde motion, in conjunction with similar observations to be made at the 
observatory in this city, with a view to the more accurate determination of the solar parallax, 
which involves not only the distance of our own planet from the sun, but the dimensions of the 
orbits of all the bodies of the solar system. These observations, if successfully made in the 
manner proposed, will present data solely American for a new and independent determination 
of this most important element— an element which enters into all our determinations of longi- 
tude, affecting the accuracy and safety of all such calculations, and therefore possessed of the 
highest possible utility, not only to the government, but to all the enterprising citizens of our 
country. In this view the expedition commends itself to us for warm encouragement and effi- 


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XVI ORIGIN AND OPERATIONS 

cient aid in its promotion. It has been proposed by one of known zeal, industry, and ability 
in astronomical observations, wliose personal efforts will not be wanting to bring it to a suc- 
cessful issue. 

'' The plan is one which emanated from Dr. Gerling, of Marburg, well known for his astro- 
nomical and geodetical labors, and communicated by him in a letter to Lieu.t. Gilliss, dated 
April 17, 1847, in which he earnestly seeks for it the co-operation of American astronomers. It 
contemplates two series of observations, each bearing upon the question of parallax, but in dif- 
ferent ways, and independently of each other. One series is to be made with meridian instru- 
ments, at stations as remote frojn each other in latitude as practicable, and will consist of 
differential measurements in declination between Venus and the brighter stars near its path^ 
which are visible in the daytime. To render these available in the question of parallax, the 
distance between the observatory at Washington and the proposed station at Chile will afford 
an ample base of 6,000 miles. The other series embraces differential observations out of the 
meridian, more particularly in right ascension^ and which, in cases of the planet's near ap- 
proach to any star, can be made with the utmost nicety. A few instances of near approach to 
some of the brighter stars may be selected, when the two bodies can be followed throughout the 
day. And, in such case, full series of observations, with a well-mounted equatorial instrument, 
would be among the most valuable for the proposed object, and their value would be increased 
by combinations with others of a similar kind at other and remote stations. 

"^^For such observations it is proposed to occupy some point in Chile as an astronomical station. 
So far as they may be available in the determination of the solar parallax, or even for the con- 
firmation of previous determinations, they will be of the highest interest. But, apart from this 
primary object, the expedition and the observations contemplated commend themselves upon 
other grounds to the warm interest of all astronomers and lovers of science. The perfection of 
these observations will require others upon other objects, and the whole will be a just tribute of 
America and American astronomers to their co-laborers in a science to which our country is 
largely indebted for the prosperity of some of its most important interests. No such expedition 
has ever returned without rich fruits, even of different kinds, and gleaned from different fields 
from those for which it was originally designed. 

^^ The fact that a quantity so essential to our accurate knowledge of the solar system as the 
sun's parallax should rest for its determination mainly upon observations of a single phenom- 
enon—the transit of Venus in 1769 — is sufficiently indicative of the necessity and high value of 
the proposed measure. So important for this purpose, in the eyes of astronomers, were deemed 
this transit and the previous but inferior one of 1761, that we find them scattering themselves 
over all parts of the habitable globe, wherever the phenomenon could be advantageously ob- 
served. In 1761 they occupied stations from the remotest regions of Siberia to the southern 
extremity of Africa, in the wilds of Arabia, and on the islands of the Indian sea. In 1769, 
with even greater zeal, they scattered over Europe, America, and the South Sea islands, to 
observe one of the rarest, most interesting, and important phenomena which the annals of 
astronomical science afford. Not only the learned societies, but the governments of Europe, 
encouraged and aided the laudable undertaking. And, even in that day, American astrono- 
mers shared in the labors, and reaped their portion of the honors of the great occasion; yet the 
zeal of all was not rewarded with success. Unfavorable weather at some of the most important 
stations either seriously impaired or entirely prevented observations. At others the observa- 
tions have been regarded with suspicion, or as deserving little confidence. And the distin- 
guished Encke, who has given the most thorough and scrutinizing discussion of all these obser- 
vations, although he assigns to his resulting parallax the small probable error of 0^^05, yet, near 
the close of one of his admirable treatises on the subject, remarks that, Hiad the weather been 
favorable at all eight of the northern stations in 1769, and had as many astronomers stationed 
themselves at different points of the Friendly islands, their sixteen observed durations alone 
would have afforded a more accurate determination of the parallax than the whole 250 equations 


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OP THE EXPEDITION. Xvii 

Of condition derived from both transits.' But, compared with the transit of 1769, he speaks of 
e next wo tra.s.ts-those of 1874 and 1882-as unfavorable for this purpose, presen tnJ 

d.sadvar.tages wh.ch even the perfected state of instruments will not counterbala;ce;' and in 
view of the extremely rare occurrence of these phenomena, and of the unfavorable character of 

everal succeeding ones, he intimates that, for three thousand years the transit of Venus of 
liGJ may remain as the chief means from which we are to derive our knowledge of the actual 
dimensions of the solar system. At any rate, it will not be before 1874 that tstronomers can 
avail themselves of a transit of Venus for even an imperfect verification of Encke's parallax- 
and cen uries will elapse before the recurrence of one as fixvorahle for the purpose as that of 
1769. Lut even forthe expiration of these twenty-six years the rapid advance of science will 
not permit them patiently to wait. The progress of astronomy, and the interests of navigation 
require an earlier confirmation or re-determination of a quantity so important; and astronomers 
will watch with deep interest the accumulation of observations which will bear upon this point 
and which, If even less perfect in themselves separately, will yet finally, bv their numbers, and 
the variety of circumstances under which they shall be made, be entitled to weighty considera- 

XI Oil. 

-Jwo methods have been suggested-one by observations on Mars, which has been only par- 
tially tried, and with but partial success ; the other, the one which it is now proposed to attempt, 
and which offers a decided advantage in the greater proximity of Venus to the earth It has 
been proposed to astronomers from a respected and distinguished source. It comes to us re- 
commended by other names of high authority, and by two learned bodies of our own land- 
the American Academy of Sciences, and the American Philosophical Society 

"But, although the proposed expedition of Lieut. GiUiss is for carrying out chiefly the latter 
method, 1 need not, and will not, preclude the other. And the various other observations he 
wnl be able to make during the two years he proposes to devote to this work, will furnish a rich 
and valuable series; for which alone, entirely apart from the consideration of the main desi-n 
astronomers and scientific men in other spheres, as appears from the accompanying correspond- 
ence, have applauded and warmly commended his purpose •> ^ f 

" But the main design itself is not without the best prospect of success. The committee are 
informed by practical astronomers, that, taking for example the proposed meridian observa- 
tions with the nicely constructed instruments of the present day, and good observers, 0". 7 would 
be a large estimate of the probable error of each observation. The probable error, Ihen of the 
solar parallax, deduced from two such observations at stations as distant as Washington and 
the proposed position in Chile, will be 0".3 to 0". 7, according to the distance at the time of Venus 
from the eai-^h. And the error of the result, from an accumulated number of such observations 
may be rendered very small, provided no constant uneliminated error remains, which will b^ 
common to them all But the liability to such errors can be greatly diminished bv the skill of 
the observers, and their careful attention to all the circumstances which may affek their pro- 
blem. And this liability to error will be still further diminished by combining the results of 
the meridian series Avith those from the extra-meridional observations contemplated, and which 
will have been made under far different and more variant circumstances These common 
errors, the coniputation of probable error does not include ; and it may be doubted whether the 
resulting parallax of 1769 is wholly free from the effects of such. Astronomers aim, ever, that 
their results shall be deduced from observations as extended, made under circumstances as vary- 
ing, and with means as different as possible. And, in this respect, the determination of the 
solar parallax, as yet, stands almost alone as the result almost of a single phenomenon 

But the committee do not deem it necessary to enter further into a subject which is so fiillv 
discussed m the interesting correspondence attached. They are fully impressed with the im- 
portance oi the object m view ; and as the sum required will not exceed |5,000, they report an 
amendment to the naval appropriation bill to enable the Secretary to accomplish it Alfof 
which is respectfully submitted." • ii oi 


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xviii OEIGIN AND OPERATIONS 

The amendment so reported was duly sanctioned by both houses of Congress ; and on the 3d 
of August the President approved a law in which was incorporated a direction to the Secretary 
of the Navy to expend five thousand dollars, or so much thereof as might be necessary, m 
making " the observations recommended by the American Philosophical Society and Academy of 
Arts and Sciences." Preparatory orders for the performance of this service were sent to me 
shortly afterwards, together with authority to adopt such preliminary measures as I might con- 
sider expedient. Evidently, conference with the members of the two societies, whose recom- 
mendations were made the basis of action by Congress, was an essential; and I proceeded to 
Philadelphia and Boston, laying my detailed plan of operations before them, and inviting 
amendments. I quote it here : 

" The purpose for which an appropriation was solicited to send out an expedition to the 
southern hemisphere being the collection of data which shall add to the accuracy of our know- 
ledge of the solar parallax, observations to this end will, obviously, demand paramount atten- 
tion. Two distinct phenomena will occur during the period proposed to be devoted to the sub- 
ject in Chile, by the investigation of each of which, we may reasonably hope to deduce tolerably 
correct information of the true parallax, and of the absolute value of the received constant. 
Taking them in the order of their occurrence, they are : 

"First. The oppodtion of the planet Mars, commencing toivards the close {November Vl) of 1849. 
As an ephemeris of the stars proper for comparison with the planet on each day has been 
selected at the Nautical Almanac office, it should be scrupulously adhered to by the observers at 
every station. Two classes of observations of this planet may be made advantageously. 1st. 
Simultaneous extra-meridional measurements at pre-arranged times, [between the observatory 
in Chile and that at the Cape of Good Hope, the planet to be about three hours past the me- 
ridian of the latter, and three hours from the meridian of the former station. The time should 
be reckoned from the meridian of Greenwich, as better known than Washington; and the lon- 
gitude of the southern station be ascertained with the greatest precision possible m a preliminary 
investigation. A comparison of these differential measures will afford a parallax m right 
ascension; and as in them the differences of right ascension between Mars and the selected stars 
are wanted, the diaphragm to the micrometer of the telescope should contain at least five ver- 
tical wires, that it maybe used as a transit instrument. Once directed so that both objects 
will traverse its field, the telescope should remain undisturbed until the time of transit of each 
has been recorded for every wire. It is doubtful whether an analogous series can be obtained 
from the observatory at Paramatta, which lies nearly on the same parallel, because of the 
planet's great northern declination and proximity to the horizon, when equidistant between the 
two meridians. But similar series made at the same stations before and after culmination will 
furnish valuable data, and these may be repeated ad libitum.-] Differential measures of decli- 
nation should occupy a portion of each night for combination with others to be made at the 
northern stations, and it is not doubted that the value of these [also] will be increased if made 
in both hemispheres at the same instant. 2d. Meridional observations. These being chiefly 
to determine the parallax in declination, in order to guard against errors which may possibly 
creep into measurements of absolute zenith distance by fluctuations of the circle zero, caused by 
handling, it is suggested that the following method be adopted, viz: determine the nadir point 
of the circle by reflection of the horizontal wires from mercury, immediately prior and subsequent 
to the passage of the first and last comparison stars over the meridian, and, when practicable, give 
differential measures with the micrometer screw positive preference over changes of altitude in 
the circle telescope. This last may readily be the case when the declinations do not differ more 
than 20', as frequently offers in the ephemeris for 1849-'50. One limb of Mars should be 
observed with the fixed horizontal wire, the other with the nearest micrometer wire; the tran- 
sits at the I, III, V, and VII wires; and the altitudes, especially, at the II, IV, and VI. The 
same remarks are applicable to observations proposed to be made at the opposition of the planet 
in 1852. 


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OF THE EXPEDITION. xix 

' ' Second. Observations of Venus about the times of the inferior conjunctions with the sun, and more 
particularly near its stationary terms. The earliest series of which it will be practicable to take 
advantage will commence in the autumn (spring of Chile) of 1850; the latest that I contemplate 
observing will occur in the summer (winter) of 1852. And thus the results of two returns of 
each phenomenon will be brought to bear on the problem of parallax. As in the case of Mars, 
the observations are divisible into two classes— meridional and extra-meridional; though, from 
the vicinity of the planet to the sun, the results derivable from the latter do not appear to be 
regarded with the same degree of confidence. I propose to commence the principal series, and 
to continue it as long as the horizontal parallax amounts to 15"— that is, about 110 days; and 
to this end will prepare a map of that portion of the heavens in which the apparent orbit of 
Venus lies, projecting thereon all stars within 30' of the path which are contained in published 
catalogues. The map, and a list of stars to be selected from it that will best serve for daily 
micrometrical comparison, will be sent to every observatory to facilitate the observers' acquaint- 
ance with the heavens, and insure certainty of comparison with the same star. Similar remarks 
to those respecting the extra-meridional observations of Mars apply here also; if any such be 
found near the orbit, a bright star will serve for simultaneous pre-arranged comparisons during 
daylight with observatories lying near the same parallel for a parallax in right ascension. Dr. 
Gerling also advises the comparison of differential extra-meridional observations made under 
one meridian, with meridian observations made under another in the opposite hemisphere, the 
motion of the planet in the intervals of time to be derived from the Nautical Almanac by inter- 
polation. It is certainly proper that his opinion be received with great deference. 2d. When 
possible, the meridian measures may and should be made differential at all the observatories, by 
invariably referring to the nearest bright star as a zero point of the heavens. If this be done, 
the value of the observations will probably be much enhanced. 

''As the preceding series will occupy only a portion of the time that it is intended to pass in 
Chile, there may be various shades of opinion respecting the subjects of investigation most 
desirable, or most likely to produce valuable scientific fruits, and with which we shall employ 
ourselves at intermediate intervals; but it will probably be admitted by all, that the following 
cannot fail to be useful if the observations are successfully made. 

" 1st. Meridian observations of the moon, both in declination and right ascension ; the former 
with a view, more particularly, to the improvement of the constant of lunar parallax, and the 
latter, m combination with the culminating stars, for the longitude of the station. To verify 
Burckhardt's semi-diameter, both limbs will be observed whenever practicable, out of and on 
the meridian, at opposition, and near conjunction. The limited assistance asked for will not 
permit these observations to be made when the moon passes the meridian later than 1 a. m., 
except during the oppositions of Mars and western stationary terms of Venus. 

"2d. Meridian observations of the smaller planets when they culminate within one hour of any 
observation previously enumerated, and not later than 1 a. m. 

"3d. Lunar occultations that occur before 1 a. m., except such as may be visible to the north- 
ern observatories also. These will be observed whatever the hour. 
_ "4th. A catalogue of the stars between the south pole and 30° of south declination to the 
eighth magnitude, inclusive. I propose to devote at least three hours of every clear night to 
this work, and to obtain not less than three observations of each star, every zone to embrace as 
many previously observed stars as possible. The latter will serve as points of reference It is 
not intended to rely wholly on these, but to ascertain the nadir point of the circle before and 
after each series, and clamp the instrument to the altitude of the centre of the belt to be exam- 
ined, using only the micrometer screw for determining differences of declination. Supposing 
that a zone of 40' in declination by three hours in right ascension may be swept every favorable 
night, if we allow a loss of one third for cloudy weather and overlapping, it will still be pos- 
sible to sweep the 60° in three years. 

" 5th. It has been suggested that much information respecting terrestrial refractions would be 


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XX ORIGIN AND OPERATIONS 

derivable from a comparison of observations made at observatories in opposite liemispberes 
(north and south) on the circum-zenith stars of each other, each observatory to determine aLso 
the absolute places of the same stars. I therefore propose to observe most carefully the declina- 
tiong of ^ Columb(B, /3 Columb^, 6 Centauri and X Scorpii, and the zenith distances of i9 Persei, 
12 Canum Yen., jj Herculis, cc Lyrae, and 67 Cygni. 

^^6th. Observations of comets. For the reason assigned with reference to observations after 
1 A. M., it cannot be expected that we shall devote much time to searches for these bodies, how- 
ever desirable it might be under the serene atmosphere of Chile. They will, 'however, be 
observed whenever discovered in the course of other observations or at periodic returns. 

' ' 7th. Magnetic observations. On one day of every month — the term-clay of such observatories 
as continue to keep it — I propose to determine the three elements of the earth's magnetic con- 
dition, viz : its declination, inclination, and the intensity of the directive force. To verify the 
law of diurnal fluctuations of the angle which the directive force makes with the true meridian, 
observations with the declinometer will, occasionally, be continued throughout the term-day. 
Neither the appropriation granted by Congress, nor the aid asked for, will justify any exten- 
sion of these observations ; but, if suggested, modifications of times or methods will be cheer- 
fully conformed to. 

^'8th. Meteorological observations. A register will of course be kept, and it is proposed that 
it shall embrace a record of the indications of barometer, dry, wet^ radiating, and registering 
thermometers, wind-vane, clouds and rain-gauge; the records to be made at 9 a. m. and 3 and 9 
p. M., or such other hours as will furnish results from which the mean and extremes of the 
Chilean climate may be more satisfactorily derived. To determine the local laAV of daily varia- 
tions fully, it is in contemplation to make hourly observations on equinoctial and solsticial term- 
days during our whole residence. 

^^ 9th. There is one other 23henomenon connected with the physical constitution of our globe 
which the residence of the Expedition may offer opportunity to investigate. I mean the terrible 
convulsions that its crust is in many places subject to, and to which the very locality we shall 
occupy has been so frequently and so fatally liable — earthquakes ! It is therefore submitted^ 
whether any and what form of seismometer shall constitute a part of our equipment. 

^^ These nine classes or series of observations embrace as great an amount of labor as it will be 
prudent for two observers to undertake, and even its accomplishment must of necessity leave all 
reductions until after the return of the Expedition to the United States ; but (whilst I disclaim 
knowledge of nearly all branches of natural history) as so little has been learned of the imme- 
diate country we shall probably select — if the collection of specimens at leisure hours, remarks 
concerning the flowering of plants, the migration of birds, or other designated phenomena, 
would be useful from one so unskilled — the enterprise is embarked upon with a full determina- 
tion to gather every scientific fruit that may be offered. 

^^The various observations actually required, and those w^hich it appears proper to make, hav- 
ing each been enumerated, I proceed to specify the instruments absolutely necessary for the 
purpose. 

^ ^ First. A'meridian circle. [Any construction of this instrument which will facilitate observa- 
tions without impairing accuracy will be of the utmost consequence in an establishment so 
feebly manned. I therefore present for consideration that the circle be] at least 36 inches in 
diameter, reading to 1" by means of four micrometer microscopes, and to be provided with a 
telescope of not less than 52 lines clear aperture. [The telescope to be constructed with a pris- 
matic reflector at the centre of its transverse axis, so placed that rays of light from, the object- 
glass will be reflected through the axis as a part of the telescope, and thus the observer will 
occupy the same position whatever may be the altitude of the observed object. At the same 
time, the telescope tube is to be made symmetrical, in order that the eye-tube, with its micro- 
meters, may be placed as in the ordinary construction, should it be found expedient to remove 
the prism. A disc of metal or of wood, 39 inches in diameter, interposed between the observer 


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OP THE EXPEDITION. Xxi 

and circle, will cut off radiant heat ; and tbe instrument should he mounted on stone piers The 
eye-end should he fitted with two micrometer microscopes, the plate or diaphragm of that which 
moves yertically to carry not less than five equidistant horizontal wires. As this construction 
will permit a trough of mercury to remain always supported hetween the piers, the permanence 
ot the nadir point may be tested after every observation without much loss of time, or the annoy- 
ance and unsteadiness when mounted on a tall ladder. Moreover, the observer remains con- 
stantly m tne same natural and unrestrained position most conducive to accurate observations 
and never risks disturbing his circle when rising. A reversing carriage and the basin of mer- 
cury will obviate any actual necessity for a level, and every eye-piece should be so constructed 
that it may be used in collimating.] 

"I am not aware of any suitably-constructed circle unemployed which could be obtained for 
the i^xpedition, and consequently application was made to Messrs. Pistor & Martins, through 
the United States legation at Berlin, for an estimate of the time that will be required and the 
probable cost of such an instrument. In reply, these artists offer to complete one within nine 
months after the receipt of an order, for about |2,100. The fidelity with which they executed 
thetransit instrument mounted in the prime-vertical of the Washington observatory, as well as 
then- punctuality (tp a day) in fulfilling their contract for its delivery, added to the character 
which the Pistor circle at the Berlin observatory has obtained for the senior partner, would 
mduceme to give the order to these gentlemen, and leave all details to their known iudo-ment 
and skill. •' o '="" 

"Second. An achromatic telescope of about five feet focal length, and aperture of forty-ei-ht 
lines or thereabout. The instrument in view was purchased for the United States explorikg 
expedition, and is mounted on a tripod stand. It will require alterations and additions to its 
mounting and equipment, as it is only furnished with annular and reticulated micrometers I 
have no doubt that Mr. Young, of Philadelphia, can mount it as an equatorial satisfactorily 
and would recommend that it be done in the simplest style, viz: that of the comet-searchers 
made at Munich by Mr. Merz. It will probably be necessary to send abroad for a filar-microm- 
eter ; and to facilitate differential measures with objects in distant parts of the field it is 
intended that its movable diaphragm shall contain not less than five equidistant wires A 
similar number of transverse wires will permit the instrument to be used as a transit in differ- 
ences of right ascension. 

' ' Third.^ A sidereal clock and three chronometers. The clock wanted was also purchased for 
the exploring expedition, and remains in charge of Commander Wilkes. Should he still have 
It m use one must be purchased. One of the chronometers should be regulated to sidereal 
time, and another be of ' pocket' form. 

"Fourth. A sextant and an artificial horizon, 
n "•ff?-ii'^ declinometer. The instrument referred to was used in the observations made on 
Capftol hill from 1840 to 1842, and is described in the volume of magnetical and meteorological 
observations published in 1845 by order of the Senate U. S. It will require slight modifica- 
tions to render it more effective, Avhich may be made by any ordinarily good mechanician. 

8^xth. A Fox s deflector. There is one of these instruments, not in use, at the Washington 
observatory Prof. Bache informs me that it is seriously defective in its pivots or jewelled 
holes, or both, and requires thorough examination and repair. This, I have ascertained, may 
be done properly m New York.- ^ 

" Seventh. A standard and two mountain barometers. The former should be of Newman's or 
Pistor s construction, and all of them carefully compared with the standard of the Washington 
observatorj. ^ 

"Eighth. Thermometers. There will be required two standards ; six common instruments, 
divided to single degrees from - 10° to -f- 120°; two pairs of Eutherford's self-registering' 
two terrestrial and two solar radiating, and two wet-bulb. The scales of the last should be 


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Xxii ORIGIN AND OPERATIONS 

equal in each diyision to 0°.2, and extend from 20° to 90°. They will all be compared with 
the standard. 

'^^Ninth. A wind- vane. 
'^ Tenth. A rain-gauge, 
'^Eleventh. A seismometer. 
'^ The following hooks also are necessary: 

^^Nautical Almanacs, British Association Catalogue of Stars, Lacaille's Catalogue of Stars, 
Johnson's Catalogue of Stars, Madras Observations, Cape of Good Hope Observations, Tables of 
Logarithms, Penny Cyclopedia, &c. 

'' To avoid delay on arrival at the station which may be selected, as well as the risk of obtam- 
ing suitable materials or workmen, it is proposed to build the observatory and prepare the 
piers for the circle in the United States. The building should be at least twenty-two feet long, 
eighteen feet wide, and eighteen feet high from the ground to the eaves, its floor to be elevated 
two feet above the surface. The east and west doors will require to be wide and high enough 
for the stand of the equatorial to pass freely through, and the meridian apertures should not 
be less than twenty inches wide. Its frame may be of yellow, and the weather-boarding of 
thoroughly seasoned white pine, thick enough to permit being fitted together with tongues and 
grooves not less than half an inch square, and in sections of ten feet by four and a half. These 
sections are to be fastened to the studs and rafters with stout screws, and every part is to be so 
marked that the house may be put together in a few hours after the piers are in their places. 
^^ The roof doors will be opened from the inside ; and should it be found necessary, a revolving 
parallelogram of iron, described by Struve in No. 458 Astro7i. Nacli., will be secured to the 
ridge-pole on either side of the meridian aperture to hold the house together ; but I am not 
sure that it will not be less liable to injury in an earthquake country without this addition. 
A box of lattice-work will be made on one side for the thermometers ; and to prevent action of 
the direct rays of the sun during the mornings and afternoons of summer, Venetian blinds will 
be erected at the distance of three or four feet to serve as screens. Such a house can be erected 
by two persons in a few weeks, and, if finished in the best manner, will cost five hundred dol- 
lars. When taken to pieces, it can be packed for transportation in a small compass. 

^^The artist selected to construct the meridian circle should be requested to prepare draAvings 
of the piers that will be required, observing, on account of the possible land transportation, to 
plan them of the smallest practicable dimensions. Sending these drawings to the United States 
without delay, the piers should be split from the same granite boulder, and dressed and prop- 
erly boxed at the port from which it is intended to embark the observatory and instruments. 

'^It is desirable that the whole equipment be despatched under care of the assistant by the 1st 
of June, 1849, to the port of Concepcion or Valparaiso, from either of which it may be forwarded 
in a coasting vessel to the point nearest to its final destination. I propose to leave the United 
States at the same time, cross the isthmus of Panama, and take the steamer which leaves there, 
monthly, for Valparaiso, where I shall arrive in about forty-five days. This will enable me to 
examine for the most suitable station between Santiago and Concepcion, and make all necessary 
arrangements prior to the arrival of the instruments. 

^' There appears to be no doubt that an inland station will be preferable to one on the coast, 
because the number of rainy and hazy days is much infiuenced by the vicinity of the ocean ; but 
it is not possible at this distance to obtain the positive information to justify the selection of a 
station prior to examination. From all that it has been possible to collect, one of the interior 
towns on the rivers Maule or Biobio, just to the eastward of the seventy-second meridian, and 
south of the thirty-sixth parallel, will most probably be chosen, there being harbors at the 
mouth of each, and boat navigation which will permit us to transport the equipment with safety 

and facility.'' 

The preceding programme was first presented to the American Philosophical Society, and by 
it referred to the committee which had made the report already quoted. Subsequently it was 


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OF THE EXPEDITION. Xxiii 

discussed by Professors Benjamin Peirce, Joseph Lovering, William C. and G. P. Bond, and 
Lieut. Chas. H. Davis, U. S. N.— a committee appointed by tlie president of the Academy of 
Arts and Sciences; and, finally, tlie two committees met at Philadelphia in joint conference. 
There being differences of opinion respecting those portions embraced within the [ ], it was 
mutually agreed to omit them. The remaining portions being fully approved, were 'recom- 
mended for the adoption of the honorable Secretary of the Navy ; the committee also submitting 
to him that three assistants should be allowed, instead of only one, as I had proposed. 

Approved by the department, and the necessary authority granted me to proceed in the 
premises, Messrs. Pistor & Martins were at once requested to construct a meridian circle, my 
only stipulations being, that the divided limb should be full thirty-six inches in diameter and 
read by four micrometers to spaces at least as minute as V, and that the telescope should have 
a clear aperture of fifty-one lines. It was suggested, among many other points, that the tube 
of the telescope should be quite as conical as that of the transit instrument at the Washington 
observatory ; that there should be two systems of micrometer wires at its eye-end susceptible 
of illumination on a dark field, as well as in the ordinary mode of being made visible by light- 
ing the field through the transverse axis ; that the level should be made with a reserve chamber ; 
and that the counterpoises should be so arranged that it would not be necessary to remove them 
for reversal of the instrument ; but the weight of metal in the circles, the number of radii, length 
of transverse axis, diameter of pivots, and all other details not specified, were left entirely to 
their discretion and judgment. Indeed, except as to the two given dimensions, I desired them 
to regard all the remainder of the instructions as indications of my wishes, which were not to be 
considered as positive directions when they conflicted with any better known mode of construc- 
tion. Subsequently, Mr. Schumacher kindly consented to counsel the artists for me, and they 
referred to him whenever they sought authority, instead of waiting until letters could cross the 
ocean, and a reply reach Central Europe. 

The order was received on the 26th October, during the temporary absence of Mr. Martins, 
and on the 31st July following a letter was written to me by our accomplished secretary of lega- 
tion, Theo. S. Fay, Esq., saying: ''1 have one moment, before we close our despatches, to ac- 
knowledge your kind favor of the 16th ultimo, and to communicate the excellent news that your 
beautiful instrument is entirely completed, and stands in a perfection unrivalled. I have just 
been to see it ; and though my opinion of the manner in which Pistor & Martins have executed 
their task would not be worth much in a scientific point of view, it will go J)eUer when backed 
by that of Encke, who has fallen in love with it, after a careful examination.^ I must say, if you 
discover a new sphere in the heavens, the least you can do is to call it ^Pistor & Martins!' for 
their punctuality has equalled their skill.'' I will leave the distinguished Berlin astronomer 
to express his own opinion of the instrument in another place, (Introduction to Vol. 4), but 
feel it due to these skilled and faithful artists to add here, that the circle ordered differed so 
greatly in construction and cost from the one they had sent me an estimate for, it was necessary 
to write for additional authority subsequent to the letter of September 26, and this authority 
did not reach them until January. Yet, so determined were they to fulfil their pledge, and 
not disappoint me, that workmen were employed to relieve each other, and, as promised, the 
instrument progressed to completion within the nine months— day and night ! Would that all 
were alike punctual ! 

It will have been perceived that the contemplated form— to place a prism at the centre of the 
transverse axis, so as to throw the pencil of rays from the object-glass through one of the pivots 
—was departed from in the order for the circle. This was out of deference to the opinions of 
American astronomers, who thought it would be a great risk to be wholly dependent on an 
instrument of untried construction, in a country where it would be difficult, if not impossible, 
to remedy defects. Eminent artists in Europe thought it would possess extraordinary advan- 
tages, and the astronomers who wrote to me considered it certainly much more efficient for a single 
observer than the ordinary one— so much so, that, were they ordering for themselves, they 


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Xxiv ORIGIN AND OPERATIONS 

would assuredly adopt it. The experience of two and a half years in zone observations fully 
convinced me that the diagonal telescope would have enabled us to do more and far better work 
with, infinitely less physical effort, and on another occasion I would not hesitate to have such a 
transit-circle made. 

Applications were next made to the observatory, and to Commander Wilkes, U. S. N., for 
the other instruments belonging to government named in the preceding pages, and with which 
it was supposed they could furnish the Expedition, and the five-feet telescope, sidereal clock, 
chronometers, Fox's deflector, barometers, and thermometers, were at once transferred — Lieut. 
Maury offering to facilitate our equipment in any manner within his power which might be 
indicated to him. The first named instrument had long occupied a position subject to the 
extremes of temperature and moisture, without frequent attention, and careful examination 
showed it to have been seriously, if not fatally, injured. An annulus of oxidation, more than 
one and a half inches in diameter, had formed on its object-glass, irremovable unless by repol- 
ishing— a process which might destroy its figure ; Fox's deflector was probably injured beyond 
the skill of any one but the original maker ; and the declinometer had just been given to a mixed 
commission of army and navy officers about to embark for duty in California. In this unex- 
pected dilemma, with nearly one half of the appropriation by Congress already pledged for the 
circle, (3,400 rix thalers,) and the unavoidable expenditure of quite a thousand dollars more of 
it for the observatory, piers, and repairs, I scarcely knew where to turn for relief. Prof. Henry, 
Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, had very generously offered to lend me a seismometer, 
and a complete meteorological outfit, in case the observatory could not supply it, and subse- 
quently authorized me to purchase, at the expense of the institution, a full set of the portable 
instruments used in magnetic surveys. Moreover, the department had sanctioned the recom- 
mendation of the joint committee respecting the number of assistants ; American astronomers 
thought the five-feet telescope altogether too powerless ; and each day had added to my own 
solicitude, that every portion of the equipment should be the best of its kind. The circle would 
be so ; an achromatic telescope, of six and a half inches aperture, parallactically mounted, and 
driven by clock-work, would be a suitable companion for it ; and should we prove fortunate in 
inspiring the government and people of the country where we were to be located with a desire 
to promote astronomy, the two instruments would do honor to a national observatory. But 
where and how was such an instrument to be obtained ? 

Looking over the programme of organization of the Smithsonian Institution, I found that it 
proposes— ^^ Also a collection of instruments of research in all branches of experimental 
science;'' and as such an instrument is within the limits of portability, and might be used* in 
obtaining astronomical data in our own as well as in other countries, I supposed that it would 
be a most valuable, if not an absolutely necessary accession to the cabinet— one whose possession 
would enable the Eegents to stimulate original researches to the solution of experimental prob- 
lems. It was therefore suggested to Prof. Henry, that he could render great service to science, 
if he would obtain one somewhat in anticipation of the time proposed in their programme, and 
lend it for our use. At that time one half of the income of the institution was applicable to cur- 
rent expenses; the other half was required to be appropriated for the building in progress, and 
the amount demanded for the single instrument was a serious obstacle. But that accomplished 
physicist, as well as the members of the Executive Committee of the institution, was greatly 
interested for the Expedition, and, after much discussion, he notified me that it was deemed of 
sufficient importance to astronomical science to aid me in the manner requested, provided the 
telescope could be obtained on a credit of three years, and at a cost not exceeding $2,000, with 
interest. No importer to whom application was made was willing to order one from Germany 
on such terms. Messrs. Merz, the successors to Frauenhofer, at first declined selling without 
the cash— indeed their ordinary custom is to demand one half of the price in advance ; and the 
only maker in the United States likely to execute properly the mechanical portions of so large 
* If constructed with a suitable range of adjustment of the polar axis. 


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OF THE EXPEDITION. XXV 

an instrument refused to accept the order. Just when I had made arrangements to borrow, on 
my own account, the sum charged by Messrs. Merz, and import an equatorial from them. Prof. 
Henry authorized me to increase the offer to Mr. Young, of Philadelphia, and eventually a con- 
tract was concluded with him, on behalf of the Smithsonian Institution— the right being re- 
served to me to procure the object-glass and micrometer from such artists as might be preferred. 
About this time, notice was published in 6'ilUman's Journal, by Mr. Eutherford, of the per- 
formance of an object-glass made from imported materials by Mr. Henry Fitz, an optician at 
New York. Learning that several other lenses had been perfected by the same artist, I deter- 
mined to examine them all, and then confer with Messrs. Bache, Peirce, and Walker. To be 
brief, the examination and conference resulted in an order to Fitz to grind a lens from Guinand's 
glass, to be of the same diameter (six French inches) as that of the telescope at the High School 
observatory, in Philadelphia, and to forward it to Prof. Kendall. If he, and other competent 
and impartial judges, should pronounce it as good, in every respect, as the High School lens, it 
would be purchased at the Munich price— $500. If inferior, we should have the right to retain 
and use it, free of cost, until another could be imported from Bavaria. 

Between the date of the order, November 27, and the time that the tube was ready, April 15, 
1849, Mr. Fitz prepared three lenses of that size. Veins developed themselves in one only after- 
it had been polished, and a second proved scarcely less objectionable in its crystallization. Of 
the third submitted for trial, Prof. Kendall wrote me. May 1 : ''I had the pleasure of making 
trial of the Fitz object-glass last evening, and was highly gratified with the result. I compared 
It with ours upon the moon, Jupiter, several double stars, and the bright star Vega, with its 
companion, using a variety of powers, and it is my opinion that Mr. Fitz has fully accomplished 
all that he undertook to perform. From this trial I am unable to pronounce which is the better 
glass. The Frauenhofer did nothing which was not as well done by the Fitz glass. There 
was only one point about which there arose a doubt, viz : color. On first looking at Jupiter, 
through the new glass, I thought there was rather too much violet about the edge ; but on 
applying the other object-glass, with the same eye-piece, I could not discover any improvement 
but that which might justly be attributed to an improved state of the atmosphere. Mr. Fitz, 
Mr. Longstreth, and Mr. Young, with one or two other competent persons, made a comparison 
of the two glasses on Sunday evening also. I was not aware of their intention until yesterday 
morning. Mr. Young was with me last evening, and perfectly coincided with me in what I 
have said above. I called to see Mr. Longstreth and one ©f the other gentlemen this morning, 
and found that each had arrived at the same conclusion as myself in regard to the merits of Mr.' 
Fitz. Indeed, we are all delighted with his success; and I am fully persuaded that between 
this and one you might order from Merz, the chances would be decidedly in favor of the former." 
Gratification is a feeble word to express my pleasure at the success of the American optician, 
for I could not but think this first Yankee telescope of considerable size marked an era in the 
progress of mechanical science in our country, for which I hoped future astronomers would 
render due credit to the Expedition. That Mr. Fitz was thoroughly competent to figure and 
polish, I was fully convinced, on examining the object-glasses previously made, and my only 
regret was, that he could not forthwith undertake the whole task, and begin by manufacturing 
his own glass. But he had genius, and nothing would be more likely to stimulate him to 
undertake it than the success just met with. 

Thus, through the assistance of others, the Expedition would be most efficiently equipped, 
and the support of the Smithsonian Institution, at a very trying period, will always be remem- 
bered with the sincerest gratitude. But this very assistance placed us in a difficult position. 
The Expedition was national ; the mass of means (instruments) furnished to obtain its ends had 
been by a corporation founded by individual munificence to perpetuate his own name, whilst in- 
creasing and diff"using knowlege among men. Whose should be the credit of our results? 
Were the observations with one portion of the instruments to be submitted to Congress, and 
those with the other to the Board of Eegents, to be issued as "Smithsonian Contributions?" 

XT' n 


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XXVI ORIGIN AND OPERATIONS 

Clearly, if the government demanded all^ and tlie instrmnents named in tlie proposition sub- 
mitted to Congress were unsnited, or Lad been disposed of on other public service whilst the 
subject was in abeyance, should the objects of the Expedition be Avorth striving for, as had 
already been decided by the national legislature, it was the duty of that honorable body to sup- 
ply the means by which success could be obtained, and not permit the funds of a private insti- 
tution to be trespassed on. There are multitudinous interesting subjects pursued by individ- 
uals, which can only be. investigated under the patronage of such bodies as the Board of 
Eegents, or learned societies, and twice the funds at the control of the Smithsonian Institution 
could be thus expended every year. These were legitimate claimants for its fostering help — we 
were not. On representation of the facts to the Naval Committee at the assembling of Congress, 
the views of the Hon. F. P. Stanton were sustained, an additional appropriation of $6,400 was 
granted to cover costs of all the instruments ordered, and the Smithsonian Institution was 
absolved from the responsibility it had so nobly assumed in our behalf. 

Everything was now progressing satisfactorily. Much interest had been manifested for the 
Expedition in England, as well as on the continent, and most valuable services were rendered 
by Admiral Beaufort, Col. Sabine, Capt. (now Bear Admiral) W. H. Smyth, and others, by 
their counsel, by obtaining useful materials for us, and by offers to facilitate our objects at all 
times wherever we might be. So earnest were the desires to do something, that inquiry was 
made whether the British admiral, or the consuls on the coast of the Pacific^ could aid us at 
any time? These offers were dictated by a principle of generosity noble in the individual, as it 
was honorable to the nation whose service they adorned, and I could only regret that the ac- 
knowledgments of the Navy Department for these tokens of good will could not have been 
communicated to these gentlemen by one whose pen would better have done justice to the senti- 
ments inspired. But I was sure all of them would remember, that education on shipboard, unlike 
that of a court in the inculcation of well-rounded and elegant, yet meaningless diction, insen- 
sibly promotes frankness and cordiality — rarely results in insincerity. Therefore, they would 
appreciate me in a simple expression of profound gratitude, and believe my assurance, that we 
should at all times esteem it a privilege to render aid to any of the numerous scientific or other 
parties England so magnanimously sends abroad for the benefit of mankind. 

Under the direction of Col. Sabine, E. A., the magnetical, and a portion of the meteorologi- 
cal instruments were rapidly advancing. Prof. Forbes, of Edinburgh, had undertaken to order 
and supervise the seismometer; Mr. Schumacher and Theodore S. Fay, Esq., wrote encouraging 
information respecting the meridian circle, and the remaining instruments, to be completed 
under my own charge, were in such a state of forwardness that our departure need not be de- 
layed beyond the 1st of June, if a suitable conveyance could be obtained. There remained 
then only to construct the observatories, select assistants, and prepare a circular stating the 
plan of operations, and inviting the co-operation of other astronomers. 

The purchase of a larger telescope rendered modification of the building necessary, and the 
circular observatory subsequently described in this volume was devised for it in addition to the 
rectangular building previously mentioned. Both were put up in Washington under my own 
immediate supervision, and when found fully adequate to our wants, each piece was indelibly 
marked, and the whole taken down and arranged in small packages suitable for transportation. 
They were constructed with screws instead of nails. 

The department had detailed Passed Midshipman (now Lieutenant) Archibald MacKae and 
Henry C. Hunter^ volunteers for the service, as assistants, authorizing me to appoint as cap- 
tain's clerk Mr. Edmund E. Smith, a young gentleman who had just graduated at the G-eorge- 
town college. As it was desirable that the first two named should obtain knowledge of instru- 
ments and observations before leaving the United States, they reported to me at Washington, and 
Lieutenant Maury, the Superintendent of the Observatory, very kindly permitted them to assist 
there under instruction of the officers on duty in that establishment. At the same time, they 
were employed to make selections of stars from all published catalogues and Bessel's Zones, 


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OF THE EXPEDITION. XXvii 

suitable for tlie ephemerides of Mars and Venus /reducing tlie catalogue places to tlie 1st of Jan- 
uary of the year for which each ephemeris was prepared. As the apparent orbits crossed sev- 
eral portions of the heavens in which no stars had previously been observed, at my request, 
both Lieutenant Maury and Professor Bond, at Cambridge, Mass., caused sweeps to be made, to 
obtain, if possible, suitable comparing stars. These places, together with those of the planets, 
were plotted on charts, and lithographed copies were sent with the ephemerides to every obser- 
vatory. The accompanying circular was as follows : 

TO THE FKIENDS OF ASTEONOMICAL SCIENCE. 

In the year 1847 Dr. Gerling, of Marburg, suggested that a new determination of the solar 
parallax might be obtained by observations upon Venus at and near her stationary periods, 
provided these observations be made at points far removed from each other. 

In 1847-8 the American Philosophical Society and the Academy of Arts and Sciences recom- 
mended to the Secretary of the Navy that an astronomical expedition be sent to Chile, for the 
purpose of making, according to Dr. Gerling's plan, observations upon Venus, in connexion 
with the National Observatory at Washington. 

By an act of Congress, approved August 3, 1848, the Secretary of the Navy was directed to 
cause these observations to be made. 

Being thus authorized by the national legislature, and that nothing which is calculated to 
impart interest to the undertaking or to give value to its results may be omitted on the part of 
the American government, I am directed by the Hon. Wm. Ballard Preston, Secretary of the 
Navy, to announce to the friends of science the objects and plan of the Expedition, and to invite 
astronomers generally to lend it their co-operation by making, in so far as it may be practi- 
cable and convenient for them to make, a series of corresponding observations. 

The Expedition has been fitted out on a scale commensurate with the objects in view. All 
the means and facilities for it which Congress has placed at the disposal of the Executive have 
been afforded to it by the Secretary of the Navy. Keposing special trust and confidence in the 
zeal and ability of Lieut. J. M. G-illiss, U. S. N., he has appointed that officer to the charge of 
it; other officers of the navy have been detailed to accompany it as assistants. Passed Mid- 
shipmen A. MacRae and Henry C. Hunter, who are to accompany it, have been stationed at the 
National Observatory for the requisite and previous training. The necessary instruments have 
been procured for the Expedition, and suitable buildings to serve as an observatory in Chile 
have been prepared in Washington. They are wooden structures, and will be taken to pieces 
and shipped to Valparaiso in the course of a few days. 

The principal instruments which the Expedition will carry with it are two telescopes equa- 
torially mounted, a meridian circle, a clock, and three chronometers. 

The larger telescope is an eight and a half feet refractor. It has an object-glass by Fitz, of 
New York, that affords a clear aperture of six inches and a half. It is fitted with clock-work 
by Wm. Young, of Philadelphia, and by him provided with a micrometer adapted both for dif- 
ferential measurements and for measurements of angle of position and distance. 

The other telescope is a five-feet achromatic, by Frauenhofer. It, also, has been equa- 
torially mounted and fitted with a micrometer by Young, of Philadelphia. 

The meridian circle is by Pistor & Martins. The object-glass of the telescope has an aper- 
ture (clear) of four and one third inches, with a focal length of six feet. The circles are thirty- 
six inches diameter, minutely divided, and provided each with two reading microscopes. 

The series of astronomical observations, in which the co-operation of other observers is more 
especially invited, will consist of differential measurements during certain portions of the years 
1849, '50, '51, and '52 upon Venus and Mars, with certain stars along their paths. 

The observations upon Venus which will most command the attention of the Expedition, will 
be differential measurements upon that planet in the morning and evening while it is near the 
inferior conjunctions of 1850 and 1852. 


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XXVlll ORIGIN AND OPERATIONS 

In like manner. Mars will be compared with its neighboring stars near the times of opposi- 
tion of that planet in 1849 and 1852. The object of these observations upon this planet is a 
more accurate determination of its parallax. 

To facilitate the observations, and to secure concert of action, so that the co-operators, in 
whatever part of the world, may, in observing the planets, always use the same stars of com- 
parison, Lieut. Grilliss has prepared the accompanying charts and tables : 

Charts Nos. 1 to 5, inclusive, refer to Venus ; 6 and 7 to Mars. They show the approximate 
places of the planets from day to day relatively to the stars down to the tenth magnitude near 
their paths. 

In some parts of the paths of the planets, along which published catalogues do not afford 
proper stars of comparison, special observations have been made with the large refractor of the 
National Observatory ; the stars whose approximate places have been thus obtained are mapped 
down along the planet's path. 

Tables 1 and 2 contain the ephemeris of the planets and stars of comparison. They give 
the star of comparison for each day, and quote its magnitude, with its approximate mean 
place only. 

The stars marked W. C. are from the unpublished observations of the Washington cata- 
logue ; as they have not undergone their final reductions, their declinations are only given to 
the nearest 10'^ The other stars are designated by the initials or name of the catalogue from 
which they are taken. 

In the ephemerides of the two planets and their neighboring stars, the mean places of the 
stars for 1st January of the year for which the ephemerides are calculated, are given. The 
object of such ephemeris is to give the place of the star with accuracy sufficient merely to leave 
no doubt as to the identity of the particular star which all observers are requested to use during 
the day thereby provided for. 

It is requested that those who may have the goodness to co-operate in these observations will 
observe the planets also, both for right ascension and declination at their meridian passage. 

The order of observations proposed by Lieut. Gilliss is this : During the term of the epheme- 
ris of Mars, differential measurements upon that planet and the star of comparison for the day 
will be commenced at two hours after the passage of the planet across the meridian of Green- 
wich, and be continued for one hour and a half after the star and planet shall have passed the 
meridian of Washington, observing and comparing with the star the north and south limbs of 
the planet alternately. 

Both the planet and its star of comparison will also be observed, with the meridian circle, at 
their transits across the meridian of the observatory in Chile. 

The same course is proposed to be pursued at meridian transit with regard to Venus and her 
stars of comparison. 

Lieut. Gilliss proposes to commence the differential observations upon Venus and her star of 
comparison as given in the ephemeris as early in the evening and morning, and to continue 
them as long, as the light of the sun and the conditions of the atmosphere may admit. Owing 
to the absence of stars of sufficient magnitude within 15° of the sun, an omission is made in the 
ephemeris during the time that the planet will be within that distance of the sun. It is pro- 
posed during such intervals to rely exclusively on meridian observations^ both at the observa- 
tory in Chile and elsewhere. 

The precise place at which the observatory is to be erected will not be decided upon until the 
arrival there of the Expedition. 

Those astronomers who are disposed to forward the objects of the Expedition so far as to 
co-operate with it in conducting an auxiliary series of observations, will perceive that the results 
of their labors will be enhanced by using, whenever practicable, the stars of comparison which 
Lieut. Gilliss has selected, and which are given in tables 1 and 2, and by following generally 
the plan of observations proposed by him, and herein explained. 


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OF THE EXPEDITION. Xxix 

Each co-laborer is requested to send annually to tlie Superintendent of the National Observa- 
tory at Washington his observations, with an account of the instruments with which they were 
made, together with such other information in relation thereto as is necessary to a full under- 
standing and appreciation of them, and the results arising therefrom. 

M. F. MAURY, 

r -,^,^ Lieut, U. S. Navy. 

June, 1849. ^ 

In June, the observatories and all the instruments, except the meridian circle, were shipped 
at Baltimore on board the ^^ Louis Philippe, '' bound round Cape Horn, and the vessel being ready 
for sea, the assistants embarked on the 11th of the following month. I hoped to reach Valpa- 
raiso before them, and supposing that no detention would be experienced on the more expedi- 
tious route across the isthmus of Panama, none of the portable instruments were reserved 
except an aneroid barometer and one thermometer. As it resulted, the magnetical instruments 
would have been an instructive and interesting source of occupation during the weary month 
passed in that most irksome of all cities on the globe— Panama. But I am anticipating. 

On the day following the departure of the assistants, the department was notified of the fact, 
and advised that there would be nothing to delay my departure beyond the date at which the 
next steamer would leave for Chagres. And three weeks later the following instructions were 
received : 

!Navy Department, 

August 6, 1849. 

Sir: Your letter of the 12th ultimo, informing the department that the instruments and 
other portions of the equipment essential to the observations to be made under the act of Con- 
gress approved August 3, 1848, have been shipped for Chile under charge of the assistants, and 
that nothing need now delay your departure, has been received. 

^ You will be pleased to embark by the earliest opportunity, and proceed to Santiago in Chile, 
via the isthmus of Panama, and the line of steamers from thence to Valparaiso. On your 
arrival, you will make known to the consul of the United States there, or other accredited agent 
of the United States, the object of the Expedition, and request him to make the proper repre- 
sentation to the Chilean government, with a view to obtain the necessary permission to occupy 
suitable sites for the observations. The object of the Expedition, as set forth in the act referred 
to, is to cause ^^the observations to be made which have been recently recommended (to the 
department) by the American Philosophical Society and the Academy of Arts and Sciences,'' 
of which you have been apprized. After obtaining the necessary permission of the Chilean 
government, you will select such sites as may be, in your judgment, necessary for effecting and 
completing the observations contemplated, and proceed without delay to accomplish the object. 

For the pay of yourself and party whilst in Chile, Messrs. Baring Brothers & Co., of Lon- 
don, have been instructed to honor your drafts. You will keep an exact account of all your 
receipts and expenditures of public money, taking regular vouchers for all expenditures, send- 
ing your accounts quarterly to the Fourth Auditor for adjustment. 

The unexpended balance of the appropriations amounts to $4,159 51, which will be placed 
in your hands, and charged to you on the books of the Treasury Department. 

The department entertains the fullest confidence, that in your ability, zeal and energy, the 
honorable duty assigned to you will redound to the advance of science, and of the honor of your 
country and of yourself. 

You will be pleased, from time to time, as opportunities offer, to inform the department of 
the progress made, and to furnish any other information of a useful character. 

Wishing you success, and the safe return of yourself and party, 

I am, respectfully, your obedient servant, 

T . . T .. ^ .r ^ W^- BALLAED PRESTOIsr. 

Lieut. J. M. GiLLTSS, U, S. Navy, Washington, 


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XXX ORIGIN AND OPERATIONS 

As tlie two series of observations for parallax — the specific object which had been the origin 
of the Expedition — would be valuable only when there were corresponding observations in the 
two hemispheres^ and the co-operation of other observatories would be matters of favor, not 
right, in order to insure the impartial trial of Dr. Gerling's method, imder date of August 11, 
Lieut. Maury was instructed by the honorable Secretary, that — 

^^As the success of the Astronomical Expedition to Chile, under the direction of Lieut. 
Grilliss, will greatly depend on the care with which the corresponding observations are made in 
the northern hemisphere, you will designate an assistant whose especial duty it shall be to 
make the observations at the times and in the manner specified in the ^ Circular to the Friends 
of Science,' which you prepared under the direction of this department.'' 

At the same time authority was granted me to dispose of the equipment at the completion of 
our service, in such manner as would be best for the public interest, and in case of continued 
illness, or other disability of either of the assistants, the commanding officers of the United 
States ships touching at Valparaiso were authorized to give me any volunteer officer in ex- 
change. The duties required would be confining and trying, our probable place of abode 
somewhat expensive, and I was unwilling to obtain the services of any officer who would be 
able to reproach me for having taken him from the less arduous and more economical routine 
on shipboard. Every effort was made to obtain at least one additional assistant from the de- 
partment, viz : the number that had been recommended by the societies. There were two 
young officers who were earnestly desirous to accompany us, one of whom, when the honorable 
Secretary objected on account of the small remainder of the appropriation, volunteered to bear 
his own travelling expenses, but the Secretary was inexorable. 

The first steamer to leave was the '^ Empire City," at New York, advertised for 16th of Au- 
gust. It was to be her second voyage, and the agents assured me that she would make the run 
to Chagres in eight or eight and a half days. Had this been accomplished, there would have 
been ample time to cross the isthmus by noon of the 27th; but we were eleven and a third days 
in making the voyage, and in consequence, the steamer for the south Pacific had left Panama 
before we anchored at Chagres. Nevertheless, supposing that repairs or other casualty might 
have caused her detention, no time was lost in landing, and by midnight I was ascending the 
river Chagres in a canoe urged by four athletic natives. A delay of six hours, caused by a 
flood in the stream, prevented our reaching the city until forty-eight hours after leaving the 
^^ Empire City," when it was learned that speed had been of no avail; the British mail steamer 
had departed at her appointed time, and there was before me the certainty of passing the en- 
suing month on the isthmus. How the time was passed, has been narrated in Vol. 1. Nor 
need I repeat here more than the fact, that the southern terminus of my sea voyage, Valpa- 
raiso, was reached on the 25th of October. At that time the steamers of this line left each 
extremity only once per month ; and as they landed passengers, mails, and freight at thirteen 
ports within the 3,100 miles of navigation, and delayed at one of them, Callao, no less than 
five days^ the voyage occupied four weeks. By omitting the two ports in Ecuador — Buenaven- 
tura and Guyaquil— and Huanchaco and Casma, in Peru, and remaining only three days at 
Callao, it is now reduced to eighteen days. But if custom-house officials would grant necessary 
facilities, and not detain vessels all night when they chance to arrive after sunset, the new 
steamers would easily make the voyage in fifteen days. There is now a semi-monthly line; and 
so pacific are the winds and waves of that broad ocean, that the arrival of a steamer from a 
coasting voyage of a thousand miles may be calculated quite surely within a few hours. 

Beaching Valparaiso bay late in the afternoon, a glance satisfied me that the ^' Louis Philippe" 
was not among the shipping in the port. Nor had the consignees any intelligence of her ; but 
as she might be expected to arrive at any hour, no time was to be lost in preparatory measures. 
Whilst the consul, our highest representative functionary in the country at that time, was pre- 
paring for me a letter to the Minister for Foreign Affairs, all necessary information was obtained 
of the climate on the coast, and soon after night-fall I was en route for the capital. Besides 


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OF THE EXPEDITION. XXxi 

the orders from tlie Navy Department, I had brought a despatch to the former gentleman from 
the honorable Secretary of State, who also made known the objects of the Expedition ; and in 
consequence, the consul placed me in direct intercourse with his excellency the Minister, as the 
most expeditious mode of perfecting the necessary arrangements. 

By travelling all night, I was at Santiago near noon of the next day. On presenting my 
letters, the government received me cordially, and acted promptly and with commendable lib- 
erality on every point, by offers to place at my control any unoccupied public ground, to admit 
free of customs dues everything belonging to the officers of the Expedition, as well as its equip- 
ment, and to promote or facilitate its objects in every other manner which might be indicated. 
Indeed, the good will and liberality of the President and his Cabinet then, and throughout our 
stay in the cauntry, were uniformly manifested. As one evidence of their desire to serve us, the 
Minister of War offered to station a guard at the observatory to protect the instruments from 
malicious injury, and ourselves from possible annoyance, requesting that notice might be sent 
to him as soon as the instruments were conveyed to the buildings. Unwilling to incur so great 
an obligation when there was no apparent necessity for it, the offer continued tacitly declined. 
Message after message came from the Colonel of Artillery, notifying me that he had orders to 
send a guard, and he awaited expression of our wishes— until, finding no reply was obtainable, 
but— ^^ I will advise you when it becomes necessary,^' he sent a corporal with instructions to re- 
port to me. To have ordered the subordinate and his men back to the cuartel would have been 
a rude return for an act of evident kindness, and, consequently, a sentinel stood beside the obser- 
vatory door summer and winter. As a patron of science, in stability of government and stead- 
ily progressive prosperity, Chile is far in advance of every other nation of South America. 

A very brief investigation sufficed to satisfy me that no other part of the country would 
answer our purposes so well. In arriving at this conclusion, three conditions were weighed : 
1st. Eesources in case of accidental injury to instruments. 2d. Increased value of observations 
from the most southern station possible; and 3d. The atmosphere which would permit the 
greatest number of observations. The first was paramount, and as persons capable of making 
repairs could be found only at Santiago and Valparaiso, the advantage of a station nearer to the 
pole was thrown out of the question. Nor did decision between these two places require longer 
examination. Apart from the fact that the former city better satisfies the second condition, the 
climate of the coast is subject to frequent fogs and mists, from which the great plain is almost 
wholly exempt. Santiago, therefore, was chosen, much, I believe, to the gratification of the 
government. 

This city, with a population of 90,000 souls, is situated on an elevated plain or basin, between 
ranges of mountains, in south latitude 33° W 25^^9 ; approximate longitude west of Greenwich, 
Ah, 4:2m, 33.65. The plain, or, more properly speaking, the succession of basins, on one of 
which it stands, commences about latitude 33° south, and with slight interruption, near the par- 
allel of 34^°, extends to the Gulf of Ancud, in latitude 411°. it varies in breadth from twelve 
to forty miles, and has a constant and quite uniform declivity from north to south. At San- 
tiago the height is 1,830 feet above the sea; opposite Chiloe the plain slopes to the ocean level. 
The base of the nearest longitudinal range of the Andes is nine miles distant from the capital; 
that of the Cordilleras to the west, not less than sixteen miles— the former attaining a height 
of 9,000, and the latter about 3,000 feet above the plain. One spur to the northeast, which is 
nearly 1,000 feet high, approaches the very skirts of the city ; portions of the great Andine 
chain, less than thirty miles distant in an air-line, rise to 18,000 and 20,000 feet; and Tupun- 
gato to the east, and Aconcagua to the N.N.E., the loftiest known summits of America, are 
each more than 22,000 feet above the sea. Interrupting the eastern horizon, as does this giant 
Cordillera, its interference with observations on the planet Venus in the morning twilight ren- 
dered so near an approach to it objectionable; but there was no locality in the vicinity of a 
proper residence free from the same obstacle, and no town in the interior that offered the facili- 
ties possessed by the capital . 


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XXxii ORIGIN AND OPERATIONS 

Three localities there from which to select were offered me by government^ viz : a part of the 
plain just without the southern suburbs ; Cerro Blanco, a granitic knoll some 400 feet high, 
within the northern boundary ; and Santa Lucia, a small mass of porphyry, in the eastern 
quarter of the city. The first is half submerged during the rainy season, and consequently, 
at such times, is almost inaccessible by pedestrians. It was without suitable accommodations 
near enough for our party. The second also would have rendered the erection of a dwelling 
indispensable. 

Above the castles that occupy artificial terraces half way up its northern and southern slopes, 
Santa Lucia was but a pile of rugged rocks. But as government proposed to construct a suit- 
able path to the vicinity of the summit, to level as much space there as might be required, and 
to furnish a room in the castle, should it be needed, serious obstacles to its selection were re- 
moved, and their liberal propositions respecting it were accepted. It was not until months 
afterwards, and when too late — when the noises and dust of the streets became serious annoy- 
ances — that it was ascertained how much better positions there are in Yungai — the western 
suburb. But, even then, one fact reconciled me to Santa Lucia. There, when bad weather pre- 
vented observations, as the assistants were surrounded by the best society, interludes of social 
visiting probably prevented the discontent which would have generated under arduous work 
in the isolation of Yungai. 

On the very day that every preliminary had been finally arranged with the government, 
information came that the ''Louis Philippe'' had safely arrived at Valparaiso. Kepairing there 
at once, within three days the observatories and instruments, packed in and on six of the huge 
ox-carts of the country, were on their way to Santiago. The distance from Valparaiso by the 
road is eighty-four miles ; and as there are two ranges of mountains to cross, a journey in the 
summer ordinarily occupies loaded carts five days ; so that it was the 9th of November when our 
train halted at the foot of Santa Lucia. The chronometers, barometers, and other delicate in- 
struments, were packed on springs before leaving the United States, but, for greater security, 
they were suspended from the roof of one cart, with controlling cords at the bottom of each box, 
to prevent too great lateral motion. Having witnessed their departure, under charge of a care- 
ful cajpataz,^ for the purpose of estimating the probable security of this mode of conveyance, by 
inspection of the train on the road, Lieut. MacKae and myself remained a day behind, and we 
were the last to proceed to the scene of our future labors. 

Santa Lucia is a solid mass of rock. Its horizontal projection is an oval, some 1,300 feet long 
from N.N.E. to S.S.W., and 500 feet in its greatest transverse diameter. Its highest pinnacles, 
200 feet above the city, as well as many others, are columnar, and, at a little distance, closely 
resemble basalt. Some of them are vertical— a few are horizontal; most of them, as do also its 
strata, stand at every inclination towards the west, but not one of them dips to the east. The 
slope is tolerably regular from the summit to the north and south extremes, though that of the 
southern portion is the most abrupt and broken. Partially covered with decomposed rock and 
scanty vegetable mould, its eastern face has an inclination not differing greatly from 45°. The 
western is precipitous — a bare wall of nearly black porphyry, with occasional injected veins of 
quartz. This side forms the great quarry from which the city is supplied. On its northern 
ridge, houses have been built as far up as the base of a castle, to which a tolerably good wind- 
ing road has been formed on artificial terraces cut in the eastern slope ; but above the castle, 
that is, for two thirds of the whole height, the rocks rise vertically for nearly twenty feet, and 
further ascent towards the summit was (then) only to be accomplished by clambering from point 
to point. The most appropriate places we could obtain were just below the summit, on the 
same ridge, and a large number of men were at once set to work to level them. This was no 
inconsiderable undertaking. Surrounded, as is the hill, by many of the best dwellings of the 
capital, blasting is prohibited, and the process of breaking down rocks by heating and pouring 
water on their hot surfaces is a very slow one. The intervention of feast days, when labor is 
"" The person lo charge of a tram of carts, mules, or the vehicle iu which one travels, is so called. 


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OF THE EXPIDITION. XXXlii 

prohibited by tlie cliiircb, proved another source of delay ; and it was not until December 5 that 
the first building was ready for its instrument. The terrace on which this stood is eight feet 
higher than that of the rectangular edifice for the meridian circle, and 175 feet above the run- 
ning stream at the base of the hill. It commands an unobstructed view, except between S.S. W. 
and S.S.E., where rocky escarpments interfere for about 15° above the horizon. 

On the following night the equatorial was mounted, and four days later, work was com- 
menced with it on the planet Mars. During that season the weather was exceedingly favora- 
ble for observations. Of the fifty-two pre-appointed nights remaining of the series, there were 
only four when no observations could be made, and two others when a slight haze obscured the 
very minute comparing star in the illuminated telescope. Such continuous loss of rest, added 
to change from the moist climate of the ocean to the excessively dry one of Santiago,\vas so 
rapidly breaking down Lieut. MacKae, that, on the 18th December, I was glad to take advan- 
tage of the arrival of the meridian circle, and send him to Valparaiso to supervise its landing 
and packing for transportation. 

After the equatorial was mounted, three or four weeks were consumed in putting together 
the other building— a time quite as long as was occupied in its original construction. Mean- 
while we had obtained permanent quarters in the vicinity ; the circle and clock piers were put 
up, and our magnetical and meteorological observations had been systematically commenced. 
Early in February the circle was ready for use ; the first series on Mars had terminated, and 
zone observations were instituted, commencing at 85° south declination, and working towards 
the zenith on successive nights in belts 24^ wide, until compelled to return below again to con- 
nect in right ascension. Each night's work comprised observations of level, nadir point, col- 
limation by reflection of the wires from mercury and standard stars before and after a 'zone 
extending through three to four hours in right ascension, so that we were always occupied from 
five to six, and sometimes more hours. Lieut. MacKae and myself devoted alternate nights to 
these observations, very rarely having relief by clouds until after April 21st. Lideed, between 
February 4th and that date— seventy-six nights— there were only four of them obscure. The 
rains of latter autumn and winter came none too soon for us. 

Appreciating the advantages that mental culture gives to every individual, community, or 
nation, the government was early in manifesting a disposition to have its citizens profit by our 
residence among them. The minister at Washington had inquired whether it would be agree- 
able to facilitate the studies of some of their most advanced young men, and very shortly after 
the instruments were erected the application was renewed through the University. Earnestly 
hoping to increase the interest in our pursuits, the proposition was cordially assented to, and 
three gentlemen were appointed by the Minister of Public Instruction, who were paid a mod- 
erate income whilst devoting certain hours to the study of theoretical and practical astronomy. 
One was a professor of mathematics in the National Institute; the others prominent students of 
his class. Our books were at once placed at their disposal; explanations were given them at all 
times ; opportunities afforded them to become familiar with the meridian circle, and the smaller 
equatorial was loaned for their exclusive use. This instrument was mounted by them under a 
movable building within the castle yard, to which they had access without interfering with our 
regular work. These gentlemen readily aided us in the magnetical and meteorological obser- 
vations, and also on the term-days, or whenever sickness diminished the small number of our 
active party. For assistance at such times they merited our best thanks. Nor was it the gov- 
ernment only who were interested that astronomical knowledge should be cultivated in Chile. 
When the equatorial was first mounted, night after night, scores of persons ascended the hill to 
see the wonderful "maquma/' as they called the beautifully equipoised but apparently complex 
instrument ; and as the observations on Mars did not commence until an hour or two after 
dark, the intermediate time was devoted to showing them some of the wonders of the heavens. 
All who came were admitted— men, women, and children, rich and poor ; even the sentinel who 
stood with sabre beside the door was not slighted ; and each in turn went away gratified, the 


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XXXIV ORIGIN AND OPERATIONS 

poor deferentially waiting until their more fortunate countrymen gave place witliin the build- 
ing. Few at a time could enter; and irksome as it was to repeat the same explanations to half 
a dozen or more parties every evening during nearly three months^ we cheerfully persevered, 
and perhaps with good effect. We had been told by acquaintances that the lower classes living 
on and near the base of the hill were men of vicious propensities, whom it would be hazardous 
to meet unarmed at a late hour of the night ; but, to their credit be it said, we were never 
molested, even by a word, in the nearly three years during which we went up to and left the 
observatory at all hours. May not our civility, when they came desiring to see the telescope 
and the curious objects it displayed, have secured their good will? But the custom of opening 
the observatory to visiters gave rise to a report that we had come to Chile as expounders of 
astronomy. Our arrival and purposes had been duly published ; but in a country where there 
are so few journals and so limited a circle of readers our position was not readily comprehended. 
Without exception, the foreigners who had previously settled among them came to accumulate, 
not to spend money, and the mass reasonably su]3posed we had a like object. Perhaps this con- 
tributed to make credible among large numbers that an astronomical class was to be formed, 
admission to which was earnestly sought by many of our evening visiters. 

Passed Midshipman Hunter, injured by being thrown from a horse early in January, returned 
to the United States by the first public vessel, and in September following the vacancy was 
filled by Mr. S. L. Phelps, who took my place at the circle. All the subsequent zone observa- 
tions were made by Lieut. MacEae and himself. In January, 1851, an accident to the micro- 
meter-screw that moves its horizontal system of wires, made it necessary for the assistants to 
work jointly at the zones, and, as it was manifestly impossible for them to be up every night, 
as soon as the first series on Venus terminated, I devoted the alternate nights with the circle to 
examination of such of Lacaille's stars between our zenith and pole as had never been twice 
observed. Messrs. Pistor & Martins, however, sent us new screws with the least possible delay, 
and at the close of June we could work as before.* 

Most of the several hundred errors which were detected in these months of examination, and 
subsequently, have already been announced in the pages of the ^'Astronomical Journal" and 
the '^ Monthly Notices of the Eoyal Astronomical Society." 

From June to October, in which last month the series on Venus commenced, the weather 
proved more unfavorable for observations than in any year since that of 1827 — so said intelli- 
gent citizens— and there were only one third of the nights suitable for zone work ; but we were 
able to observe the moon and stars selected from published catalogues, quite one half the time. 
Between October 19 and February 10, 1851, differential measures of the planet and comparing 
star were made on fifty-one nighfcs ; and there were seventy-three meridian observations, at 
which time its diameter also was measured, and the absolute places of several standard stars 
observed, one or more of which occupied nearly the same parallel of declination. Owing to its 
very frequent tremulous or pulsatory motion in the evening twilight, the differential measures 
when approaching its eastern stationary terms were often found difficult, and rarely afforded 
much satisfaction. As example to the contrary, however, the following remarks on one evening 
may be quoted to show that reliable measures are not impossible : 

'^ November 14. An extremely fine evening throughout. Both objects are defined with pre- 
cision and move steadily. Except those marked 'tremulous' (1) and 'blurred,' (3) it would 
not have been possible for me to make better measures with so little difference between the 
times of transit, and so large an angle through which to move the micrometer screw." 

There were twenty-seven measurements made between 22A. 58m. and OA. 18m. sidereal time, 
the difference of right ascension at the first being 50^., and at the last 44.45., and of declination 
at corresponding periods 1' 50'^ and 2' 12^\ But in the morning twilight the atmosphere was 

* Again these distinguished artists merited earnest ccmmendation, as well for the promptitude with which they delivered these 
delicate portions of the instrument to be forwarded to us by mail, as for their disinterestedness in declining to make any charge 
therefor. 


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OF THE EXPEDITION, XXXV 

tranquil, and generally so clear that measures could be continued long after daylight if the 
comparing star was so bright as seventh magnitude. Once I commenced when the planet was 
not more than 3° above the horizon, and, as has been stated in Vol. 1, there were several 
occasions when the cusps could be distinguished by the unassisted eye ! Its twinkling some 
mornings was also quite notable ; both the latter being facts in physical astronomy, or rather atmo- 
spheric astronomy, never yet witnessed from any observatory in the northern hemisphere known 
to me. But, favorably as the planet could be seen, and carefully as colored portions were looked 
for on several occasions, nothing like a spot was ever detected. The meridian observations 
were prosecuted except whilst the planet was within 5° of the sun, a screen of white cotton 
cloth comisletely protecting the circle from the sun's rays. 

_ When the circle was again in thorough working order, I made a visit to the northern pro- 
vinces, taking along the magnetical instruments, and determining the elements at five stations 
one of them 3,700 feet above the level of the sea. This journey also afforded opportunity to 
collect many facts respecting the mineral resources and distribution of mines in those provinces, 
as well as other interesting information not generally known out of Chile. During the month 
and a half of my absence from Santiago, there was very little work done by the assistants. 
Clouds had been even more frequent than in the corresponding period of the preceding year, 
though rains had neither occurred so often nor continued so long. 

Autumn proved almost as unfavorable for the zones ; so that from the commencement of 
summer to the close of this season, we averaged, for the catalogue, only a little more than 800 
stars per month. July of 1851 was, undoubtedly, the most unpropitious month of our residence 
in Chile. During the second series on Mars, comprising 93 days, between 16th December, 
1851, and 15th March, 1852, I was more fortunate. About 2,000 differential measures were 
made on seventy-eight, and meridian observations on eighty nights, it having occurred on two 
occasions that the comparing star could not be seen through the haze hanging over the valley. 
Generally the atmosphere was so clear that the shades of color of portions of the planet could 
be perceived with great distinctness and satisfaction, even under quite bright illumination of 
the field. The following notes appended to the observations of February 26, will show some- 
thing of the appreciation in which such nights are held. On that night the star of comparison 
was double; its companion, blue and of the twelfth magnitude, was some 19" south and 6" east. 
"Neither finer night, better images, nor more satisfactory work, since the commencement of 
the series. The atmosphere is as steady as the earth itself, and so translucent, that not only is 
the companion seen distinctly under full illumination, but even its blue color is perceptible." 

There were twenty-four measures on that evening, and I am quite sure the place of the planet 
will be given by them to within less than half a second of arc. In marked contrast are these 
notes to the observations on the evening of the 1st February. 

"There were two sharp earthquakes, at an interval of 12s.', about 6A. 12m. p. m., (nearly twelve 
hours before,) whose effect seems to have been to change the condition of the atmosphere. At 
one instant the planet and star are steady, but before half-way across the field are blurred and 
jumping in a most extraordinary manner. Therefore, the measures could not have been very 
good, even had there not been the additional difficulty of endeavoring to keep Mars on the fixed 
wire by means of the tangent screw, whilst the micrometer wire was moved to bisect the star 
Thus, only one reading of the micrometer is given, the star being that number of revolutions 
to the north of the planet's limb." 

Unfavorable as this appears to be, if we divide the thirty observations into four groups for 
comparison, the change of declination between the mean of the times for the two groups of the 
north limb differs from the change shown by the south 0".234. Should other observatories 
have been equally fortunate, a discussion of the observations cannot fail to be of high interest, 
for it will probably forever decide the possibility of determining accurately the parallax of Mars 
from meridian or differential measurements. At the close of the series, at least three meridian 


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XXXvi ORIGIN AND OPERATIONS 

observations were made of tliose in our own, as well as of the comparing stars, in tlie epliemeiis 
of the Nautical Almanac. 

During all these fine nights the assistants were making up lost time with the circle, extend- 
ing their nightly zones to the limit their vision would bear, and adding an average of more 
than a thousand stars to the catalogue each month. A part of their work at this period was in 
the 5° immediately surrounding the pole, which was observed in one belt, the slow motion of 
the stars permitting the circle to be moved through that space without the risk of losing any 
object. In order to insure this also, the same zone was observed on three successive nights, and 
after comparison of the several results, every star not recorded on each occasion was specially 
looked for. The circle was read for every star in the polar belts. One of the 9th magnitude 
was found which performed its entire revolution within the field of the telescope ! When 
double, the differences of right ascension and declination, and the magnitudes and colors of the 
components, were noted. There were quite a number of these last which escaped the sweeps of 
that eminent observer. Sir John Herschel. 

That our estimations of magnitudes might be comparable, Lieut. MacEae and myself had 
early referred to small and well-known stars of the British Association catalogue as standards, 
ascending or descending in the scale of brightness to the extreme magnitudes embraced in it. 
In like manner, the judgment of Mr. Phelps was based on Mr. MacEae's estimates. The 
smallest star visible in the telescope of the meridian circle, illuminated for ordinary work, and 
on good nights, was set down as 12th magnitude. Many of Lacaille's must have varied 
greatly since the date of his work, and not a few of them may probably have short periods. 
How many of the sixty, not perceptible by us when sought for, may only have been in the 
wane, remains for the decision of later astronomers. No doubt a part of these discrepancies 
may be due to erroneous entries in his observation books, and others to errors since made in the 
reduction of his work; but as the case now stands, we have ample data to show that the places 
of the stars contained in the catalogue (Lacaille's) published under the direction of the British 
Association are extraordinarily inaccurate. That many of the stars south of the zenith of San- 
tiago are variable, is established by the fact that our observations embrace quite bright stars 
not contained in his zones ; and one or two of those not visible when twice sought in the early 
months of the work, were subsequently observed near their proper i)laces. But the variable 
star of the southern hemisphere which has most interest is ^ Argus. Taking into account the 
surrounding nebula, the contiguous clusters of stars, its color, and changes of brilliancy, there 
is probably no sidereal object more wonderful. From 1834 to 1838, during which Sir John 
was at the Cape, it never exceeded ^ Centauri in brightness, and at one time was '^a good 
match with Fomalhaut.'' In 1Q11, Halley had rated it as low as a 4th magnitude; in 1751, 
Lacaille saw it a 2d ; from 1811 to 1815, it had been considered a 4th again ; and subsequently, 
and up to 1845, it had varied between a not very remarkable 1st and a small 2d. At the last 
named epoch it exceeded the lustre of Canopus, than which Sirius is the only star more bril- 
liant in all the heavens. The following records are extracted from our note-books : 

1850, February 9. A bright, clear night, and steady atmosphere. Comparing the brightest 
visible stars, they rank— Sirius, Canopus, ^ Argus, oc Centauri. The yellowish-red light of 
5? Argus is more marked than that of Mars. 

February 13. ?? Argus apparently less bright than a Centauri. 

Ifarch 31. v Argus is quite as bright as the two stars of a Centauri, and superior to all 
except Sirius and Canopus. 

Aj)ril 15. 5j Argus approaches the brilliancy of Canopus.* 

April 18. Night cloudless, and without haze. After the observations, careful estimation 
placed ^ Argus quite equal with, if not superior in brightness to ^ Centauri, They were equi- 
distant from the meridian. 

* Letter to Hon. F. P. Stanton. 


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OP THE EXPEDITION. XXXvii 

May U: ^ Argus and a Centauri being at the same distance from the merilian, the former is 
considerably the brighter. 

May 16. ^ Argus more brilliant than the two stars of ^ Centauri combined. 

3Iay 28. v Argus goes on increasing steadily. With the ruddiness of Aldebaran, its magni- 
tude is only less than Canopus.* Its change since the close of October has been nearly, if not 
full half a magnitude. 

Jime 3. To the unassisted eye the atmosphere is remarkably clear, the '^coal sacks'' of the 
via lactea being of startling blackness. -^ Argus and Arcturus have, approximately, the same 
color, and though the latter is rather ruddier, the former is considerably the brighter. When 
compared, they had about the same altitude. 

Jidy 5. ^ Argus is still as bright as the two stars of a Centauri. 

July 25. ^ Argus as bright or brighter than the two of ^. Centauri. 

July 28. ^ Argus is on the wane, and is now very little superior to oc Centauri. f 

1851, May 18. ^ Argus certainly not so bright as a Centauri. 
Becemher 28. ?? Argus quite as bright as c^ Centauri. 

1852, January 22. ^ Argus no brighter than ^ Centauri. 

May 10. . Argus continued fully as bright as the double star cc Centauri as late as the 15th of 
March last. Some nights I would estimate it a shade brighter ; but when the two were at equal 
distances from the meridian, it was often impossible to detect any difference with the eye. Since 
then it has sensibly diminished. It comes nearer to my recollection of Capella, as seen in the 
northern hemisphere, than any other star. J 

These are all the memoranda recorded, and they fully sustain the impression of Herschel, of 
a fitfully variable star, to an astonishing extent, with neither settled period nor regularity of 
progression for its minor fluctuations. The more important gradations of lustre, as those no- 
ticed only by Halley in 1677, and Mr. Burchell in 1811-15, occur but after long intervals. Since 
1822, there have been annual watchers of its changes, and none have seen it smaller than a 2d 
magnitude star. That the astronomer of the northern hemisphere may appreciate the lustre of 
the binary system, {c Centauri), with which I so constantly compared it, cc^ Centauri neither 
exceeds y, nor falls below f^ Leonis, which is the more obscure of the two ; c^ is, as nearly as pos- 
sible, equal with Antares or Spica, with the decided orange tinge of the former, rather than the 
silvery radiance of the latter. Lieut. MacKae, on one occasion, estimated them at 4th and 2d 
magnitudes respectively, whilst I put them up as high as 1 and 1.2, which is certainly nearer 
the fact, though neither of us ever considered ^^ ^o bright as /?. As their distance never ex- 
ceeded 121^^ § during our stay in Chile, the unassisted eye did not separate them, and their 
combmed light is, perhaps, one third greater than that of Arcturus. 

Our time in Chile was rapidly drawing to a close. Before leaving it, I was desirous to learn 
something more of its people, topography, and agriculture; and as it was necessary to save my 
eyes for the series of observations on Yenus, to commence about the close of May, I left Santi- 
ago for Talca, soon after terminating the observations on Mars. Almost incessant work during 
nearly a hundred successive nights, in a climate so dry as to open the joints of wood that had 
been baked in an oven at home, had left me quite destitute of energy— very Chilean in apathy. 
Provided by considerate friends against most of the discomforts of the road, and instructed by 
them in all useful matters, the month passed on horseback proved an effectual restorative. 
Within that time, I visited the third city of the republic in population ; the battle-field of Lon- 
comilla; descended the Maule in a boat as far as Constitucion on the sea, and re-ascended it to 
within fifteen miles of Talca; had an opportunity to see the principal towns in the most produc- 
tive agricultural provinces, and entered the Andes along the banks of the Cachapual, as far as 

^ Letter to Lieut. C. H. Davis, U. S. N. 

t Letter to Rear Admiral Wm. H. Smyth, R. N. 

X Letter to Dr. C. L. Gerling. 

$ At mean epochs, Jmie 15, 1850, and 1852, the differences in right ascension were 11-.77 and ll".56, and of declination 3'^25 
and 1".33; the former derived from twenty-four, and the latter from eight observations. 


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XXXyiii ORIGIN AND OPERATIONS 

the mineral baths of Cauquenes. As, of necessity, the journey was to be very hurried, much 
accurate geographical knowledge was not to be expected, and no other instruments were^ taken 
along than a Bunten^s barometer and one thermometer. But the excursion brought me in con- 
tact with gentlemen who had visited the sources of several rivers, when crossing diiferent 
mountain chains, and their information has been used in compiling the maps of Vol. 1. 

Very soon after my return, the government decided to establish a National Observatory, and 
official information of the fact was communicated by Prof. Domeyko, who had earnestly inter- 
ested himself to this end, and who was requested to ascertain whether our equipment could be 
purchased. In such case he was authorized to make the necessary arrangements for the trans- 
fer at the termination of" our work. This was most gratifying information, a happy result to 
one of the cherished objects of the Expedition, and congratulations were tendered the Professor, 
that his adopted country offered this new evidence of its intention to continue, as it always had 
been, the most liberal patron of science and arts among the southern republics. Having been 
invested by the honorable Secretary of the Navy with power to dispose of our outfit, the instru- 
ments and few books belonging to the United States were oifered at the prices paid for them 
without after-costs for transportation. Piers, &c., and the observatory building— the latter 
presumed to have deteriorated, and therefore not so valuable as when new— it was proposed to 
have appraised by two competent mechanics. Had it been optional with me, these last would 
have been freely offered to the government as a slight return for the many services so cheerfully 
extended us, and the propriety of doing so was immediately submitted to the department. Un- 
fortunately, the letter from the Hon. William A. Graham, then Secretary of the Navy, promptly 
acceding to the suggestion, did not reach me until the purchase had been effected, and I could 
take the responsibility to present only the necessary objects and furniture for carrying on the 
duties of the observatories, which had been obtained in Chile. When the basis of the negotia- 
tion was settled. Dr. Charles Moesta, a graduate of the University of Marburg, was appomted 
director of the new establishment, and immediately applied himself to acquire practical knowl- 
edge of the instruments. He already had acquaintance with portable astronomical and mag- 
netical instruments before leaving Germany, and for more than a year preceding this appoint- 
ment, had filled the post of assistant to the chief of the Topographical Survey in Chile ; so that 
two months' practice, at the hours we were not using the circle or equatorial, enabled him to 
become expert in their manipulation. Two of the gentlemen previously mentioned as ap- 
pointed government students were named as assistants very shortly after our departure, and 
more than one proof has since been given that the administration cherishes a desire to promote 
the interests of astronomy. The expedition which the President sent to Peru to observe the 
total eclipse of November 30, 1853, and the purchase of one of KessePs best clocks, furnished 
with the most improved -self-winding telegraphic register, may be cited as two such evidences. 

The experience obtained in the first series— summer as it was with us— had led me to expect 
very little from the last one on Venus. Then the planet was far south, the air was dry, and we 
had few clouds to contend with: now, every condition was reversed, and in the whole pre-ar- 
ranged period it was possible to make differential measures only on nine evenings prior to the 
conjunction, and on eighteen mornings subsequent to it. There was not one occasion when the 
measures were wholly satisfactory. The nearest approaches to it were in the evening twilight 
of June 23, when the record shows: ^^ Sharp, clean images throughout ; if the star would have 
permitted a little more light, I should have put down all the measures as satisfactory.'' And 
on the morning of August 12th : ^^Good morning ; images not very sharp at first, but quite 
satisfactory during the last observations by daylight." 

I could find no star in the place of H. C. 15551, E. A. 7A. 50m. 585. Declination + 23^ 19^3^ 
and therefore made measures with the nearest one which was approximatively of the magnitude 
assigned by Lalande to No. 15551. Of 47 meridian observations, some of them were very good, 
or at least they were so regarded when made. 

More than the usual amount of work was accomplished by the assistants during these three 


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OF THE EXPEDITION, XXxix 

months. The winter of 1850 had convinced me that with so small a corps it would be impossi- 
ble to sweep all the space between onr zenith and pole, and I had limited the upper zone at 
declination — 65° 50'. As soon as the map was filled, showing that all the space south of that 
parallel had been once swept, they employed the remaining nights in re-observing doubtful 
spaces when individual measurements or magnitudes were marked for such revision— each of 
them not unfrequently making a series on the same night. Winter as it was, on 57 nights, 
between May 29th and September 9th, above 5,000 stars were observed, clouds obscuring those 
remaining of the preconcerted term. Too much praise cannot be given these gentlemen for the 
capability, zeal, and assiduity manifested in the laborious duties undertaken. Trials of patience 
and hours of physical discomfort were inevitable concomitants of zone work with our circle, yet 
there was no abbreviation of tasks partially self-imposed, and I boldly assert that few have ever 
persevered more cheerfully under the continuous employment which unfavorable weather forced 
on some months of our stay in Chile. 

The observations for longitude, though not very numerous, probably give a very near approxi- 
mation to the truth. There was no leisure to compute anticipated occultations for ourselves, 
and the Nautical Almanac tables were not reliable. Moreover, neither the zone work nor the 
differentials with Mars and Yenus could be interrupted for the observation of occultations or 
moon-culminations. When the latter were not interfered with, every star predicted in the 
almanac as liable to occultation was looked for at the proper time ; but there was more than 
one occasion when no occultation occurred, although the ephemeris made it nearly central in 
that parallel, and thus the list embraces only forty-four occultations— one hundred and seven- 
teen moon-culminations. On the 5th of January, 1852, there was witnessed the very rare occur- 
rence of a double occultation of j; Geminorum. There are several lofty mountains with deep 
intervening valleys on the southern hemisphere of the moon. These become very conspicuous 
when the moon is far north, and in our note-books it was essential to record whether the zenith 
distance of the summits or that of the circular line of the disc was observed. On this occa- 
sion, ^ Geminorum remained 2m. 36.45. behind the first mountain, was 36.95. traversing the 
valley between it and the proximate peak, and finally emerged 4m. 05.85. after the first dis- 
appearance. 

The first contact of the moon^s limb with the sun at the solar eclipse June 17, 1852, was hid- 
den from us by clouds; but as the differences of their diameters were measured at transit over 
the meridian, and the end of the phenomenon was observed, these will add to the reliable data 
bearing on the determination of our longitude. 

The meridional distance between the observatory on Santa Lucia and that of Mr. Mouatt, in 
Valparaiso, was ascertained by exchanging telegraphic signals, for which purpose the operators 
kindly placed the line at my disposal a few nights before I finally embarked from Valparaiso. 
Every precaution was taken by Lieut. MacKae at Santiago, and myself at Valparaiso, to insure 
an accurate result, and the mean of 100 signals— 50 each way— showed the difference of longi- 
tude to be 3m. 56.51^., with a probable error of ± 0.0215. 

For the reason respecting occultations and moon-culminations given in the preceding para- 
graph, meridian planetary observations, except of Mars and Venus, are also few in number. 
Neptune, the planet to whose orbit our late able countryman Prof. S. C. Walker had devoted so 
much labor with such distinguished success, was followed at opposition whenever the zones 
would permit ; but this was the only one. 

A complete set of portable magnetical instruments was made under the direction of Colonel 
Sabine, K. A., by Jones and Barrow, of London. This embraced a declinometer, a unifilar 
magnetometer, with a separate vibration apparatus and a dip-circle, with reading microscopes, 
all which instruments are described in a volume by Captain Eiddle, E. A., published by 
authority of the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, and are noticed more at length in the 
appropriate volume (Vol. 6) of our work. Finding that the rock of Santa Lucia strongly influ- 
enced the magnets, as the iron bars of our windows were too near for absolute determinations 


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x] ORIGIN AND OPERATIONS 

on our own premises, the proprietor of an extensive garden in tlie immediate vicinity very 
kindly permitted its use. On the Ist, 11th, and term-days of each month, observations were 
made there for the total horizontal force ; the inclination was observed on the first two days, 
and the declination on that last named. When either the 1st or 11th fell on Sunday, the ob- 
servations were made on the following day. On the term-day the changes of the declination 
also were noted at short intervals, extending through 24 hours. These last observations were 
under charge of Mr. Smith, who was occasionally aided by the Chilean students of astronomy. 
Those for absolute elements during the first year were made by Lieut. MacKae and myself; 
subsequently, the declinometer and dip circle were given up to Mr. Phelps. 

The meteorological instruments comprise a barometer of Hassler's construction, having an 
internal diameter of six tenths of an inch ; standard thermometers by Troughton & Simms 
and Jones ; self-register thermometers by the former artists, and a psychrometer by Bunten. 
The Eeaumur scale of the last is divided on paper^ and enclosed in a glass cylinder surrounding 
the tube, to which its lower extremity is joined by fusion. By the capillary action of a linen 
cord^ one of the bulbs was constantly supplied with water from a bird-glass. Some time after 
the observations commenced, a spirit-register thermometer, divided on the tube to single de- 
grees, was converted into a minimum wet-bulb, to which moisture was conveyed in a similar 
manner as to the preceding. The barometer was suspended in a corner of the office-room; all 
the others within boxes open at bottom, and u.nder the adjoining balcony on the south side of 
the house. Observations were commenced in November, 1849, and, during the first year, were 
continued throughout the day and night at intervals of three hours. Afterwards, the journal 
was placed wholly under the charge of Mr. Smith, and the 3 A. m. observations were necessarily 
omitted. Besides these tri-hourly records, there were hourly notations on the meteorological 
term-day of each month, omitting the hours from 1 to 5 A. m., both inclusive, when Mr. Smith 
was the only observer. The journal closes with September 13, 1852. 

Among the interesting notes with which it abounds, are those relating to the frequent earth- 
quakes experienced. A general summary of these, together with such deductions as it was 
possible to draw from observations, which the phenomena themselves almost incapacitate one 
from recording properly, have been given in Chapter IV, Vol. 1, and allusion is made to 
them here only because of their constant influences on the adjustments of our astronomical 
instruments. At other observatories, the astronomer either finds the level, zenith-point, and 
azimuth of his meridian instruments almost unchanged during weeks and months, or they are 
subject to deviations following some general law of which the records of his meteorological 
journal afford him satisfactory exponents, and his adjusting screws may remain untouched. 
We dared not rely on ihe permanence of ours from the commencement to the close of a single 
series of observations; for, besides the shocks that vibrated walls, whose warning or accompa- 
nying rumble started us into attention, there were an infinity of others to which man is physi- 
cally insensible, but whose occurrences were quite plainly indicated by disturbances of the meri- 
dian circle and clock. Multiplying work of a certain character, as these imperatively did, there 
was less time for more interesting observations, and the verifications became greatly more 
laborious. How excessive these disturbances were, may be judged of from the fact that the 
earthquakes of one day retarded the clock 11^5., and changed the azimuth of the circle piers 5'. 

Our work in Chile was completed. Dr. Moesta had taken charge of the National Observa- 
TOEY on the 14th September; our original observations had been packed to go round Cape Horn, 
and the copy remained to accompany me across Panama ; very cordial acknowledgments had 
been tendered to the government for its unremitting courtesy, consideration, and assistance; a 
most complimentary letter of leave had been received in reply, and there remained but to order 
the assistants to the United States before embarking myself. The route of Lieut. MacRae had 
been a subject of thought for some time. There was an interesting question in magnetism to 
be solved, and many years might elapse before another equally favorable opportunity would 
occur ; the geography and meteorology of the region he would traverse for these observations 


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OP THE EXPEDITION. ^Jj 

were almost unknown, and of themselves merited a special journey; I therefore determined to 
place suitable instruments in his charge, and to direct him to proceed home via the Uspallata 
pass of the Andes, and the pampas of the Argentine republic. In addition to the magnetical 
instruments, he was supplied with three pocket-chronometers; a sextant and an artificial hori- 
zon; aBunten's and an aneroid barometer; thermometers, &c.; and his orders were as follows- 
"_ It being considered of much interest to science that a series of magnetical and other obser- 
vations should be made at various heights and across this continent, you will take charge of 
the instruments selected for the purpose, and proceed to the United States, via the Uspallata 
pass and Buenos Ayres. The successful prosecution of your expedition being dependent on the 
transitable condition of the Andes, for which no definite period can be assigned, the time of 
departure from Santiago is left to your discretion. On arriving at Buenos Ayres or Montevideo 
should you ascertain that the United States can be reached more expeditiously by so doing you 
are authorized to proceed to England in the mail steamer, in which case you will convey the 
instruments to Woolwich and repeat the observations there also, for the purpose of ascertaining 
what changes, if any, have taken place in the magnets since they were first examined by Ool 
Sabine, K. A. And as there are facilities for determining the temperature co-efiicients of the 
magnets at Woolwich which may not be so readily accessible at Washington, should you visit 
England, it is desirable that these experiments should not be omitted. 

"In the journey across the Andes and pampas of Buenos Ayres, the objects to which your 
attention is especially directed are : 1st. The law of the decrease of magnetic intensity with 
height. 2d. The measurement of zenith distances of celestial objects exceeding 90° with a 
view to improving tables of refraction. 3d. Geographical information. 4th. Meteorology 

" The height of the Uspallata pass being about 14,000 feet above the level of the sea it is 
desirable that all the magnetical elements be determined at five nearly equi-distant elevations 
both ascending to the Cumbre and descending towards Mendoza. At the summit, the observa- 
tions for total intensity should be repeated, and at not less than two intervals of the deflecting 
magnet. Here, also, you may have the best opportunity for observing zenith distances 
Crossing the pampas, the magnetical observations should be made, as nearly as practicable at 
every hundred miles of longitude, or, assuming Mendoza to be in longitude 69° west of Green 
wich, and Buenos Ayres in 58^°, there will be six stations between these two cities. 

" Though it is not to be expected that you will have time to execute an elaborate map of any 
great breadth of country, your chronometers and astronomical instruments will enable you to 
locate with far greater accuracy than is now known, not only the stations you may select but 
also the towns, rivers, and lakes near which you may pass. Whatever information you collect 
cannot fail to be of the highest interest to geography, and your attention is particularly invited 
to the lakes and rivers lying between Mendoza and Eio Quinto, just beyond San Luis. Have these 
rivers and lakes outlets in the Parana, or are their waters lost in the sands of the pampas? It 
IS possible that manuscript maps will be found at some of the cities you may visit of which it 
may be permitted to make copies. ' 

"Nine A. M., and 3 p. ivi., being near the hours of maximum and minimum atmospheric pres- 
sure, should be selected for meteorological observations whenever you are stationary These 
better than any others, will enable us, when calculating the elevations of your stations to deter- 
mine the corrections applicable to observations at other epochs. The temperature of dry and 
wet thermometers, the direction and estimated strength of winds, and character of clouds will 
occupy your attention also. To these, many notes may be added respecting the hours at which 
the winds begin m the morning; the electrical state of the higher atmosphere; whether there 
are strata of clouds moving in different directions above the Andes-facts that will throw li-ht 
on the meteorology of a region almost if not quite as little known to us as is its magnetfcal 
condition. ° 

"Baron Humboldt has desired to be informed whether the snow on the mountains is of a 
'glowing red' color about sunset and sunrise, as he had often observed it on the Alps and the 


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Xlii ORiaiN AND OPERATIONS OF THE EXPEDITION. 

Himalaya cliains at those periods. From this side of the Andes we have not unfrequently wit- 
nessed such color ahout sunset, and your journey will aiford opportunities to ascertain whether 
the phenomenon is ohservaWe in the morning. Conversations with intelligent Argentines give 
reason to helieve that there are periods when the atmosphere is in such a condition about sunrise 
as will reflect the red rays from lofty mountain tops to observers on the plain _ 

''Any information you can collect respecting the populations through which you pass; their 
resources, both agricultural and mineral ; their manufactures and commerce with other towns of 
the republic; the number of births and deaths; the condition of morals, diseases, and crimes- 
all will give additional interest to your report. _ ,.,... 

"In a service of the nature on which you are about to set out, of necessity, much is left to 
your discretion. Your ability and zeal in behalf of the Expedition, and the service to which 
we belong, afford every confidence that the duty will be executed with credit to yourself and 
the navy At its completion, proceed to Washington and report to me, furnishmg, as shortly 
thereafter as may be practicable, a detailed narrative, which will be presented with my report 
to the honorable Secretary of the Navy. . . r^ w ^ic.;r,^ 

-Six hundred dollars are furnished you for travelling expenses, and a draft on Messrs. Baring 
Brothers for £100, equal to |484, on account of your pay from 1st of October proximo, inclu- 
sive Of the former you will keep an exact account, taking vouchers whenever it is possible to 
obtain them, to be returned in the settlement of your account at the office of the lourth 

A n (i 1 ir^T 
" Wishing you a pleasant journey, and early re-union with the other members of the Expe- 

'^^ Lieuten^t MacEae returned to the United States in April, 1853. Having been tl^^own from 
his mule shortly after leaving Mendoza, his barometer was broken, and it was feared that the 
rates of his chronometers were so disturbed as might throw doubt on the longitudes of the mag- 
netical stations selected on the great pampa. Most laudably and earnestly desirous to perfect 
his work, he immediately volunteered to return at his own cost; and being permitted to do so by 
the honorable Secretary of the Navy, he sailed for Buenos Ayres m August crossed both the 
PortiUo and Uspallata passes, and finally arrived at Washington m March, 1854. His report 
has been given at length in Vol. 2. 

It will be remembered that the programme of the Expedition proposed a collection of objects 
in natural history. Unfortunately, our party was so small that no member of it could be spared 
from the more pressing duties of the mission. Nevertheless, through friends, and by purchase, 
quite a large proportion of the native birds and minerals, together with some of the mammals, 
fish, reptiles, shells, fossils, botany, and Indian antiquities, were brought home by me. Many 
of the mineralogical specimens are of rare interest and value. Plants, bulbs, and seeds were 
also forwarded to the government establishment at Washington every few months of our resi- 
dence abroad, and many of them of a useful and ornamental character, wholly new m the 
United States, are now thriving. Such of the objects as were new to science have been well 
figured, and are described by eminent gentlemen selected by the Smithsonian Insti ution, which 
very considerately consented to direct their elaboration. The names of the naturalists prefixed 
to the several appendices of Vol. 2, are satisfactory evidences that none could have performed 
more ably the duties with which they had been intrusted. _ _ 

Duty having constantly confined Mr. Smith to Santiago, or its immediate vicmity, he ^^^s 
unwilling to return to the United States without having seen something more of Chi e. Me 
therefore resigned his appointment, and proceeded to the southern provinces, where he had an 
opportunity to learn more of the Araucanians than has probably ever been permitted to an in- 
telligent white man. We parted from him with regret. Mr. Phelps and myself embarked at 
Valparaiso October 1, and after a detention of fourteen days on the isthmus of Panama, reached 
New York iust thirty-nine months after I had left that city. 

w ...T i«^l J- M. GILLISS. 

Washington, 1854. 


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OBSERVATIONS 


THE PLAIETS MARS AID VEIUS, 


CEETAIJST PRE-SELECTED STARS NEAR THEIR APPARENT PATHS: 

1849-'52. 


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MARS AND VEIUS. 

SANTIAGO OESEUVATIONS. 


INTROBTJCTIOK 

DESCRIPTION OP THE OBSERVATORY. 

The rotary observatory of the astronomical expedition occupied a terrace constructed 175 feet 
above the streets of Santiago, and on the northern slope of Santa Lucia. Its elevation above 
thesea is 1 940 feet The terrace was formed partially by breaking down crags of the rock com- 
posing the hill and partially by building a dry wall thirty feet high, upon a projecting ledge 
from the west side Between the wall and slope of the hill, the space-perhaps six feet wide at 
top-was_ filled with fragments of porphyry and loose earth, to which solidity was given bv 
pouring m water during the progress of the work. An artificial surface was gained by these 
operations forty feet m extent from east to west, and twenty-five feet wide from north to south 
As this terrace IS nearly ten feet more elevated than that on which the observatory buildino- for 
the meridian circle is erected, a flight of steps was made from one to the other by usin/the 
columnar strata of the hill. The rotary observatory occupies the western side of its terrace 
with only a narrow pathway between it and the face of the artificial wall 

two and a half feet high, there are secured four capping-stones of red porphyry that form an 
octagon seven inches thick and inscribed in a circle 6.5 feet in diameter No single stone 
of such dimensions could have been quarried by the artisans of Santiago, and if obtainable 
could not have been raised to the observatory without sending to Valparaiso for machinery' 
The base of the masonry was the native rock, and the bed and joints of the cap-stone were 
filled in with a grouting of hydraulic lime. A foundation of masonry, fifteen feet in diameter 
and rather more than a foot in height above the surface, was built on the rock, in situZr- 
rounding the pier, to receive the sill of the observatory. 

The sill formed from circular segments of one and a half inch plank, five and a half feet 
long, IS put together so as to break joints, and rests immediately on wedges laid on the masonry 
diametrically A grooved cast-iron rail is secured by screw-bolts and nuts near the centre of 
Its upper surface, and the level of the sill is perfected by means of the wedges. The curb is 
formed in the same manner, but of rather stronger wood, and it is rendered more inflexible by 
the raanner in which the corresponding grooved rail is secured to its under side It rests on 
SIX 24-pounder cannon balls. Both the curb and sill are composed of two thicknesses of plank 
The frame-work of the ouilding, supported on the former, is of light and well-seasoned yellow 
pme and the weather-boards are of white pine, tongued and grooved together, and fastened to 
the frame by screws. The height to the eaves is eight feet. The roof is a cone, having for its 
apex a tin cap, hung by one edge on long hinges, and which, when closed, laps two inches over 
the wood-work all round. The aperture covered by the cap is two feet in diameter ; the width 
of the door m the inclined roof twenty inches. An upright, that passes through the roof and 


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Xlvi INTRODUCTION TO THE 

is bolted to one of the rafters, serves as a leader for the pulley to elevate the cap. This may 
be thrown beyond the vertical , if necessary, and a single cord fastened to the strengthening- 
bars of tin across its base, serves to pull it down after the inclined door has been first closed. 
Although of like materials and construction as the weather-boarding, a canvass cover was accu- 
rately fitted to the roof for additional security. This was drawn tightly over the planks, and 
when securely nailed down and painted, the portion obstructing the door-way was cut away. 
There is a small window opposite the door of entrance. 

The foundation-wall was sufficiently wide to support the ends of the floor-joists, also. These 
timbers were framed entirely free of the masonry-pier in the centre, and were of such width 
that the floor was on a level with the upper surface of the curb. To prevent the building from 
wabbling, there are three horizontal, equi-distant, and adjustable rollers secured to the joists, 
the space between them and the curb not exceeding one-fourth of an inch. 

The building was first erected at Washington, and its several portions carefully numbered 
before taken down for transportation. As it was extremely light, no machinery was required 
to turn it, slight pressure by the hand being quite sufficient to move it in either direction. 
Altogether, it may be ranked among the most economical and easily-managed rotary observa- 
tories ever built. 

THE EQUATORIAL. 

The equatorial telescope was made by Mr. William J. Young, of Philadelphia ; its object- 
glass, from French materials, by Henry Fitz, jr., of New York; and its micrometer by Mr. 
William Wiirdeman, at Washington. As will be seen in the opposite plate, the construction of 
its stand is that devised by Frauenhofer, and since so successfully built by Messrs. Merz & Mahler 
for observatories in many parts of the world. The diameter of its object-glass is 6.4 French 
inches, with a focal length of 103.7 inches. Its polar and declination axes are frustums of steel 
cones, the former twenty-one and a half inches long, with diameters of two and a half and one 
and three quarters inches at its two extremities, and the latter twenty-two inches long by three 
and a half and two and a half inches diameter, respectively. 

The hour-circle, with a diameter of nine and a half inches, is divided on a band of inlaid 
silver into spaces each of four minutes of time, which are read by two opposite verniers to four 
seconds, and by estimation may be easily subdivided to one second. The declination-circle has 
a diameter of twelve and a half inches, divided, also on a silver band, into spaces of ten minutes 
of arc, divisible by two verniers into ten seconds. It is numbered from 0° to 360°, and reads 0° 
when the telescope, pointed to the equator, is on the west side of the stand. The finder has an 
object-glass, 1.75 inch in diameter, with a focal length of eighteen inches. This latter object- 
glass and the eye-pieces to the micrometer are somewhat imperfect, and there is some little play 
to the declination axis; but, except these defects, the instrument is admirably constructed. 

The supporting-stand is of solid and well-seasoned black walnut, dried in a kiln for more 
effectual security against shrinkage in the dry summer atmosphere of Chile. It rests on four 
heavy steel screws, by means of which the adjustments for polar elevation and transverse level 
may be eff'ected. The azimuth is controlled by horizontal screws, working through iron clamps 
let into and firmly fastened to the pier at the two meridional foot-screws. A driving-clock is 
fitted to the instrument ; but dust accumulated so rapidly in summer, that its use was never 
attempted after the first few nights. 

The repeating-micrometer has a divided circle of four inches diameter, which may be read 
by one vernier to 30^^ Constructed on the English plan, its counting-scale is within the box, 
each five teeth of the comb being separated by a deep indentation. It has five permanent 
transit-wires, and two parallel movable wires perpendicular thereto. One of the latter is pro- 
vided with a register-head, divided into one hundred equal parts ; the other is only a zero-wire. 
Its eye-lenses, with magnifying powers from one hundred and fifty to five hundred times, may 
be moved parallel with the register-wire by means of a rack and pinion and dove-tailed slide. 


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SANTIAGO OBSERVATIONS. 


xlvii 


For '^ dark-field" illumination there are two lamps suspended on gimbals, that throw light 
through the small tubes seen on the plate in advance of the micrometer ; but there is no means 
for illuminating the field. When unpacked, all the wires put in by the maker Avere found to 
have been broken, and the most available material from which to insert a new system was an 
exceedingly delicate and uniform fibre of unspun Chinese silk. 

From the 6th of December, when the instrument was fully mounted, to the evening of the 
10th, was passed in becoming familiar with its peculiarities, and bringing it into approximate 
adjustment, correcting its errors one by one to nearly minimum amounts. It is unnecessary to 
transcribe the observations made during the several approximations, but only those which were 
just prior to commencing the appointed series of difi'erentials. After the observations of Decem- 
ber 10th, none of the screws were ever disturbed. 

Observations to determine the 2Jositicn of the Instrument. 


1849, 
Dec. 10 


1850. 
Oct. 18 


1851. 
Dec. 16 


1852. 
May 29 


Dec. 
circle. 


E. 
W. 
E. 
V^. 
E. 
E. 
W. 
W. 

E. 
VV, 
E. 
W, 

W. 
E. 
VV, 


E. 
E. 
VV. 


a Eridani 


a Pavonis 

a Ceti 


I Argus 
/? Aquarii 


(3 Tri. Aust. 
y Hydri . 

>f Argus . 
13 Orionis 


a' Crucjs 
a Argus . 
a' Crucis 


h. m. s. 
1 30 2.3 

1 42 17,0 

2 13 41.4 
2 25 18.9 
2 35 23.0 
2 39 43.6 

2 45 46.7 

3 11 54.0 

21 8 7.1 
21 20 39.7 

21 59 48.2 

22 14 7.3 

4 38 6,4 

5 4 29.8 
5 12 25.0 

12 11 7.6 
12 21 20.5 
12 26 30.4 


Hour circle 


Dec. circle 


h, ■III s. 
II 57 54 
13 10 10 

6 
11 30 52 
11 40 56 
11 45 17 
11 51 20 

6 1 12 

23 42 49 
23 55 26 
6 16 18 
6 24 23 

6 
11 56 
3 55 


28,170 


57 58 35 
302 1 
302 46 50 

3 29 50 
356 30 30 
356 30 30 

3 30 

58 40 

6 15 30 

353 45 

297 2 25 

74 42 


58 54 30 I 
8 23 30 
351 37 10 I 28.040 


11 52 62 17 20 
6 307 22 
7 24 297 43 20 


28-1.50 


Temp. 


Let d and cV represent the readings of the declination-circle, d when that circle is to the east 
of the stand; t and t^ the times of observation, t when the declination-circle is east; h and // 
the corresponding hour-circle readings; tt the polar distance of the star observed, e its refraction 
in altitude, and ^' its refraction in polar distance: then, if we call the index-error of the decli- 
nation-circle e, the coUimation- error of the telescope c, the vertical error of the polar axis x^ 
and its azimuthal error y; 

6i=i(cZ+(i^ — 360°); 
c=l^ (t—t')—Qi—h') j; 

when the star is in the meridian, 

xzzzd -\- e -{- ^ — 71 ] 
and when the star is six hours from the meridian, 


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xlviii 


INTRODUCTION TO THE 


Applying these formulas to the preceding observations^ the instrumental deviations at the 

successive dates were as follows : 

Instrumental deviations. 


Date. 

e. 

c. 

a'. 

.. 

1849. 

II 

// 

. 

// 

Dec. 10 

12.5 W. 

+ 0.0 

+ 44 = 5 

-63.7 

1850. 





Oct. 18 

15.0 E. 

+ 32.85 

— 82.9 

— 1.6 

1851. 





Dec. 16 

20.0 E. 

- 1.50 

— 4.2 

+ 73.0 

1852. 





May 29 

20.0 E. 

+ 4.20 

— 32.2 

— 49.0 


These results show that the deviations of the equatorial could have no appreciable influence 
on observations made as were the differential measures with the planets Mars and Venus. 

Value of the Micrometer Screio. 

To determine the value of the micrometer-screw, transits of /9 Hydri were observed over the 
index and micrometer wires, placed at intervals of five, ten, and twenty revolutions apart. 
They gave the following results at different periods : 


Date. 

Star. 

No. of 
revolutions. 

No. of 
observations. 

Mean of the 
times. 

Equatorial 
interval. 

Value of one 
revolution. 

1849. 




s. 

// 

// 

Dec. 13 

/? Hydri . . . 

10 

10 

62.800 

194.130 

19.413 


do ... 

20 

10 

125.650 

388.415 

19.421 

1850. 







Feb. 1 

do ... 

10 

10 

63.030 

194.934 

19.493 


do ... 

10 

10 

63.110 

195.120 

19.512 


do ... 

5 

JO 

31.685 

97.962 

19.592 

1851. 







Mar. 14 

do ... 

10 

10 

62.820 

194.366 

19.437 

20 

do ... 

10 

20 

63. 040 

195.057 

19.506 

1852. 







Mar. 16 

do ... 

10 

20 

62.765 

194.550 

19.455 

19 

do ... 

10 

20 

52.860 

194.587 

19.4.59 


do ... 

5 

20 

31.435 

97.309 

19.466 

June 2 

do . . . 

10 

20 

63.175 

195.944 

19.594 


The value adopted for the reduction of observations is 

19^'.49. 

The diameter of the micrometer-wires was first ascertained by turning the telescope towards 
clear sky during day-light, and bringing the movable wire in. contact with the index-wire alter- 
nately on each of its sides. Under a magnifying power of 235, the index-wire appears some 
what the greater of the two, but they formed part of the same fibre, and the difference between 
them could not be detected when superposed. A mean of ten measures by day-light gave for the 
diameter of the two 2'^504^ or, on the assumption of equality, each wire had a diameter of ^^252. 
Observations by lamp-light, however, give a very different result. Thirty measures, made at 
different periods, show that the effect of the lamps is to increase the apparent diameters from 
^^252 to 2^M99. In the reduction of all observations after lamp-light, the diameter adopted is 

2'^20. 

Frequent occasions occurred, during the progress of the adjustments, to test the optical 
capacity of the instrument. The first object viewed with it was the planet Saturn ; and though 
twilight had scarcely closed in, five of the satellites, the shadows of the rings, and dark inte- 
rior spaces, were admirably shown under a magnifying power of 235 times. The sixth star of 


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SANTIAGO OBSEEYATIONS. 


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the trapezium in the sword-handle of Orion was distinctly seen whenever sought at rea^ -nable 
altitudes; it separated unequal and close double stars, as a Octantis, with great precis. jn and 
sharpness, and defined the millions in the gorgeous cluster surrounding 47 Tucan^ wdth won- 
derful effect. An aggregation of star-dust, as appears this most extraordinary object, a power 
of 235 almost separates each brilliant particle from the rest. 

LATITUDE. 

Twelve hundred and sixty observations have been discussed for the latitude of the meridian 
circle, from which only nine observations of the twenty-two selected stars have been excluded, 
and on each of these occasions there is doubt of the true circle-reading:. 

Bessers refractions, as constructed by Professor Coffin, U. S. N,, for the Washington Obser- 
vatory, have been used in the computations. A special table for barometric corrections, ren- 
dered necessary by the elevation of the observatory above the sea level, has been so formed 
that all the logarithms remain positive on subtracting .02306 from Log. K of Table II. 

All the observations were reduced to mean places of the stars January 1st, 1851, and tha 
declinations at that date have been derived from the British Nautical Almanac for 1858, by 
application of the annual variation in declination during 1 years. 

From quick moving stars. 


10 

11 

12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 


Zen. dist. 


Adopted mean 
decimation. 


a ColumbcB 
a Piscis Aust. 
£ Canis Maj. 
a Scorpii . 
15 Argus 

Corvi 

/3 Ceti . . 
a Virginis . 

01 Ceti . . 
a Eridani . 
/y Ononis . 
I Argus 

a Hydras 
a Ceti . 
/? Leonis . 
6 Leonis . 
P Geminor. 
/? Tauri . 


S. 

N. 
N. 
N. 
N. 


43 

3 2 

4 40 
7 21 
9 34 

N. 10 52 
N. 14 38 
N. 23 3 
N. 24 28 
S. 24 34 
N. 25 3 
S. 25 12 
N. 25 25 
N. 36 56 
N. 48 51 
N. 54 47 
N. 61 49 
N. 61 55 


—34 
30 

28 

26 

23 

22 

18 

10 

8 

57 

8 

58 

— 8 

+ 3 

15 

21 

28 

+28 


9 22.28 
24 38.54 
46 22.38 

5 47.43 
52 40.46 
34 20.09 
48 19.54 
22 55.48 
57 13.84 
59 41.72 
22 40.70 
39 3.69 

55.51 
30 6.84 
24 17.17 
20 20.88 
22 52.83 
28 33.90 


No. of ob- 
servat'ns. 


Resulting latitude, 


56 
41 
62 
92 
67 
37 
29 
39 
34 
46 
14 
79 
71 
45 
38 
48 
51 
31 


Probable error.: 


33 26 24.88 
25.87 
25.29 
25.56 
25.03 
26.26 
25.40 
24.46 
25.33 
24.66 
24.49 
23.45 
25.02 
25.87 
25.00 
24.93 
25.92 
24.14 


iO.243 
.257 
.234 
.160 
.359 
.246 
.252 
.232 
.264 
.227 
.523 
.178 
.193 
.237 
.246 
.199 
.216 
.406 


No recent observations appear to have been accessible from which to correct the mean places 
of a Eridani and ( Argus subsequent to the publication of the Nautical Almanac for 1851, 
(in 1847,) and as one certainly is, and the other may, very probably, be in error, they have 
not been incorporated in the mean. Q-iving to each of the other stars weight proportionate to 
the number of observations, the latitude resulting would be S. 33° 26' 25'^2T with a probable 
error of zt:0''.04-2. 


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INTRODUCTION TO THE 
From circumpolar stars. 


No. 

Star. 

Zen. clist. 

No. of ob- 
servat'ns. 

Resulting lati- 
tude. 

Probable 
error. 



u. c. r 

° 1 
55 50 

47 

o / // 

// 

1 

a Octantis . . 



33 26 25.95 

±0.212 



L. 0. 1 

57 17 

32 





u. c. r 

44 40 

39 



2 

/? Hydri 




26.18 

.206 



1.. c. 

68 27 

42 





u. c. r 

45 02 

56 



3 

P ChamE& , . 

• • •] 

68 05 

19 

25.88 

.196 


L.C. i 



u. c. r 

35 18 

112 



4 

a Tri. Aust. . 

L. C. ^ 

77 49 

24 

25.55 

.125 


As these are wholly independent of tabular places, preference is given to the latitude resulting 
from them, though differing in excess from the determination by quiet moving stars more than 
half a second of are. Combining the four partial determinations of circumpolar stars by 
weights derived from the sum of the numbers of observations at each culmination by their 
product, the adopted latitude is ^ 

— 3B 26' 25^^89, 
and comparing each, of the observations with this, the probable error, by the method of least 
squares is ±0^^0866. 

The equatorial is 53| feet to the soutb of tbe meridian circle, 

LONGITUDE. 

The longitude of the circle computed by Mr. S. L. Phelps, from moon culminations and 
occultations observed during the same period is as follows,* the corrections to the moon^s tabular 
place, referred to in both series, having been computed by the methods given by Professor Benj. 
Pierce in the Annual Report on the progress of the United States Coast Survey for 1854, pp. 
115*-^120. 

The equatorial is 16 feet to the west of the meridian circle. 

Longitude from corresponding moon culminations. 


Moon's first limb. 


Moon's 

second limb. 


Observed at 

No. ftf ob- 
servat'ns. 

Resulting longi- 
tude. 

Probable 
error. 

No. of ob- 
servat'ns. 

Resulting longi- 
tude. 

Probable 
error. 

Adopted longitude 
of station. 


18 
22 
29 
^2 
27 
17 
23 
9 
5 

h. m. s. 

4 42 35.44 
32.51 
32.45 
32.81 
33.85 
33.18 
33.90 
35.73 
37.94 

s. 
±1.71 
1.25 
1.05 
0.93 
1.58 
1.77 
1.51 
2.22 
6.96 

10 

8 

20 

5 

5 
1 

h. m. s. 

4 42 32.73 
32.25 
32.85 
34.89 

35.06 
39.21 

s. 

±2.64 
3.42 
3.12 
4.72 

5.59 

h. m. s. 

— 39 54.10 

— 22.75 

.00 

.00' 

-1- 5 2.60 

4 44 30.66 

5 38.56 
5 8 12.20 

±5 19 45.00 



Greenwich, (moon's cor. tab 

places) . . . 


PhilnHplnhia . <. 


Phirloetnn ^S C "^ . ..... 

Long, by weight ..,,,,. 

162 

4 42 33.91 

49 

4 42 33.27 

Longitude from moon culminations . , . 




. . . 4h.4i 

im. 33s,74±( 

)s.993.. 


A pubUo acknowledgmeut is due to the Astronomer Royal, a. B Airy, esq.; Professor Challis, Cambridge, (Englaiid ;) 
M. J. Johnson, esq., Radcliffe astronomer, and Professors Bache and Bond for their prompt courtesy in commnnicatiDg 
observations of moon culminations in advance of publication, and to Lieutenant M. F. Maury, Superintendent United States 
Naval Observatory, for the apparent places of the group of stars preceding x ^ Orionis, which Mr. James Ferguson deter- 
mined by mlcrometrical differentiation § with the latter star. 


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SANTIAGO OBSERVATIONS. 
Longitude from occultations. 


li 


Date. 


1850 
Mar. 20 


May 14 

Nov. 8 
19 

1851. 
Jan. 13 


17 


May 

July 9 

Nov. 14 

Dec. 4 

1852. 
Feb. 27 


April 
May 
June 


* Orionis 

* Orionis . 

* Orionis . 

* Orionis . 

* Orionis . 

* Orionis . 
X^ Orionis 
%3 Orionis 
Bessel 

B. A. C. . 
B. A. C. . 
6^ Tauri . 
J3 Tauri . 


346 

2084 

. 6550 


6'- Tauri 
J5 Tauri 
B. A. C. 
B. A. C. 
B. A. C. 
B. A. C. 


6179 
5573 
3017 
672 


£ Tauri . 
tl Librffi . 
^ Ophiuchi 
58 Ophiuchi 
i/i Sagittarii 


Sid. time of 
observation. 


Im. 
[m. 
Im. 
Im. 
Im. 
Im. 
Im. 
Em. 
Im. 
Im. 
Im. 
Im. 
Im. 


Im. 
Im. 
Im. 
Im. 
Em. 
Im. 


Im. 
Im. 
Im. 


h. m. s. 

7 20 23.79 
21 1.79 
27 53.28 
53 59.87 

8 4 20.75 
47 35 60 

9 40 47.79 
10 7 56.93 
10 24 20.91 
10 55 28.11 

2 29.77 

4 58 9.26 
6 17 45.48 

5 3 43.25 

6 45 24.91 

12 35 57.46 
15 39 18.28 

5 32 35.42 
2 31 38.06 

6 45 42.72 

13 48 36.49 

17 49 22.42 
13 21 0.23 

18 34 36.78 


Star's R. A. 


Star's declina- 
tion. 


h. m. s. 
5 51 8.74 
15.23 
23.44 

52 1.54 
27.61 

53 46.85 
55 0.74 

5 54 34.71 

6 17 53.98 
6 19 0.68 

19 58.27 
4 14 20.77 
4 16 52.51 

4 14 21.02 
4 16 52.72 
18 6 21.11 

16 32 41.96 
8 45 25.62 
2 3 32.40 

4 19 58.19 
15 35 46.23 

17 12 9.44 

17 34 35.40 

18 45 15.43 


-f-20 3 23.8 

19 58 27.2 

20 2 17.3 
• 19 48 0.5 

19 52 27.9 

19 55 38.3 

20 8 4.3 

19 41 8.8 

20 30 57.5 
+20 34 42.5 
—20 2 7.5 
-f 17 11 13.6 

17 34 54.3 

17 11 12.9 
+17 34 53.4 
—20 45 54.8 
—17 45 47.0 
+20 31 25.5 
7 52 24.9 

+ 18 50 47.2 
—15 11 51.4 

20 56 54.8 

21 36 19.3 
—22 55 14.4 


Computed 
correction lo 
moon's place 


-0.29 
0.29 
0.29 
0.29 
0.29 
0.29 
0.29 
0,29 
0.87 
0.87 
1.25 
1.22 
1.22 

0.70 
0.70 
0.39 
0.33 
0.82 
0.60 

0.23 
0.34 
0.69 
0.70 
-0.62 


Resulting lon- 
gitude. 


h. m. s. 
4 42 40.32 
22.58 
44.34 
32.21 
37.66 
45.32 
33.58 
20.86 
38.46 
23.15 
31.32 
36.55 
39.52 

32.86 
34.38 
34.28 
28.96 
28.49 
38.26 

25.08 
40.67 
32.64 
38.32 
4 42 40.05 


Longitude from occultations 


4h. 42ra. 34s. 16 


Probable error . 


. +0S.922 


Making each result from occultation equivalent to two from moon culminations, and then 
combining the partial determinations by the two methods with weights proportioned to their 
respective numbers^ we have for the adopted longitude of Santiago west of G-reenwich 

4h 42-^ 33S.81. 


DOFEEENTIAL OBSERVATIONS. 

MODE OF OBJSERVINa. 

A siderial chronometer was used in the differential observations. It was compared with the 
clock immediately before or after the series, though more frequently after the series for the 
evening was completed. 

When the lamps were lighted, and the amount of illumination properly diminished, the 
telescope was directed approximately to the place of the planet, its declination circle clamped, 
and the relative place of the proper comparing star ascertained by inspection of the map and 
ephemeris. The instrument was then moved by the slow motion screws so that each object 
should pass equidistant from the centre of the field. Moving the micrometer screw so that its 
wire would nearly coincide with the object first in right ascension, the telescope was then turned 
to the west by the tangent screw to the hour circle until the first object to be observed was just 
without the field. It remained immoveable in this position until the transits and difference of 
declination of the two had been recorded, after which^ it was again thrown to the west, and so 


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INTRODUCTION TO THE 


continuedly until the work for the night terminated. Except in cases where the two objects 
were so near in right ascension, or the space through which it was necessary to turn the 
screw was so great that one reading was, of necessity, after the second object had passed that 
wire, the difference of declination was measured by two independent readings of the micro- 
meter when bisecting the star or tangent to the limb of the planet at transit over the middle 
wire. The observation was always perfected by turning the micrometer in the order of the 
number on its divided head and which was against the spring within the box. On one or, 
perhaps, two occasions this space was so great and the difference of right ascension so little, that 
it was indispensable to use both the slow motion screw of the declination circle and the 
micrometer. As would be inferred, these observations are not at all satisfactory. 

To eliminate errors of irradiation and assumed semi-diameters, on all possible occasions the 
consecutive observations were of opposite limbs of the planet. 

EXPLANATION OF THE PRINTED OBSERVATIONS. 

Ohservations with the equatorial. 

The printed observations, pages 2—305, require very little explanation. 

The first column of each page contains the numbers for reference, with occasional ittilic 
letters, a, 6, c, &g., indicating a note in the remarks accompanying each night's observations. 

The second column contains the name of the planet, and the catalogue from which the com- 
paring star has been selected. N.P ; N.F ; S.P ; S.F, designate the limbs of the former ; 
Eumker, 1673, refers to his ^^Mittlere Oerter von 12.000 Fix-Sternen ;'' Bessel, 405, refers to 
the 405th zone of Bessel ; H.O. to the '' Histoire Celeste'' of Lalande ; and W. C, to unpub- 
lished observations of the Washington Catalogue. 

The five following columns contain the seconds of observation over the five wires of the equa- 
torial, and the eighth column, the mean of these times. Broken observations have been reduced 
by means of the following equatorial intervals multiplied by the Secant of the declination of the 
object. The intervals were deduced from 100 transits of comparison stars. 

Equatorial intervals. 



From December 

10, 1849, to 
January 31, 1850. 

From October 

19,] 850, to 
Feb'rylO, 1851. 

From December 

16, 1851, to 
January 1, 1852. 

From January 

1 to September 

13, 1852. 

A. 

s. 
4-23.690 
4-11.801 
— 0.025 
-12.013 
-23.429 

s. 
4-23.687 
4-11.829 
— 0.002 
—11,818 
—23.743 

4-23.705 
4-11.797 
— 0.098 
—11.756 
-23.553 

4-23.552 
4-11.778 
— 0.022 
—11.756 
-23.553 

B. 

C .... 

D 

E ....... 



Column 9 contains the distance of the limb of the planet or star from the stationary horizontal 
wire expressed in revolutions of the micrometer head. In both series of observations on Mars, 
and in the first Yenus series + signifies that the moveable wire is to the north of the stationary 
wire and vice versa. Prior to the second Venus series the micrometer was turned 180^^, so that 
throughout these observations the symbols have the opposite signification. 

Column 10 contains the difference of right ascension between the planet's observed limb and the 
star, at transit of the former over the imaginary central wire of the system. 

Column 11 contains their difference of declination expressed in revolutions of the micrometer, 
+ signifying that the planet is to the north of the star, and vice versa. 

Columns 12 13 and 14 contain the barometer and thermometer readings usually noted at 
the commencement and close of the observations. 

Remarks respecting the condition of the atmosphere or other influence likely to affect the 


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SANTIAGO OBSERVATIONS. liii 

work follow each night's observations, and then the results derivable prior to a final discussion 
of the series. These latter embrace the means of all the observations of each limb of the planet 
combined in groups according to the periods of time through which they extend ; the chrono- 
meter corrections and true siderial times of observation at Santiago, and, finally, the diameters 
deduced from the transits and micrometrical measures. In the latter, the variation of the 

1 ,, c Declination, ) 
pianet s ; ^-^^ ascension \ ^^^^^S' ^'^'^^ interval between the means of the times of observation 

of the two limbs has been computed from the '' variation of \ ^^^^^^ ascension, ) ^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^_ 

( Declination, ) 

of longitude'' given in the Nautical Almanac. 

Finally, to facilitate comparison with corresponding observations at other stations, the differ- 
ential refraction {Ap) for each of the means of the times has been computed from the formuli^ in 
Vol. I, Bessers Untersuchungen. 

' Sin^ (N + ^;) 

Tan N i= Cos t^ cot <p ^ — Latitude, 

Sin M 1= Sin r, cos P t^ = Hour angle, 

Cos Z = Cos M sin (N+^J ^^ — Declination, 

Z = Zenith distance ; 
and to this end, special tables applicable to each series were calculated, in which the intervals 
of the arguments r^ and J'^ were respectively 10"' and 10^ 

All the observations were made by myself, except those duly credited to Lieutenant MacKae, 
between the 12th and 17th of December, 1849. The most usual magnifying power was 150. 

The transcripts and reduction of the Mars series, 1849-'50, and from February 28 to the 
close of the series, in 1852, have been made by Lieutenant T. H. Patterson, U. S. N., from the 
commencement to February 27, 1852, of the same planet, by Lieutenant Francis Winslow, U. 
8. N. All the observations of Venus have been prepared for publication by Assistant Daniel G. 
Major. The computations of Messrs Patterson and Winslow have been revised by Lieutenant 
E, N. Stembel, U. S. N., and Assistant Major, and, to insure greater accuracy in this publica- 
tion, the proof sheets have been compared with the original observations. 

THE MERIDIAN CIRCLE AND ITS ADJUSTMENTS. 

The observations at length, and a detailed description of the instrument with which they were 
made, are given in Vol. IV. In pages 309-332 of the present volume there will be found only the 
means of the times of transit over the wires, and the means of the microscope readings, together 
with the corrections which have been applied for reduction of the observations to apparent right 
ascensions and declinations. 

The instrument consists of two minutely divided circles reading to half seconds of arc by four 
micrometer microscopes supported by horizontal bearers enclosed in wood, and a telescope of 
51 lines aperture, 73 inches focal length, and transverse axis 39 inches between the bearing 
surfaces of its steel pivots. 

The eye end of the telescope contains one horizontal and seven vertical stationary wires, and 
two micrometer systems. One screw moves a single vertical wire, the other, seven horizontal 
wires. A revolution of the latter screw equals 27'^93. The intervals of the systems (vertical and 
horizontal) rather exceeds four minutes of arc, and the eye-piece may be moved in its dove- 
tailed slides by racks and pinions until perpendicular to any desired wire. In addition to the 
usual suite of magnifying lenses, a coUimating eye-piece accompanied the telescope. 

For horizontal adjustment of the axis, there is a hanging level, whose glass tube, enclosed 
within a cylinder of brass covered with cloth, is read through a glazed aperture in the upper 
portion of the cylinder. One division of the tube equals I'M; the level hung within the 
bearing points of the pivots. 


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llV INTRODUCTION TO THE 

The whole instrument was constructed in the most substantial yet highly finished manner by 
Messrs. Pistor & Martins, at Berlin, and is mounted on massive piers of red porphyry, based 
on the native rock. 

Usually, all the adjustments were carefully examined both before and after each series of 
observations. That for horizontolity of the axis, by not less than six readings in reversed 
positions of the level ; \h.Q nadir point , hj reflection of the stationary horizontal wdre from a 
basin of mercury ; the line of collimaiion, from the ascertained level error and distance between 
4he central vertical w^ire and its image, as seen from the surface of mercury, and measured with 
a micrometer screw ; and the azimuth, from the transits of fundamental stars of the Nautical 
Almanac. The same pairs of stars in each series were observed quite uniformly through the 
pre-appointed period. 

Explanation of the printed observations. 

Column 1 contains the number and letter for reference to the foot notes. 

Column 2 contains the year and day. 

Column 3 contains the name of the object observed. The names of the catalogues from which 
the stars in this column have been selected are already given. 

Column 4 contains the means of the transits over the several vertical wires The reduction 
of broken observations to mean of wires has been performed by means of the equatorial 
intervals adopted for the specific period given in the introduction to Volume IV. 

Column 5 contains the instrumental corrections. These are the algebraic sums of the several 
corrections for collimation, level, and azimuth, which will be found under the corresponding 
date in Volume IV. 

Column 6 contains the clock error, derived from fundamental stars of the Nautical Almanac, 
brought forward to the date of observation by rates deduced from errors on the previous and 
subsequent nights. 

Column 7 contains the apparent right ascension of the limb of the planet and star as observed 
at transit over the meridian of Santiago. The azimuth error has been deduced from the appa- 
rent places of the observed stars given in the Nautical Almanac. But as the limited comparison 
which it has been possible to institute conclusively satisfies me that many, if not all, of the 
southern circumpolar star places must be corrected before the true instrumental errors will be 
positively known, the right ascensions now given will, therefore, most probably differ from 
those of the same objects that will be found in Volume IV. 

Column 8 contains the mean of the four readings of the circle microscopes. When the object 
was observed with a micrometer wire, the fact is stated in a foot note, and its distance from the 
stationary wire or parallel of reference is given in revolutions of the micrometer head. In all 
such cases the equivalent arc interval has been applied with the proper sign. 

Column 9 contains the refraction. This has been computed from the constants given in 
tables published as an appendix to the volume of Washington observations before mentioned. 

Column 10 contains the nadir correction adopted for the special series from determinations 
immediately preceding or following the observations. 

Column 11 contains the semi-diameter of the planet as given in the Nautical Almanac. 

Column 12 contains the observed apparent declination of the centre of the object at transit 
over the meridian of Santiago. In the Mars series, when the difference of right ascension 
between the planet and comparing star was too small to permit the circle micrometers to be 
read in the interval of their transits, then the circle was clamped before the preceding object 
came into the field, and the slow motion screw was turned until the stationary horizontal wire 
accurately bisected the star, or was tangent to the planet's limb at the middle vertical wire, if 
the latter preceded. When the second of the two objects entered, the micrometer screw carrying 
the horizontal system was turned until the nearest wire bisected or was tangent to its limb in 


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^SANTIAGO OBSERVATIONS. 


1v 


the centre of the field, and the corresponding reading was appropriately entered . The circle 
was read after the transits of both objects had been recorded. In these cases, therefore, the 
declinations are relative, and any accidental error in the circle reading is common to both 
objects. There were no such differential measures of declination with the meridian circle 
between the planet Venus and neighboring stars, nor was the circle permanently mounted 
until after the termination of the first Mars series. When it was ready for use, the pre-selected 
stars of that series were too near the sun for observation, and afterwards the zone work monopo- 
lized It at the hours when they passed the meridian. Subsequently, Lieutenant Maury, Super- 
intendent of the Washington Observatory, has, at my request, caused them to be observed, 
together with the stars with which Yenus was compared near the two inferior conjunctions, and 
their mean places are given in the subjoined tables. After the termination of the second series 
of differentials with Mars, several additional meridian observations of each comparing star were 
made for the purpose of rendering them available in cases where no corresponding measures 
with the equatorial were obtainable. 

Stars with ivUch Mars loas compared in 1849-'50. 


?96 

Bessel 405 

Bessel 523 

Bessel 405 

Bessel 405* 

Bessel 405 

Bessel 405 

Rumker 1573 

Rumker leso 


No. of ob- 
servations. 


Mean right as- | No. ofob- Mean declina- 
cension, 1860-0. ; servations. | tion, 1860-0. 


h. m. s. 
5 3 41.760 
5 11 6.488 
5 18 25.176 
5 22 20.421 
5 26 13 
5 30 13.971 
5 46 56.049 
5 54 44.989 
5 55 8.80 


12 
10 
10 
10 

11 
10 
10 
11 


4-26 17 8.85 
6 31.87 

27 30.31 

28 20.19 
32 

31 57.10 

27 0.64 

16 36.01 

-}-26 21 6.10 


Stars ivith which Venus ivas compared, 1850-'51. 


star. 


H. C. . . . 

. . . 30556 

W. C. . . . 


W. 

w. C. . . . . 

W. C 

vv. c 

w. c 

B.A.C. . . 

. . . 5839 

W. C. . . . 


H. C. . . . 

. . . 31784 

H. C. . . . 

. . . 31791 

H. C. . . . 

. . . 31931 

Lacaille . . 

. . . 7371 

Taylor . . . 

. . . 8219 

W. C. . . . 


B. A. C. . . 

. . . 6063 

W. C. . . . 


W. C. . . . 

W. C. . . . 


W. C. . . , 


W. C. . . . 


W. C. . . . 

B. A. C. . . 

. . . 6214 

B. A. C. . . 

. . . 6261 

Taylor . . . 

. . . 8533 


No. of ob- 
servat'ns. 


Approximate 

right as- 
cension, 1 856. 


16 41 19 

. 16 43 21 

16 52 24 

16 55 6 

17 9 
17 7 32 
17 11 7 
17 11 34 
17 13 16 
17 21 20 
17 21 37 
17 25 38 
17 29 10 
]7 39 5 
17 44 18 
17 47 40 
17 52 50 
17 53 53 
17 56 20 

17 59 26 

18 7 4 
18 7 24 
18 12 19 
18 18 47 
18 24 1 


No. of Ob- 
servat'ns. 


2 
2 
3 
3 
2 
2 
1 
1 
3 
2 
3 
2 
3 
3 
3 
2 
1 
2 
1 


Mean declination. 
1860-0. 


—26 29 36.69 

26 40 38.89 

27 2 18.19 
27 39.47 
27 12 40.41 
27 23 56.22 
27 37 22.27 
17 36 21.18 
27 51 35.17 
17 41 21.75 
17 41 44.46 

17 44 0.18 

27 57 25.89 

18 3 0.32 

28 1 10.11 
28 2 17.88 
27 52 5.62 
27 49 17.15 
27 50 14.01 
27 39 27.43 

25 45 10.44 
27 27 13.71 

26 8 33.24 
26 42 46.12 

—19 4 6.26 


* Not found, though repeatedly sought. 


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ivi 


INTRODUCTION TO THE 


Stars ivith luhich Mars was compared in 1851-'52. 


Star. 

Mo. of ob- 
servat'ns. 

Approximate 

right as- 
cension, 1856. 

No. of ob- 
servat'ns. 

Mean declination, 
1860-0. 



h. ■m. s. 


o / // 

H. C 16237 


8 10 35 

2 

+24 36 28.64 

W. C. ....... . 



8 13 25 

2 

24 27 55.72 

Bessel 344 



8 16 23 

o 

24 23 35.60 

H. C 16464 



8 16 51 

1 

24 2.08 

Bessel 344 



8 28 29 

1 

23 44 0.00 

w C 



8 30 28 
8 35 22 

1 

2 

23 22 44,75 
23 12 51.51 

Bessel 344 

w. C. 



8 34 57 
8 40 33 

2 

2 

23 1 37.42 
22 45 34.27 

Bessel 344 

Bessel 278 



8 44 15 

2 

22 54 45.86 

Bessel 278 



8 46 13 

2 

22 20 59.44 

1 Bessel 278 



8 47 41 

1 

22 13 29.11 

! Bessel 278 



8 50 40 

1 

21 42 25.27 

! Bessel 278 



8 52 28 

1 

22 39.67 

I Bessel 278 



8 54 2 

2 

21 32 18.63 

Bessel 275 



8 58 31 

2 

21 4 30.94 

Bessel 275 



8 58 53 

2 

21 9 27.90 

i Bessel 278 



8 59 42 

2 

21 27 30.30 

1 Bessel 275 



9 4 42 

1 

20 35 43.67 

Bessel 275 



9 4 43 

1 

20 37 15.35 

W. 



9 8 25 
9 10 36 
9 12 32 

1 
2 
1 

20 13 37.41 

20 27.29 

+19 40 52.63 

w c 

B.A. C 3181 

The right ascensions were observed by Professor Alexander Lawrence, U. S. N., 

with the west transit instrument, and the declinations by Professor 

M. Yarnall, U. S. 

N., with the mural circle. 



Column 13 contains the initials of the observers names : G — Grilliss ; M— MacEae ; P — 
Phelps. 

The transcripts and reductions were made by Lieut. E. N. Stembel, U. S. N., by whom, 
also, the proof sheets were collated with the original records. 

Horizontal and vertical diameters deduced from the observations and compared ivitli the Nautical 

Almanac tables^ pages 333-341. 

The horizontal diameter of Mars, from observations with the equatorial, is found by obtaining 
the mean interval between the transit of each of the limbs and the comparing star for the night, 
together with the mean of the times of transit of the limbs, and applying to the arc equivalent 
of the difference of the former the variation of the planet in right ascension during the period 
embraced by the latter. As the observations were made only near the opposition of Mars, no 
correction has been applied for defective illumination of either limb. 

In the same manner the vertical diameters are deduced by comparison of the differential 
declinations of the planet's limbs and star, increased or diminished by the variation of declina- 
tion in the interval between the means of the times at which the measures were made. To the 
result, a further correction is applied for thickness of the micrometer wire. 

The mean apparent error of the Nautical Almanac, resulting from a comparison of each night's 
observation with its tabulated diameters, is : 


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SANTIAGO OBSERVATIONS. 


Ivii 



Planet Mars. 




No. of ob- 
servations. 

Horizontal 
diameter. 

No. of ob- 
servations. 

Vertical 
diameter. 

Series 1849-'50 ........ 

Series 1851-'52 ....... 

Mean 

54 

77 

II 
-2.349 
—1.504 

55 

81 

II 
—2.862 
-0.379 

131 

—1.926 

J 36 

—1.620 


m^^Sn^llSZ^'Zr ^'*^^^'^'^ '^ *^-^ -^''^-^ fi-t, as were those of 

rn/fV f t ^1 ' ''°'^' ^^ ^''^'* measurement with the micrometer screw of the equatorial • 

:T''^^jZ^cTr'''j:^''' "^-r -'-''' -^^^^* ^^-^^^ thefieMt;trttTi: 

Sthe naeridian SJ^^ T'' ^^^ J^^, ^r*^"^! g-^^ally used was 150, sometimes 235 ; that 
ot tne meridian circle more frequently 144, though occasionally no more than 79 No correction 

t^r?"ltt: o^tT""""?*^ "^*y'; '''''' instrument" for thickness of the Jcre'er 
wire. A mean of the separate results from the seyeral methods is as follows : 




Planet Venus, 





No. of ob- 
servations. 

Meridian circle. 

No. of ob- 
servations. 

Equatorial direct 
measure. 

No. of ob- 
servations. 

Equatorial in- 
ferred. 

Series of 1850-'51 

Series of 1852 

Mean of 

35 
45 

// 
—1.174 
—1.505 

10 

8 

II 
—0.965 
—2.055 

4 
26 

II 
—1.268 
—1.383 

80 

—1.340 

18 

—1.510 

30 

—1.325 









The corresponding ohservations made at other observatories, and communicated in accordance 
with the solicitation contained in the ephemeris referred to ijLes xxviii Jwl ^'''^;^^^^°^e 
printed at length in subsequent pages ' ^^ ' ^^"^' ^^""^ ^^'"^ ^^'^ 


Believing that a discussion of the solar parallax from observations thus made by on. 

Se r'eS ' T/f "^ '"' "^'^ uncommitted respecting the comparative va"e of tl; deduct 
ble result, would be appreciated and approved bvastronomprc T>. -r a n ^^« "i ^ne aeauci- 

prepared for the prmter, were placed m hi, hands during the month of lune, ISsT' 
WASHiNaTONj January 1, 1856. '^- ^- ^i-. 


one 


as 


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THE SOLAR PARALLAX 


FEOM OBSERVATIONS OF THE U. S. N. ASTRONOMICAL EXPEDITION, 


UNDER LIEUTENANT J. M. GILLIS8, 


B. A. GOULD, Jk. 


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THE SOLAR PARALLAX. 


§1. INTRODUCTORY AND HISTORICAL. 

The motives which prompted the observations forming the basis of this discussion have been 
so luUy developed hjthe astronomer under whose direction the expedition was conducted, and 
the method of myestigation contemplated has been so thoroughly explained, that no farther 
consideration ot these subjects seems required or appropriate. 

Themeasure of the sun's distance has been well called by the Astronomer Eoyal of England 
the noblest problem in astronomy. This distance, known or unknown, is, and must ever be 
the standard length in which every linear measure of a celestial object beyond the moon is 
directly or indirectly expressed; whether it be the distance of a satellite, a comet, or a fixed 
star ; the dimensions of a planet, or the gauge of a nebula. It is the astronomical unit • and 
every stellar distance is only known as a proportional one, until this unit is established It is 
therefore, manifestly the duty of astronomers to flinch from no labor which gives a remote 
prospect of increasing the precision of our measurement of this fundamental quantity The 
rnaterials now presented for the discussion are the fruit of a national expedition, instituted at 
the advice, and with the approval, of the nation's ablest astronomers. To their attainment 
hree years were dedicated by the zeal of the leader in the enterprise and his unwearied assistants, 
i^t TIJ ?/ '' \^' ^^^' contributed. No pains ought to be spared in deducing 
.rom them al that they can be made to yield in furtherance of the end for which they were 
designed. This consideration has been kept steadily in view, and is a sufficient reply to any 
criticism which may attribute over-refinement to the numerical computations, or too great 
minuteness to the combinations of the materials under discussion. 

When Keppler, after extended study of Tycho's observations, arrived not later than 1620 at 
the conviction* that the solar parallax could not exceed V, he attributed to the sun a distance 
more than three times greater than philosophers had previously supposedf, although his own 
limit was but one-seventh part as remote as we now know that it should have been He had 
in 1609 m his bookf on the motion o{ Mars, called it difficult to fix the distance more exactly 

vTJ Z'T,lf,^''i^.'T ^r^'^^i^^'*'"' ^^ *^' '^'^^> (corresponding to a parallax between 
. t Toof '^^""^ ""' I'' Ephemerides§ for 1617 and 1618, he had supposed the parallax 
to be 2 29 ', according to Tycho Brahe, who deduced it from observations of the moon || Peter 
Cruger, Keppler's intimate friend, upbraided him for removing the sun "to such a huge dis- 
tance, 1 which would destroy the value of all Tycho's tables, after he had himself adopted 
; J^ .r'"'''..^ ^? *^^ Bphemeris a few years before ; but Keppler replied*'^ that he had 
studied the subject with care, and did not hesitate to reduce Tycho's parallax by 1' 40", or two- 

"'•' Epitome Astronomice CbpernkancB^ pp. 478-480, 486-490. 

^'^-imojii, Almage&tum Novum, I., 107. Tycho Brahe, Progymn., pp 97 415 463 

%DeMotihusStell(BMartis,^.n. ^ ^f , , • 

§^icciom,Almag. Nov. I, 108. Hansch, EpistolcB ad J. Kepplerum, p. 473. 

||Gassendi, Tychonis Vita, p. 102. 

11 Ibid. pp. 473-4. Cruger to Keppler, 1624, July 15. 

^--Letter to Pete Cruger, 1624, September 9. Hansch Epist. p. 455. 


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Ixii 


INTRODUCTOEY AND HISTOEICAL. 


thirds of its whole amount. His estimated distance of the sun was 3,592 earth's semi-diameters,* 
but, for the roundness of the number, he adopted 3,600, corresponding to a parallax of 49'^ 

Godefridus Wendelinus, (G-odfrey Wendelin,) a Belgian astronomer, deduced, in 1647, from 
morning and evening observations of the moon,t the value of the solar parallax as 15^' at the 
outside, or the distance at least 13,740 terrestrial semi-diameters, and fixed 14,656 of these 
semi-diameters as the most probable value. Eicciolus, rejecting this comparatively small value, 
arrived at the conclusion, { in 1665, that a value between 28^' and 30'' could deviate only by 
very few seconds from the truth. 

Eicciolus gives an interesting list of the successively adopted values, § a tabular view of 
which is as follows, the references having been verified or corrected in all cases where I have 
access to the originals, which has been generally the case, and in some instances made more 
complete. 

Distance of the sun from the centre of the earthy expressed in terrestrial semi-diameters. 


Authority. 


Mean 
distance. 


Authority. 


From Hipparchus' data 

or 

Posidonius, (apogee) 

Ptolemy and Maurolycus 

ClaviuSj Barocius 

Albategnius and Alphonso 

Lansberg, from data of Albategnius, (apogee) 
Alfraganus ...... , . . . . 

Jno. Fernelius 

Copernicus, Maginus 

Lansberg, from data of Copernicus, (apogee) 

Michael Neander 

Meestlinus 

Jno. Offusius 

Tycho and Blancanus 

Longomontanus 

Keppler, [3] in Ephemerides 

Stella Martis 

Stella Nova 

Epit. Astron., (apogee) . . 

Tab. Rudolphin .... 
Lansbergius, (min. eccentricity) .... 

Ism. Bullialdus 

Athanasius Kircherus 

Anton. Maria de Rheita 

Wendelinus 

Galileo 

Marius Bettinus , 

Langrenus 

Eicciolus , 

Eicciolus, (in round numbers) 


1472 
1379 
13141 
1168 
1168 
1107 
7936 
1215 
1256 
1142 

942 
1160 
1160 
1152 
1150 

1288 
1768 
1768 
1432 
3469 
3381 
1499 
1460 
1906 
2000 
14656 
1208 
1145 
3420 
7327 
7300 


Plinus, Lib. XL, cap XXII. Ed. Siilig [., 130 [1.] 

Almagest, Lib. JIL, c. iv. ; V., c. XV. ; Maur. Cosm. 

Clavius, Comm. in Spha3r., p. 215; Barocius Cosmogr. I. 48. 

Albategn, capp. XXVIII. XXX. L. ; Alph. Tabb. 

MS. letters to Eicciolus. 

Alfragani Eud. Astron. ; Different. XXI. 

Cosmotheoria, Lib. I., cap. 7. 

Cop. de Eev. IV., capp. 19, 21 ; Magin. Nov. Gael. Orb. Theor. I., 
cap. 3, II. cap. 24. 

apud Eicciolum. 

Sphoera Mundi, p. 124. 

Appendix ad Keppleri Myst. Cosm., p. 168. 

De Divina Astrorum Facaltate. 

Tycho, Progymn, (Ed. 1648,) pp. 5, 101, 275, 296, etc. Blancanus, 
Sphasra Mundi, Lib. X., cap. 1. 

Astr. Danica, p. ii., pp. 171, 231, 241, 298. 

p. 2. 

Chapter XXX., p. 162. 

Cap. XVI. 

Lib. IV., 485, 490. 

Prajcept. 141, p. 98. Tabb., p. 92. 

Proleg. Uranometria3 ; Lib. II., Elem, 11. 

Astron. Philolaica, Lib. IV., cap. i. 

Ars Magna Lucis et Umbrae, Lib IX., Probl. 9. 

Eadius Sidereomysticus, p. 20, Lib. iv. 

Idea Tabb. Atlant., in Eclips. Lun. ; MS. letters to Eicciolus. 

Dialog. III., de Syst. Mundi ; Syst. Cosm., p. 266. 

Apiaria Univ. Phil. Math. ; Apiar. X. 

MS. cited by Eicciolus. 

C Almag. Novum I., 731. 


[IJ See Lalande's TraiU d' ^stronomie II. 402, 3. [2] Sua hinc sumpsit Censorinm de die natali 13. Siilig. Plinius I, 129. 

[3] EicciOLi, Lib. Ill, Schol. II, p. 111. 

The next attempts at determining the parallax were those of Cassini and Richer. The latter 
astronomer was sent by the French Academy to South America for purposes similar to those 
which prompted in our days this present expedition of Lieutenant Gilliss. His observations 
were published|| in 1679, after his return, and his declinations of Mars were compared by 

^'Ibid., p. 456. 

f KicciOLi Almagestum Novum, I, 109, 731. Weidler EisU Astr, p. 457. See also his letter Gassendi Op.omn. VI, 464. 
JKicciOLi Aim. Nov., I, 110, 731, 734. 

§Cf. Plutaech depladiis Philosopharum lib. II, cap. 31. Aristarchus Propos. 7. 

II Observations astronomiques et physiques faites en V Isle de Cayenne, par M. Kicher, Paris, 1679. Also Mhi. de V Acad, Roy. d«s 
Sciences, VII, PL l,p. 233, 


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INTRODUCTORY AND HISTORICAL. Ixiii 

Cassini,* with the contemporaneous observationsf of himself, Picard, and Eoemer, at Paris and 
Prion, in order to deduce a better value for the parallax. The planet had been compared, both 
at Cayenne and Paris, with -^ Aquarii, but Cassini did not succeed in obtaining any good value, 
farther than deducing an upper limit of 9^^ if the observations were to be trusted. In 1681,, 
however,J Cassini published a memoir revising his computation from the materials and from 
correspondent observations, 1672, September 5, 9, and 24, deduced as the equatorial horizontal 
parallax of Mars, 25 J^' =h 3^', corresponding to a solar parallax of 9^^5 zb F, or a distance from 
the earth of 21,600 terrestrial semi-diameters,§ and with a possible error of 2,000 or 3,000 semi- 
diameters. From these values he inferred the true diameter of the sun to be just one hundred 
times that of the earth. 

About the same period, Cassini, with Eoemer and Sedileau, tried|| the method of parallaxes 
in right-ascension, proposed by Cassini himself, and employed by him to ascertain the distance 
of the comet of 1680. He proposed, from a comparison of the observed right-ascensions of the 
celestial body on opposite sides of the meridian, to deduce the amount of its geocentric parallax; 
but this attempt, though laboriously carried out, was entirely unproductive of satisfactory 
results. Observations were made at the same time by La Hire,Tf but without convincing him 
that the parallax was sensible, as Lalande infers,** from the fact that La Hire, in his well 
known tables,tt published in 1687 and 1702, never employed a larger value than 6'^ 

Flamsteed, who had been, during the same period, observing in England, fixed the upper 
imit of the parallax of Mars firstJJ at 30'^ and then§§ at 25^^ so that the solar parallax could 
not exceed 10^^, or 21,000 terrestrial semi-diameters. 

The transit of Mercury, 1677, October 28, was observed at St. Helena by Halley, who ob, 
tainedllli 45^^ as the resultant parallax, but attributed but little weight to the determination- 
preferring a value between 10^^ and 20^^ The arguments of Streete in favorTft of a value 15^' 
are cited by Halley with apparent approval, and are very curious. In this connexion, Halley 
again urged the great advantage of the transits of Venus for the determination of this important 
quantity,*** as he had already doneftt in 1691. 

La Caille^s astronomical expedition to the Cape of Good Hope took place in 1740. Animated 
by the encouraging example of Eicher, he founded an astronomical shrine in the southern 
hemisphere, which has since been rendered even more illustrious by the labors of such men as 
Henderson, Herschel, Fallows, and Maclear, offering an example well deemed worthy of imita- 
tion by our younger land. 

La Caille made a large number of observations of the declination of Mars at opposition ; and 
from a comparison of these with corresponding measurements in the northern hemisphere, 
extending through about six weeks, deduced the value of the solar parallax as 10^'. 2. 

^ In the succeeding year, 1741, he repeated the investigation, and with a result not essentially 
different. The mean of four correspondent observations of Venus at her inferior conjunction in 
1751 was similarly computed by La Caille, giving 10^^38 as the mean value, and, from the 
whole seriesJJJ of investigations, he arrived at the conclusion that the horizontal equatorial 

^^ Recueild' Observations faUs en plusieurs voyages, Sfc, Paris, 1693. Rec. de Mem. deV Acad. VII, P. 1, pp. 353-5. 
t Mem. de V Acad. Roy. des Sciences, VII, P. pp. 331, 351. 
X Mem. de V Acad. Roy. des Sciences, VIII, p. 55. 

§ 3Iemoires de V Acad. Roy. des Sciences, VII, p. 115. || Ibid., pp. 105-7. 

IT Il^id., p. 111. CH- Lalande, Astron. II, p. 413. 

ff La Hire, Tabulcd Astronomicoi, p. 6 
%% PMl. Trans. 1672, No. 89, pp. 5118. 

§§ Phil. Trans. 1673, No. 96, p. 6100, (erroneously printed 6000.) 

nil PMl. Trans., No. 193, p. 511. I have not access to Halley's Southern Catalogue of Stars, in which are given his 
observations of the transit of Mercury. 

^^ See Lalande's Astronomic, § 1729, II., 409 ; Astron. Carolina, ed. 1661, p. 12 ; ed 1710 p 34 

^^^ Phil. Trans., 1716, p. 454. 

ttt Piiil. Trans. 1673, No. 93, p. 519. 

XtX Mem. deVAcad. des Sciences, 1748, 601 ; 1751, 310 ; 1760, 73. See also Cassini de Thury, 1760, 292. 


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Ixiv 


INTRODUCTORY AND HISTORICAL. 


parallax of tlie sun may be assumed as lOJ^' without danger of an error exceeding 0/^25, thus 
attaining* a most remarkable accordance with the results at which Cassini and Flamsteed had 
arrived in the previous century. 

About 1760, Tobias Mayer struck out a new path, and deduced a value for the solar parallax 
by means of the lunar theory. One of the equations for the perturbation in longitude depends 
on the simple angle between sun and moon, and the coefHcient had been, up to that time, 
determined by the employment of 10'^ 8, as the amount of the soLar parallax, which forms one 
factor. Mayer, however, comparingf theory with observations, deduced empirically a new 
value for the coefficient, whence he obtained 7^'. 8, which determination he esteemed subject to 
an error of one twenty-fourth part, at the outside, since the co-efficient 1' 55'', upon which it 
depended, could not be in error by more than 5''. J 

The transits of Venus, in 1761 and 1769, had long been awaited by astronomers with intense 
interest, and were regarded throughout the world as the best means available for accurate 
determination of the dimensions of the orbit of the earth, and of the value in terrestrial measures 
of the unit in which celestial measures are necessarily expressed. A concise narration of the 
efforts made to procure accurate data, and of the materials collected, may be found in the mas- 
terly and standard discussion of the problem by Encke.§ 

The English sent|| Maskelyne to St. Helena ; and Mason and Dixon, the same who subse- 
quently measured the arc of a parallel in America, were destined to Sumatra. Fortunately, 
they were so much delayed that, in their apprehension lest they might not arrive in season at 
their appointed station, they decided to observe at the Cape of Good Hope, a more desirable 
situation, as the event proved. The French Academy SQut the astronomer Pingre to the island 
Eodrigues, a little more than 300 miles from Mauritius, in the Indian ocean. Le Gentil was 
to have observed at Pondicherry, but the war deprived him of the means, inasmuch as the ship 
containing his instruments was captured by the British. Another French astronomer, Chappe 
was sent by the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences to Tobolsk, in Siberia, and a Kussian 
astronomer, Eumowski, to Selinghinsk, near Lake Baikal, on the Mongolian frontier. Besides 
these regularly organized expeditions, astronomers were everywhere on the alert. Not only 
throughout Europe, but at the missionary stations of southern and eastern Asia, observations 
of the ingress and egress of the planet were made with all the care and nicety which circum- 
stances permitted. The various results deduced, there is no need of fully recapitulating here.t 

They were far from harmonious, and led to much warm controversy, which, indeed^ almost 
assumed the form of a national dispute. Short obtained, by different methods, different results 
between 8'^47 and 8^^67, and adopted the value 8^\65 as final. In a second memoir he arrived 
at the values 8^^49 and 8'^63. Pingre found, on the other hand, lO^M; Eumowski, 8^^33; 
Hornsby, 9^^5 to 10^'; Audifredi, {''Dadeius Buffus/') 9^^^ To sum up, the transit of 1761 did 
not contribute much to our knowledge of the astronomical unit. 

The transit of 1769 promised better results for many reasons. The uncertainty of the values 
from the first transit stimulated to the greatest possible effort, which was also insured by the 
consciousness that more than a century must elapse before another similar opportunity would 
present itself; and beside all this, the transit itself was, upon the assumption that the most 
advantageous points for observation would be occupied, (as in fact they were,) still further more 
favorable than its immediate predecessor. Both ingress and egress were visible at numerous 

="' 3Iem. de VAcad. des Sciences, 1760, 93. 

f Theoria Liince, §50, p, 50. 

Jlbid., §51, p. 52 

§ Die Entfernung der Sonne von der E^de, aus dem Venusdurchgang vm 761, hergeldtet von J. F. Encke, Gotha, 1822. 

II ENeKE, Entf. d. Sonne, §5, pp. 11-32. 

^ See, among others, Short, PMl. Trans., 1762, p. 611 ; 1763, 300. Pingre, Mem. deVAead., 1761, pp. 413, 483 ; 1764, 
p. 339 ; 1765, p. 1. Hornsby, PMl. Trans., 1763, p. 467. Eumowski, Nova. Comm. Acad. Petrop. XT, Hist. p. 41, Mem. pp' 
483, 487, XII, 575. Planmann, Vmtmsk. Akad. Handl., 1763, 118; 1764, 144. Phil. Trans., 1768, 107. Audifredi, Investi- 
gatio Parallaxis Solans, Rome, 1765. Audifredi, de Solis Parallaxi, Rome, 1766. 


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INTRODUCTORY AND HISTORICAL. Ixv 

and widely remote points, which, was not the case in 1761. Finally, an eclipse of the sun 
followed close after the transit, affording an excellent opportunity for fixing the longitudes of 
the places of observation. 

No exertions were spared by the votaries or protectors of astronomy for obtaining numerous 
and accurate observations, and as Encke has said,* with as much truth as delicacy, '' whatever 
may be the future judgment as to the actual issue, posterity will never be able to reproach 
either the astronomers or the governments of that period with having neglected to call suflaciently 
careful attention to the more important points, or with having failed to further and support 
scientific efforts with suflacient readiness.'' No one will deny that the enlightened aid of 
national resources, and the generous enthusiasm of astronomers, were alike necessary for pro- 
viding those materials which, in the hands of the illustrious astronomer of Berlin, have furnished 
the definite value with which the world has been amply content for more than a quarter of a 
century, and which may not impossibly remain the standard for a quarter of a century to come. 

The observations and disquisitions called forth by this rare and now peculiarly important 
phenomenon are far too numerous for full citation. f The chief observations were collected by 
Lalande in a treatise, % from the abundant works in which they were made public, and these, 
with such as had been omitted there, are given in full detail in Encke's classic investigation§ of 
this transit. 

The value of the parallax found by different astronomers from this transit of Venus are con- 
fined within much narrower limits than those from the former. The smallest was Planmann's, 
8'^43; the largest Pingre's, 8^^81, and Euler's, 8^'.82 ; Hornsby found &^78, Lalande 8^\ 5 o' 
Lexell 8'^68, Smith 8''.605, Maskelyne 8'^'723. 

The observations were subjected by Ferrer, in 1808, to a discussion, from which he obtained 
the value 8^^615 ;1| and in 1815 to a very thorough investigation, posthumously publishedT[ in 
1832, and giving** 8^^577 ± 0^^3 as the result. 

Meantime, however, had appeared the two books of Encke, already quoted ; the first published 
in 1822, containing an ample scrutiny of the observations of the transit of 1761, June 6, and 
deducing the final value 8'\4905=t: 0^^607 ; and the second, published in 1824, giving a thorough 
criticism and discussion of the transit of 1769, June 3. In this latter he determines the amount 
of certain corrections, necessarily disregarded in the first treatise, and finally adopts the following 
results as final for the solar parallax. 

From the transit of 1761 8^^5309 zb 0^^0623. 

1769 8''.6030 ± 0^^0460. 

From the two together 8^^57*76 =h 0'^0370. 

Connected with the transit of 1769 are some circumstances which, from their historical 
importance, demand some allusion here. One of the most important points for the accuracy of 
the determination was the station at Fort Wardoehuus, on Wardoe, an island in the Arctic 
ocean, at the northeastern extremity of Norway. To this point the Danish government had sent 
a clergyman of Vienna, Father Hell, with two assistants, Sainovicz and Borgrewing. Numerous 
circumstances tended to throw suspicion on Hell's observations, which he had suppressed for 
nine entire months, regarding which he had repeatedly seemed to prevaricate, and which, when 

^ Venusdurchgang von 1769, § 1. 

t Sufficient are the foUowing memoirs : 

EiTTENHOusE, Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. I. p. 89. Smith, Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. I, p. 162. App. p. 54. 

Lalande, 3Iem. de VAcad. 1770, p. 9 ; 1771, p. 776. Hornsby, Phil. Trans. 1771, p. 674. 

PiNGRE, ilfcTTi. deVAcad. 1770, p, 558 ; 1772, p. 398. Lexell, VdensJcaps. Alcad. Handl. 1771, pp. 200, 301. 

Maskelyne, Phil. Trans. 1768, p. 55 ; 1769, p. 414. Euler, Phil. Trans. 1772, p. 69. 

Maskelyne, Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. I, p. 4. App. p. 1. Planmann, Vetenska;ps. Akad. Handl. 1772, pp. 183, 358. 
t Lalande, Memoire sur le Passage de Venus observe le 3 Juin, 1769, Paris ; 1772. 
§ Der Venusdurchgang von 1769, ^c, hearheitet von J. F. Enoke, Gotha ; 1824. 
||Proc. Am. Phil. Soc. VI, p. 355. ^Mem. E. Ast. Soc. V, p. 253. 

^^^!^Mem. K. Ast. Soc. V. pp. 254,282,295. 
K o 


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Ixvi mTRODUCTORY AND HISTORICAL, 

submitted to the test of rigorous computation in combination with the rest, exhibited gross dis- 
cordances. Many circumstances, of which an account will be found in Encke's second treatise? 
combined to place Father Hell in a very unfavorable light, and several astronomers, prominent 
among whom was Lalande, did not hesitate to accuse him of having fabricated or changed his 
observations. Neither do his demeanor at the time, nor his published observations of the 
eclipse on the next day, tend to diminish the suspicion f and the cool investigationf of the case 
by Encke, after the lapse of considerably more than half a century, leaves his observations and 
his character under a heavy cloud. The long delay prior to making public his results seemed 
best explicable by his desire to obtain as many other observations as possible, in order subse- 
quently to give the most plausible figures as his own. Unfortunately for himself, he committed 
an error in computation, J which, like that of his counterpart, the Chevalier d'Angos, sufficed, 
under the rigorous scrutiny of the master Encke, to secure the ultimate detection of the untruth. 
In the year 1834, ten years after the publication of Encke's second treatise. Prof. Littrow, of 
Vienna, learned§ that some of the papers of Father Hell were in. the possession of an Austrian 
gentleman, the Baron von Munch-Bellinghausen, into whose hands they had come after the 
death of his uncle, Baron von Penkler, who had been a zealous admirer and patron of Father 
Hell. In the hope of obtaining some clue to the celebrated Wardoehuus observations, Prof. 
Littrow asked permission to consult them, which was not only readily granted, but furnished 
occasion for the presentation of all HelVs MSS. to the Vienna observatory. 

Prof. 0. L. Littrow entered with care upon the investigation, and was rewarded by the dis- 
covery of Father Hell's astronomical note-book for the days June 2-4, 1769. Its contents, with 
other interesting documents, were soon printed, and appeared at the close of the year. They fully 
corroborate and justify previous suspicions. The chief figures, especially the times of entrance 
upon the solar disc, had been for the most part erased, and with a darker colored ink. Two 
other passages, the one relating to the observations of Sainovicz, the other to those of Borgre- 
wing, had been so thoroughly obliterated, that Prof. Littrow was only able to conjecture the 
three first letters of the one and the first and last letter of the other. From an investigation of 
such figures as remained legible and unaltered, he succeeded in finding one observation of the 
ingress by Borgrewing, and one of the egress by Hell, upon which reliance appears warrantable. |1 
The reasons given by Littrow, and unhesitatingly accepted by Encke,T[ are chiefly these. 
Although, in reply to Lalande, Father Hell had publicly offered to exhibit the original note- 
book, free from erasures, and giving the observations just as finally published by him, Littrow 
found both clear and undefaced documents containing the quantities as prepared for publication, 
and this note-book, which was as manifestly not designed for the press. It contains remarks, 
notes, and comments, in chronological order ; the hand-writing is unequal and frequently 
changing, observations never made public are here noted down, together with many jottings 
and memoranda which could not have been intended for the public. The important observations 
were chiefly obliterated, with great care and thoroughness, as were also sundry remarks con- 
cerning them. There can be no doubt that the evidence is sufficient to establish this note-book 
as being the identical one used at Wardoehuus, and that this establishment of identity 
discredits the published observations and the truthfulness of Father Hell, but provides few new 
figures upon which reliance may be placed. 

Encke submitted these new-found observations to careful scrutiny within a few months after 
their discovery. He foimd that had Father Hell not altered his observations of the eclipse, 
the times actually observed and originally recorded would harmonize, but that in his desire to 

* See SoHEiBEL, Anleitung zw Mathematische Bucherkmntniss ; Stuck 4. App. to the 1st preface to 2d edition. 

f Venusdurchgang von 1769, pp. 17-20, 24-27. 

%Abh. d. Berlin. Acad. 1835, p. 305. 

§ Schumacher, Ast. Nachr. XII, p. 71. 

\\ Pater Hell's Reise nach Waidoe imd seine Beohh. des Vemisdurchgangs in Jahre, 1769, von C. L. Littrow. Wien; 1835. 

IJ Ahh. der Berlin. Acad., 1835, p. 303. 


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INTRODUCTORY AND HISTORICAL. Ixvii 

publish better observations than he knew how to make, he had changed his record of the 
moment of commencement, after computing it by means of elements so erroneous that his published 
value was out by 40'. Eejecting all observations which had passed under the revision of Father 
Hell, except in those isolated instances in which the original notes were decipherable and intel- 
ligible, Encke redetermined the longitude of Wardoehuus and thus obtained the means of 
correcting the original equations of condition for the transit of 1769 and solved them anew. 

This revised computation gave as the value resulting from the transit of 1769, 

8^^5931 zh 0^^0460, 
being less by 0'^01 than the previous determination from the same transit. Combining this, 

before, with the value given by the transit of 1761, he found the mean value 

8^^57116 =h 0^^0370, 
thus decreasing the former value by the comparatively unimportant amount 0^^00644. 

This last result has, since 1835, furnished the standard value for the parallax of the sun and 
corresponding to a mean distance from the earth of 2,4061 terrestrial semidiameters or 82 719 316 
equatorial miles.* Assuming with Encke,t the Toise de Perou as 6 394 564 feet, or what is 
equivalent, 1 statute mile = 825 701 toises, Bessel's determination J of the earth's dimensions, 
according to which the length of a quadrant is 5 131 179.81 toises, and the major semi-axis 
3 272 077.14 toises, gives for the earth's mean distance from the sun in statute miles 

95 360 000 zb 412 000. 

In 1824, the same year in which Encke's discussion of the transit of 1769 appeared, Professor 
Burg, like Mayer before him, deduced§ a value of the parallax from the lunar theory, and 
urged the employment of this method as capable of affording better results than those which 
could be anticipated from any other method earlier than the Venus-tvsniBit of 1874. Burg's 
value, resulting, of course, from a lunar theory more refined than was attainable in the time of 
Mayer, was 8'^62z=: =i= 0^^035. Laplace too, in the same manner, obtained|| the solar parallax 
from this equation as 26.58 centesimal seconds or 8'^61, a result thoroughly accordant with 
Encke's determination, and adds, ^^11 est tres remarquable q'un astronome, sans sortir de son 
observatoire, en comparant seulement ses observations a Tanalyse^ eut pu determiner exactement 
la grandeur et Taplatissement de la terre, et sa distance au soleil et a la lune; elements dont 
la connaissance a ete le fruit de longs et penibles voyages dans les deux hemispheres. L'accord 
des resultats obtenus par ces deux methodes est une des preuves les plus frappantes de la 
gravitation universelle. ' ' 

A .oouple of years previous to the discovery of Father Hell's forgeries, Henderson, at the Cape 
of Good Hope, had made a series of observations^ of declinations of Mars, during the opposition 
of 1832, which he compared with simultaneous observations at Greenwich, (two instruments, 
the mural circle by Troughton^ and that by Jones,) Cambridge, and Altona. The several 
resultant values^* were 9^^076, 9^^343, 8'^588, and 9^^028, and the final mean by weightsff gave 
him 9^^028. All these values are larger than either of Encke's adopted ones, and their great 
discordance precludes reliance upon any of them. 

The method proposed by Professor Gerling for obtaining a still closer approximation to the 
actual value of the solar equatorial parallax has been already developed, with full statements of 
its relative advantages, both by the astronomer who suggested itJJ and by the one under whose 
direction the Astronomical Expedition to Chile was organized and carried out.§§ The history 

*- Berlin Astr, Jahrb. 1852, p. 323. f Dove, Maass und Messm. p. 39. Encke, Bet^l. Ast. Jahrh. 1852, p. 321 

X Astr. Nachr. XIX, 97. 

§ Astr. Nachr. in, pp. 346, 348. 

II Systeme du Monde, Liv. IV, (Euvres VI, p. 264. 

^ Astr. Nachr. X, p. 152. 

*"*'"' Astr. Nachr. XI, pp. 296, 404. 

tt Ihid. p. 404. Monthly Notices E. Astr. Soc. Ill, 39. 

%X Astr. Nachr. XXV, p. 363, XXVI, p. 195. 

§§ Introd. to this volume, and A. N. 


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Ixviii INTRODUCTORY AND HISTORICAL. 

of this enterprise has been given by Lieutenant Gilliss in the introduction to the present volume.* 
It now only remains to make use of the results of the expedition. 

§2.-GENERAL STATEMENT OE THE PEOBLEM. 

The proof-sheets of the present volume III of the observations of the planets Mars and Venus, 
constituted the materials placed in my hands by Lieutenant Grilliss for the determination of 
the best value of the solar parallax which they would afford. The end to which he had 
devoted so much earnest and self-sacrificing effort, and for which he had labored so zealously 
through obstacles and disadvantages of almost every description, and the scrupulous care 
manifestly bestowed by him and the assistant astronomers upon the observations, demanded 
commensurate exertions for the deduction of the final result — an amount of labor uncontem- 
plated in the original plan of the observations, and necessarily entailing a delay of several 
months. 

The observations of Mars and Venus, made at the Santiago Observatory, by Lieutenant 
Gilliss, and under his direction, are in perpect conformity with the plan previously laid down, 
and consist of four series of micrometric comparisons, comprising two oppositions of each 
planet : 

The first series for Mars consists of observations on 46 different days, between 1849, Decem- 
ber 10, and 1850, January 31. 

The first for Venus contains observations on 51 different days, between 1850, October 19, and 
1851, February 10. 

The second for Mars^ observations on 93 days, from 1851, December 16, to 1852, March 15. 

The second for Venus, on 27 days, from 1852, May 29, to 1852, September 13. 

Making in all observations upon 217 days, extending over nearly three years. 

For combinining with these, according to the contemplated method, which requires a com- 
parison in declination with the same star, upon the same date at a northern observatory, 
correspondent observations were found as follows : 

By the Naval Observatory at Washington, 

Mars, I. series.; nine. 
Mars, II. series ; two, 
Venus, 1. series; eight. 

By the Royal Observatory at Greenwich. 

Mars, I, series; four. 

By the Harvard Observatory at Cambridge. 

Mars, I* series ; Jive. 

In all, therefore, there were but twenty-eightf correspondent observations for both planets 
during these three years, eighteen of these being during the first Mars series, and two during 
the second ; while for Venus, the planet especially selected, there were eight during the first, 
and none during the second opposition. The details of these correspondent observations are 
as follows : 

''•^ See Astr. Nachr. XXXI, p. 247, XXXIV, p. 340, XXXVI, p. 77. 

"^ The Washington observation of 1850, October 19, has been rejected by the advice of Mr. Ferguson. 


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GENEEAL STATEMENT OF THE PKOBLEM. 


Ixix 


WASHINGTON OBSERVATIONS. 


Planet. 


Mars . 


Venus 


Mars . 


Series. 


II. 


Date. 


1849. 
Dec. 12 
17 

27 
31 
1850. 
Jan. 9 
12 
14 
22 
29 

1850. 
Oct. 22 

Nov. 1 
2 
10 
13 

14 
21 
1851. 
Jan. 15 

1852. 
Jan. 24 
Feb. 2 


No. of comparisons. 


North limb. 


7 
16 

20 
12 

7 
6 
2 
10 
3 

5 

4 
8 
2 
4 

4 
10 


South limb. 


22 
13 


11 
3 


4 
11 


16 


Hemarks of observer. 


Planet disturbed and blazing; star of comparison scarcely visible. 
Three comparisons N. limb good. During remainder, planet blurred and 

restless. 
Comparisons at times quite unsatisfactory. 
Observations unsatisfactory. Planet and star blurred and tremulous. 

Night misty; star of comparison scarcely visible. 
Planet blurred. Interrupted by clouds. 
Night very unfavorable. 


Disc tremulous, and not measurable within ten seconds. 
Brown haze. 

Three comparisons good, the rest unsatisfactory. 

Night uncommonly fine ; all the circumstances favorable, except the 
inequality of the external and interior temperatures. 

Night clear and serene. 

Planet flickering and undefined. 

Planet indistinct and blazing. 

Toward end of observations planet blurred and uncertain. 


Planet. 


Mars 


Series. 


Date. 


1849. 
Dec. 15 
27 

1850. 
Jan. 4 


GREENWICH OBSERVATIONS. 


No. of comparisons. 


North limb. 


South limb. 


Remarks of observer. 


Passing clouds, the observations not good. 


The star extremely faint and difficult to observe, the limbs of the planet 

badly defined. 
Mars was very tremulous, and the star exceedingly faint. 


CAMBRIDGE OBSERVATIONS. 





No. of comparisons. 


Planet. 

Series. 

Date. 


Remarks of observer. 


North limb. 

South limb. 



1849. 




Mars 

I. 

Dec. 17 
27 

4 
5 




High wind; atmosphere very much disturbed. 



31 



4 




1850. 






Jan. 1 

9 

2 




4 

4 











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Ixx 


GENERAL STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM. 


These are the only observations at hand for combining with the magnificent series of Lieu- 
tenant Gilliss, according to the method suggested by Professor Gerling, and contemplated by 
the expedition. It is impossible to refrain from the expression of deep regret that, from all the 
observations of the well equipped and richly endowed observatories of the northern hemisphere, 
so few materials could be found toward rendering available, according to its original purpose, 
an expedition to which so much labor and enthusiasm had been consecrated, and to which an 
accomplished observer, already known for the precision of his measurements, had devoted his 
entire energies during so long a sojourn ; moreover, after the preparation and wide dissemina- 
tion of ephemerides and charts of the comparison stars for both the planets during the whole 

period. 

The deduced corrections to Encke's values of the solar parallax corroborated the inferences 
deducible from the notes, and made palpable the necessity for a recourse to sonie other method 
than the desired one of correspondent observations. These corrections, of which the detailed 
computations will be given, have been found to result as follows, from the correspondent obser- 
vations already cited : 


COEEECTIONS TO ADOPTED SOLAE PAEALLAX EESULTING FEOM COEEESPONDENT OBSEEYATIONS. 

I. Wasliingtoii and Santiago. 



Date. 

A^. 


Date. 

z/^. 


1849. 

II 


1850. 

// 

Mars 

Dec. 12 

4-1.445 

Venus 

Oct. 19 

4- [18.264] 


12 

4-2.928 


22 

4- 0.341 


17 

4-0.113 


Nov. 1 

4- 1.214 


27 

4-0.497 


2 

4- 1.051 


31 

4-2.144 


]0 

4- 0.930 


1850. 



13 

4- 1.236 

Mars 

Jan. 9 

—2.462 


14 

4- 0.184 


12 

4-0.534 


21 

— 0.182 


14 

—0.026 


1851. 



22 

4-1.266 


Jan. 15 

4- 0.377 


29 

4-1.390 





1852. 





Mars 

Jan. 24 
Feb. 2 

—0.482 
4-0.247 





II. Greenwicli and Santiago. 



Date. 

z/^. 


Date. 

A-ss-, 

Mars 

1849. 
Dec. 15 

27 

// 
—0.574 
-0.598 

Mars 

1850. 
Jan. 4 

7 

II 
—1.587 
1.636 



III. 

Cambri€lge and Santiago, 




Date. 

J^. 


Date. 

A^. 

Mars 

1849. 
Dec. 17 
27 
31 

// 
—0.069 
—0.189 
4-0.148 

Mars 

1850. 
Jan. 1 
4 

II 

4-0.917 
—0.375 


The large mean error, and striking non-accordance of these results, renders any reliance 
upon them impossible ; and the only course remaining has been to make use of the largest 


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GENEEAL STATEMENT OP THE PROBLEM. Ixxi 

possible number of observations of every kind in each hemisphere, and to trust to the accumu- 
lation of observations for eliminating the inaccuracies due to erroneous assumptions in the 
adopted positions of the comparison stars, and to the unavoidably large mean error of the 
meridian declinations. This course has been pursued, and, without any attempt to refute the 
objections which may fairly be urged, the present discussion aims simply at deducing the best 
result from the materials at hand, in the hope that whatever be the degree of trustworthiness 
attributed to the final determination, this discussion may at least claim to have been based upon 
the best available data, and to afford, for the result of previous research, the always welcome 
corroboration which is furnished by different observations and different methods of investi- 
gation. 

The observations available for this purpose are as follows : 

At Santiago 55 micrometric comparisons of Mars, I series. 

89 do. do. II series. 

79 meridian observations do. II series. 

56 micrometric comparisons of Venus, I series. 
72 meridian observations do. I series. 

27 micrometric comparisons do. II series. 

46 meridian observations do. II series. 
At "Wasliliigton 22 micrometric comparisons of Mars, I series. 

5 do. do. II series. 

16 do. of Venus, T series. 
B do. do. II series. 

At GreenTi^icli .... . ... 8 micrometric comparisons of Mars, I series, 

24 meridian observations do. I series. 

36 do. do. II series. 

17 do. of Venus, I series. 
17 do. do. II series. 

At tlie Cape of Good Hope .... 47 micrometric comparisons of Mars, I series. 

47 meridian observations do. I series. 
46 do. do. II series. 

At Cam'bridge 19 micrometric comparisons of Mars, I series. 

At Athens . . , 38 meridian observations do. I series. 

At Cracow ^ I6 do. of Venus, II series. 

At ICremsmiinster 13 do. of Mars, II series. 

At Altona 2 do. of Venus, II series. 

A few of these meridian series have been included up to dates somewhat beyond the proper 
limits, especially when their reduction showed a mean error sufficiently small to warrant the 
hope of attaining increased accuracy by their employment. A series consisting of five obser- 
vations of Mars II. at Cracow, only one of which was within the limits of the Santiago obser- 
vations, were omitted in consequence of the mean error coming out as over 3'^ A large part of 
the Cambridge observations were inapplicable for combination with those at Santiago on 
account of the observations being confined to a single limb, and still others are incapable of 
employment on account of the smallness of the comparison star employed, entailing, naturally, 
an impossibility of identification in any of the catalogues. 

Observations of right-ascension only are utterly without avail for our purpose. The 
Greenwich observations were obtained from the annual volumes of the Eoyal Observatory, and 
are, with few exceptions, solely meridional, conformably to the established usage of the 
observatory. 

The only method which remains for making use of these observations to deduce a value of 
the parallax, is to obtain the declinations of the several comparison stars as well as possible, 
and with these to endeavor to elicit from the series of differential observations, with equatorial 
instruments, sufficiently numerous determinations of the planet's declination, at both northern 
and southern observatories, to authorize the hope that the inaccuracies of the individual star 
positions may possibly disappear from their combined result. The results of these differential 
measurements would then be used like determinations of absolute position. The meridian 
observations at Santiago and G-reenwich could be incorporated, with their appropriate weights, 
so that every observation would be made to contribute to the final result. 


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Ixxii GENERAL STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM. 

The problem before us is tben to be distinctly understood as follows : The failure of northern 
observatories to afford the means necessary for rendering the materials accumulated by Lieu- 
tenant Grilliss, at Santiago, serviceable for their intended purpose, or, indeed, for testing the 
method contemplated, renders the desired computations impossible, and their expected results 
unattainable, so far as these relate to the measurement of the parallax, although, of course, of 
the highest value for such purposes as demand no corresponding observations elsewhere. 

And what is now proposed is, to combine whatever other contemporaneous observations are 
at hand with those of Santiago in such manner as to deduce a resulting value for the parallax, 
without claiming for the results any peculiar pre-eminence; or for the method the advantages 
which would result from the original plan. Should the value of the solar parallax thus 
obtained coincide with Professor Encke's value, within the limits indicated by the probable 
errors, the corroboration thus afforded by a method so widely different will not be without 
essential importance ; while, in the event of the resulting value differing from that furnished 
by the transit of 1^769^ the questions and investigations to which the discordance would give 
rise could not fail to be of great usefulness. 

§3.-METH0D PURSUED. 

Ephemerides of Mars and Venus being computed for the two oppositions with all the precision 
which Lindenau's tables permit, the several declinations found at the several observatories are 
to be compared with the ephemeris after the requisite corrections for defective illumination have 
been applied. Each of the residuals will then afford an equation containing the following 
unknown quantities : 

1. The semi-diameter at the unit of distance, which we call 

where f, denotes the assumed value. The quantity f appears only in its function, the apparent 
semidiameter, or 

r = -^^ + i, 
A denoting, as usual, the distance of the centre of the planet from the centre of the earth, and i 
denoting any spurious apparent extension of the semidiameter. 

2. The irradiation, i, assumed to be of the form 

i = ^h + \ 

of which the term i^ is peculiar to the observer and the instrument. 

3. The correction q for the personal equation of the observer, and for the thickness of the 
threads of the filar micrometer, the influences of these two sources of error becoming inseparable. 

4. The correction [i to the adopted value of a revolution of the micrometer-BCYew . 

5. The correction of the ephemeris in declination 

( J 5J = a + /? r + r r% 
T being the time elapsed since the epoch T, assumed near the middle of the series. 

6. The sun's equatorial hoiizoninX parallax, which we will put 

•TXT "ZZl '23' -U O 'ZT^ 

(t^^ denoting Encke's value &^57116,) and which appears only in its function 

p ■=! h-2T^ 
where h signifies the ordinary coefficient for the error in parallax dependent upon the declina- 
tion the hour-angle, the distance, and the geocentric latitude — i, e., if ^be the siderial time. 

h=^ sin. (D^ ^^^r ~ ^^ ; tan.C = tan. cp^ sec. (d — a) 
/\ sm. Q 


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METHOD PURSUED. Ixxiii 

^ Putting the observed declination of the limb = d, the compnted declination of the centre = 
o„, and the distance traversed by the micrometer thread = Am, we have the equation 

^—^o=^^S=^±^{?, + 8? + i:) + a + ^r + y -2 + h (-„ + <?-) + ,i Am ± {i + q) 
or, written in another form, 

where w = ^„ ±^ ^^ + /, ^^ _ ^ 

« = + 1 X = « 

l=i^{t-T) y=20/? 

<' = ToVo (^— 2^)^ 2=1000;- 

t^=±1 t =*!+</ 

_ Jl 

^ — =t A u = <^? + *; 

f=-i:\ii'^m v=100/^ 

!7 = — ''« W = ^ ^ 

Of the eight terms composing the second member of this equation, the first consists of known 
quantities, the next three, together with the last, are independent both of the instrument and 
the observer, while t, u, and v are entirely local in their character. For errors in the adopted 
star-places, of course no provision can be made, such errors combining with the errors of obser- 
vation. 

In the equations for those observations in which (as should, of course, be the case, at least with 
Jiars,) the comparisons of the two limbs are nearly equal in number, and their means nearly 
contemporaneous ; the terms containing t and u are eliminated from the resultant comparison 
of the centre, and may be applied exclusively to the determination of the diameter, and of the 
law and magnitude of the constants of irradiation. So, too, will the term /v be necessarily 
omitted from the equations derived from observations not given with sufficient detail. And, 
finally, the three terms dependent upon the error of the ephemeris would also have been elimi- 
nated from those pairs of " correspondent" observations, for which it was the aim of the expe- 
dition to provide materials, and by which each couple of comparisons with the same star, at 
nearly the same time, in both a northern and a southern latitude, would furnish an independent 
value for the solar parallax. 

The simple course thus indicated has been pursued in the present discussion, and appears to 
be the only method practicable. Some of the more delicate refinements of reduction and com- 
putation are necessarily excluded; but the question may well be raised whether, under the 
peculiar circumstances of the case, these would have added to the precision of the result had 
their application been possible. 

To insure as great accuracy as possible for the data, the published observations, wherever 
and by whomsoever made, have been reduced anew ; beginning with the crudest form in which 
they are accessible, and although the Santiago observations were furnished by Lieutenant Gilliss 
in the printed sheets, as already, prepared for the present volume, he has also courteously given 
full access to the original manuscript note-books for all observations directly or indirectlv 
employed in these computations. 

Those observations which have been found available, and are employed in the discussion, are 
shown m the annexed table, which gives the places of observation and the number of observations' 
of each planet during each series at the respective places. 


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Ixxiv 


METHOD PURSUED. 
Available observations. 


Instrument. 


Santiago .... 
Washington . . . 
Greenwicli .... 

Cape of Good Hope . 

Cambridge . . . . 

Athens 

Kremsmiinster . . 

Altona 

Cracow 


C Equatorial . 

1 Mer. circle . 

Equatorial . 

( Equatorial . 

( Mer. circle . 

( Equatorial . 
i Mural Circle 

Equatorial , 

Mer. circle . 

Mer. circle . 

Mer circle . 

Mer. circle . 


55 


24 
49 
47 
19 

38 


Mars II. Venus I. 


79 
5 


Northern 


Southern 


111 


151 


56 
72 
16 


Venus II. 


27 

46 

6 


19 


60 


214 128 


274 163 


112 


227 

197 

49 

8 

94 
49 
95 
19 
38 
19 
2 
16 


245 


568 


For each of the eleven series of equatorial observations, the comparison stars are to be deter- 
mined in order to obtain absolute positions from the relative measurements. Those meridian 
observations are to be referred to the same category, which are essentially differential compari- 
sons, and, in fact, dependent upon a micrometer. In such cases the relative measurement is 
almost always accompanied by an observation of the absolute position of the comparison star, 
which observation is to be used with such other determinations as may be accessible for deriving 
a final and adopted place from the mean of all, taken by weight. 

These absolute positions may then be combined directly with the meridian observations, and 
we shall then obtain one resultant normal equation for each series and each place of observation, 
the coefficient/ having different signs at the 7 northern and the 2 southern observatories, respec- 
tively. Of these normal equations there will be 

For Mars, I series, 6 For Venus, I series, 4 

'' II series, 4 '' H series, 4. 

T6e terms containing t, u, and v, must, necessarily, be eliminated from the normals before 
these can be combined for solution. To this end, they may, in most cases, be approximately 
determined by means of a different combination of the data employed, and indeed the value of 
V being independent of the object observed, it may be advantageously deduced from the conjoint 
use of different series of observations. 

The only unknown quantities will then be x, y, ss, and w, the first three being necessarily 
different for each of the four series. 

The means of the several comparisons which constitute a single observation may, by a slight 
artifice, be so corrected that the influence of the second differences of the parallaxes belonging 
to these comparisons will be obviated without entailing the necessity of any reduction of the 
comparisons singly. The period over which the largest series extends is but about five hours, 
and in all the Santiago observations, which are the only ones sufficiently prolonged to call for 
any consideration of this point, the comparisons follow one another at intervals so nearly equi- 
distant that we may assume these intervals to be equal without thereby introducing any 
appreciable error into the correction. 
Putting, as before, 

the observed apparent declination of the limb = d 
computed true declination of the center == 8^ 
parallax in declination =i> 

semi-diameter ==^ ^ 


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METHOD PURSUED. IxxV 

and analogously^ 

the stars observed apparent declination z= d 

'^ true '' ^' =d^ 

we shall have 

d — d=d^—d^—p±r + Il 
where R represents the difference of the refractions of the limb and the star, and has always 
the same sign as d^ — d^. 

If we denote by G the sum of the corrections in declination due to the assumed tabular 
elements, (assumable as constant during any one night's work, and employ e, the mean error, 
in the stead of the unknown error actually incurred in each individual comparison, we shall 
have the observed difference of declination between planet and star 

J3z=z8—d-{- 0~e 

= d- d — p:^r + B-\-C—e 
one equation of this form being furnished by every comparison. Indicating the time to which 
the comparison belongs by a subjacent letter annexed to the respective symbols, we have for the 
time, t, of any one comparison 

J8,=z8^,—d^,—p,^r, + Ii,+ 0+e 
and so for a given time near the middle of the series, T, 

The difference of these two equations, when developed in series according to the powers of 

Ad,,-A8^, = TDJ^ +lT^D,^d^ + 

-rD,p-lT^D,^p + 

±.rD, r ±:\t^D,^ r i . . . . 
+ TD,R + lr^D,^R + . . . . 
Let us now take for the time T, the mean of the times of the several individual comparisons, 
so that 

nT=zt' + t" -{-t'" + ?^W 

and put 

n Ad^^ = A8^, + A8^,, + Ad^,„ + Ad,,^^^^ 

The mean of all the equations furnished by the individual comparisons will be identical with 
the mean of all the observed equations after subtracting Ad^^ . All the terms of the first order 
will have disappeared ; and the resulting equation will present the form 

Ad^,^ - A8^^ = 1 1^ 1 1 D,^o\ - n.^p ± n,^r + J),^R | 

Of the two terms which constitute the first member of this equation, Ad^,,^ is the (given) arith- 
metical mean of the observed differences in declination, and Ao^^ the desired true difference of 
declinations between star and centre of planet at the time T, 

Taking the hour as unit of time, and putting f"{p),f'{p)J^'{r)J"{R), for the second dif- 
ferences of the numerical values of d, p, r, R, for successive hours, we may be allowed to put also 

^t'^=r(S), D,^p=f{p)^ &c., &c., so that 
Ad,^ - Ao\^ = ~I,-r- I fi^d) -f'{p) ^f'(r) +f{R) | 

It is manifest that f"{R) can never become sensible. Of the three other quantities^ /'^(^) and 
f\r) are independent of the place of observation and may be obtained directly from the ephe- 
meris, remembering that as this is computed for intervals of a day, its second difierences are to 
be di\rided by (24)^= 576. 

Before developing the iQxm f"{p) it will be well to examine the maximum of the factor 
■^ i'l^r^, and to obtain an expression for this factor, more convenient even if not so rigorous, 
by assuming that the times of the several individual comparisons are uniformly distributed 


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Ixxvi METHOD PURSUED. 

about the mean, or follow one another at equal intervals; which is sufficiently near the truth 
for our purposes. 

Let ?? he the interval of time (in hours) between each pair of successive comparisons, and our 
factor will become 

or since ^ _ K"^ — t' 

n — 1 

Since the correction sought is only sensible for the more extended series of comparisons, we 

may almost uniformly substitute unity for ~'~ and consequently 

n — 1 

This very simple expression shows that for the longest series of comparisons (which extends 
over about five hours) the factor is very nearly =:1 ; but that in other cases it is a real fraction. 

By simple inspection of the ephemerides, we shall find the maximum values of the second dif- 
ferences to be 

Mars I. Mars 11. Ve?ius L Venus 11. 

f"(S) 9^^6 14^^9 49'\9 29^3 

Thf (^) .02 .03 .09 .05 

f'^{r) .01 .01 .04 .04 

The change in the apparent semi-diameter is thus seen to be certainly insensible, and it is also 
evident that in declination the influence of these second differences can be possibly perceived 
only in a few particular cases, occurring in the first Vemis-BevieB. 

Therefore Jd^, — z/dV = ^ (^^"^ — t^rip) 

The only quantity remaining for consideration is/^^(p), which may be directly obtained by 
difterencing the formulas which represent the parallax in declination, as computed for successive 
hours, and will easily be found to be 

ff\p) = ^^ p cos^i sin(J cos(<? — «) 4 sin^^ 15^ 

_ 8^5m6 p g334ej p cos^i sin^, cos(^ — a) 
Substituting this value in the expression above, we obtain finally, 

J5,. = J5,„+ i(i^"^-i')^8".5nl6 sinH15»,o cos^ sm^i^^«) 

which gives the correction applicable to the mean of the observed differences for the mean time 
T] the declination, hour-angle and distance from the earth being denoted by 5, 6 — a, and A; 
the distance from the center of the terrestrial spheroid and the corrected latitude by p and cp^] 
and the times of the first and last comparisons by t^ and t^""^ respectively. 

If we represent that part of the expression which is constant for the same place by r? we may write 

Jd^.= Jl^ + r ( ^<">-i')'i2!(^) sin^„ 

Adopting Bessel's value of the eccentricity of the terrestrial spheroid, so that 

log. e = 8.9122052, 
we have, by the ordinary formulas, (Bed. Astr. Jahrh. 1852, p. 325,) 

a (1 — ef sin cp 


p sm ip' 
p cos (p' 


VI — e^ sin^ (p 

a cos (p 
V 1 — e^ sin^ ip, 


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METHOD PURSUED. 


Ixxvii 


and can construct the following table of geocentric coordinates and constants for the nine obser- 
vatories which have furnished materials for our discussion : 

OBSERVATORY-CONSTANTS. 


Place. 

L. 

<P' 

log.^0. 

¥■ 

log. y. 

! c. 

Santiago . . . 





1 h. m. s. 
... 25 53.3 

o 1 II 

—33 28 25.9 

9.999561 

—33 15 51.6 

8.308139 

h. m. s. 
26 39.55 

Washington . . 








0.0 

+38 53 39.2 

9.999430 

+38 42 24.7 

8.278006 

50.49 

Greenwich . . 








; 5 8 12,2 

-f-51 28 38.2 

9.999113 

+51 17 24.6 

8.181539 

5 8 12.20 

Cape of Good Hope 








6 22 7.2 

-33 56 3.0 

9.999550 

—33 45 24.0 

8.305646 

6 21 55.09 

Cambridge . 








23 41.5 

+42 22 51.5 

9.999343 

+42 11 23.9 

8.255399 

24 28.11 

Athens .... 








6 43 6.4 

+37 58 20 

9.999453 

+37 47 10.5 


6 42 50.85 

Cracow .... 








1 6 28 2.4 

+50 3 50.0 

9.999149 

+49 52 30.0 


6 27 49.32 

KremsinUnster 








1 6 4 44.6 

+48 3 23.8 

9.999199 

+47 51 56.8 


6 4 35.34 

AJtona .... 








5 47 57.4 

+53 32 45.3 

9.999061 

+53 21 45.5 


5 47 50.88 


The longitudes (L.) in this table being all easterly from Washington, the negative sign is 
unnecessary ; cp and cp' denote, respectively, the astronomical and the corrected latitude ; p the 
distance from the centre of the spheroid, expressed in terms of the major semi-axis of the gene- 
rating ellipse ; y that part of the coefficient offt^""^— tY in the expression for Jd^^, which is con- 
stant for the observatory ; and c the constant used in reducing the sidereal time to mean Wash- 
ington time by means of the sidereal time at G-reenwich mean noon, given in the London 
Nautical Almanac— being the longitude east from Washington, added to the reduction to mean 
time which belongs to the longitude from Greenwich. 

§4. EPHEMERIDES AND AUXILIARY TABLES, 

The ephemerides here given are derived from Lindenau's tables of 3Iars and Venus, and 
comprise the entire period of Lieutenant Gilliss's observations of each of these planets. Inasmuch 
as the employment of the ephemerides is, in fact, only differential in character, it did not appear 
necessary to incorporate the recent modifications and improvements of Lindenau's tables, given 
by Breen and Peirce. They are consequently accordant with the Nautical Almanac and Berlin 
Jahrbuch. 

The approximate values which have been employed f©r the semi-diameters at the unit of 
distance from the earth are — 

For Mars, e = 4^^66393, (Oudemans, Astron, Nadir, XXXV, 351.) 
For Venus, ^ == 8^^.6625, (Wichmann, Astron, Naclir. XXXII, Y4.) 
The ephemerides for the two oppositions of Mars, and the two inferior conjunctions of Venus, 
here follow in their order. 


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Ixxviii 


EPHEMERIDES AND AUXILIARY TABLES. 


Epliemeris of Mars for the first series^ or opposition of 1849-50. 

Wasliington Mean Noon. 


- 






Jh. 



j^ r sec d. 


Date. 

a. 

d. 

log. A. 

r. 



Def. limb. 

log. COS 0, 










[na COS (5. 

Ind. 





1849. 

h. m. s. 

o / // 


,^ 

II 

II 



s. 


Oct. 30 

6 24 ]3.36 

+24 12 36.5 

9.8608773 

6.42 

1.22 

00 

p. n. 

9.96002 

0.47 


31 

24 44.78 

14 51.9 

.8574961 

6.48 

1.20 

0.00 

p.n. 

.95989 

0.47 


Nov. 1 

25 12.94 

17 10.9 

.8541218 

6.53 

1.17 

0.00 

p.n. 

.95976 

0.48 


2 

25 37.74 

19 33.4 

.8507568 

6.58 

1.14 

0.00 

p.n. 

.95962 

0.48 


3 

25 59.14 

21 59.7 

.8474035 

6.60 

1.12 

0.00 

p.n. 

.9.5948 

0.48 


4 

26 17.09 

24 29.9 

.8440644 

6.68 

l.U 

0.00 

p. n. 

.95934 

0.49 


5 

26 31.49 

27 3.9 

.8407421 

6.73 

1.08 

0.00 

p. n. 

.95920 

0.49 


6 

25 42.37 

29 41.8 

.8374392 

6.78 

1.05 

0.00 

p.n. 

.95904 

0.50 


7 

26 49.61 

32 23.8 

.8341584 

6.83 

1.04 

0.00 

p.n. 

.95889 

0.50 


8 

26 53.18 

35 9.8 

.8309032 

6.88 

1.02 

0.00 

p.n. 

.95872 

0.50 


9 

26 53.02 

37 59.6 

.8276770 

6.94 

0.99 

0.00 

p.n. 

.95855 

0.51 


10 

26 49.10 

40 53.3 

.8244831 

6.99 

0.96 

0.00 

p.n 

.95840 

0.51 


11 

26 41.39 

43 50.8 

.8213252 

7.04 

0.93 

0.00 

p.n. 

.95822 

0.52 


12 

26 29.83 

46 52.0 

.8182069 

7.09 

0.90 

0.00 

p. n. 

.95805 

52 


13 

26 14.39 

49 56.8 

.8151317 

7.14 

0.87 

0.00 

p.n. 

.95786 

0.52 


14 

25 55.08 

53 5.0 

.8121042 

7.19 

0.84 

0.00 

p.n. 

.9.5769 

0.53 


15 

25 31.87 

56 16.3 

.8091278 

7.24 

0.81 

0.00 

p.n. 

.95749 

0.53 


16 

25 4.77 

59 30.6 

.8062088 

7.29 

0.78 

0.00 

p.n. 

.95730 

0.54 


17 

24 33.78 

25 2 47.6 

.8033490 

7.34 

0.74 

0.00 

p.n. 

.95711 

0.54 


18 

23 58.91 

6 7.1 

.8005538 

7 38 

0.70 

0.00 

p.n. 

.95691 

0.54 


19 

23 20.18 

9 28-7 

.7978275 

7.43 

0.68 

0.00 

p.n. 

.95671 

0.55 


20 

22 37.61 

12 .52.0 

.7951747 

7.47 

0.61 

0.00 

p. s. 

.95652 

0.55 


21 

21 51.22 

16 16.8 

.7925995 

7.52 

0.60 

0.00 

p. s. 

.95631 

0.55 


22 

21 1.08 

19 42.7 

.7901061 

7.56 

0.57 

0.00 

p. s. 

.95611 

0.56 


23 

20 7.22 

23 9.1 

.7876991 

7.60 

0.54 

0.00 

p. s. 

.95590 

0.56 


24 

19 9.70 

26 35.6 

.7853827 

7.65 

0.55 

0.00 

p. s. 

'.95569 

0.56 


25 

18 8.58 

30 1.9 

.7831613 

7.68 

0.45 

0.00 

p. s. 

.95549 

0.57 


26 

17 3.93 

33 27.4 

.7810394 

7.72 

0.44 

0.00 

p. s. 

.95528 

0.57 


27 

15 55.83 

36 51.5 

.7790213 

7.76 

0.39 

0.00 

p. s. 

.95508 

0.57 


28 

14 44.37 

40 13.7 

.7771113 

7.79 

0.36 

0.00 

p. s. 

.95487 

0.58 


29 

13 29.64 

43 33.8 

.7753134 

7.82 

0.33 

0.00 

p. s. 

.95467 

0.58 


30 

12 11.75 

46 50.9 

.7735317 

7.85 

0.30 

0.00 

p. 3. 

.95447 

0.58 


Dec. 1 

10 50.81 

50 4.6 

.7720698 

7.88 

0.27 

0.00 

p. S. 

.95427 

0.58 


2 

9 26.96 

53 14.4 

.7706328 

7.91 

0.26 

0.00 

p S. 

.95408 

0.59 


3 

8 0.32 

56 19.6 

.7693245 

7.93 

0.22 

0.00 

p. S. 

.95389 

0.59 


4 

6 31.05 

59 19.8 

.7681485 

7.95 

0.20 

0.00 

p. S. 

.95370 

0.59 


5 

4 59.29 

26 2 14.3 

.7671087 

7.97 

0.16 

0.00 

p. S. 

.95353 

0.59 


6 

3 25.21 

5 2.6 

.7662083 

7.99 

0.13 

0.00 

p. s. 

.95335 

0.59 



1 48.94 

7 44.3 

.7654509 

8.00 

0.11 

0.00 

p. s. 

.95319 

0.59 


8 

6 10.74 

10 18.8 

.7648398 

8.01 

0.09 

0.00 

p. s. 

.95302 

0.60 


9 

5 58 30.79 

12 45.7 

.7643774 

8.02 

0.07 

0.00 

p. s. 

.95287 

0.60 


10 

56 49.32 

15 4.6 

.7640662 

8.03 

0.05 

0.00 

p. s. 

.95272 

0.60 


11 

55 6.52 

17 15.2 

.7639086 

8.03 

0.04 

0.00 

p. s. 

.95259 

0.60 


12 

53 22.61 

19 17.1 

.7639066 

8.03 

0.03 

0.00 

p. s. 

.95246 

0.60 


13 

51 37.81 

21 9.9 

.7640617 

8.03 

0.02 

0.00 

p. s. 

.95235 

0.60 


14 

49 52.39 

22 53.3 

.7643747 

8.02 

0.01 

0.00 

p. s. 

.95224 

0.60 


15 

48 6.59 

24 27.4 

.7648457 

8.01 

0.01 

0.00 

p. s. 

.95214 

0.60 


16 

46 20.63 

25 52.1 

.7654747 

8.00 

0.00 

0.00 

p. s. 

.95205 

0.60 


17 

44 34.76 

27 7.4 

.7662618 

7.99 

0.00 

O.Ol 

p. s. 

.55197 

0.59 


18 

42 49.22 

28 13.1 

.7672065 

7.97 

0.01 

0.00 

f. s. 

.95190 

0.59 


19 

41 4.26 

29 9.3 

.7683075 

7.95 

0.01 

0.00 

f. s. 

.95184 

0.59 


20 

39 20.10 

29 56.1 

.7695631 

7.93 

0.02 

0.00 

f. s. 

.95179 

0.59 


21 

37 36.97 

30 33.8 

.7709712 

7.90 

0.02 

0.00 

f. s. 

.95176 

0.59 


22 

35 55.07 

31 2 6 

.7725294 

7.87 

0.03 

0.00 

f. s. 

.95173 

0.59 


23 

34 14.61 

31 22.8 

.7742354 

7.84 

0.04 

0.00 

f. s. 

.95171 

0.53 


24 

32 35.81 

31 34 6 

.7760883 

7.81 

0.05 

0.00 

f. s. 

.95170 

0.58 


25 

30 58.87 

31 38.5 

.7780789 

7.77 

0.06 

0.00 

f. s. 

.95170 

0.58 


26 

29 23.96 

31 34.7 

.7802096 

7.74 

0.07 

0.00 

f. s. 

.95170 

0.58 


27 

5 27 51.23 

4-26 31 23.6 

9.7824749 

7.70 

0.08 

0.00 

f. s. 

9.95171 

0.57 


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EPHEMERIDES AND AUXILIARY TABLES. 
Ephemeris of Mars for the first series — Continued. 

IVasliington Mean IVoou. 


Ixxix 


Date. 

«. 

8. 

log. A , 

r. 

z/A. 

Def. limb 

log. COS 0. 

— rsec^. 








In a COS. S, 

1 



1849. 
Dec. 28 

h. m. s. 
5 26 20.84 

/ // 

+26 31 5.8 

9.7848713 

7.66 

0.09 

! 

1 // 

1 0.00 

f. s. 

9.95173 

s. 
0.57 

29 

24 52.94 

30 41.6 

.7873948 

7.62 

0.11 

1 0.00 

f. s. 

.95175 

0.57 

30 

23 27.68 

30 11.5 

.7900411 

7.57 

0.13 

0.00 

f. s. 

.95178 

0.56 

31 
1850. 

22 5.19 

29 36.0 

.7928060 

7.52 

0.15 

0.00 

f. s. 

.95181 

0.56 

Jan. 1 

20 45.59 

28 55.5 

.7956854 

7.47 

0.17 

0.00 

f. s. 

.95185 

0.56 

2 

19 28.98 

28 10.5 

.7986754 

7.41 

0.19 

0.00 

f. s. 

.95190 

0.55 

3 

18 15.47 

27 21.5 

.8017718 

7.36 

0.21 

0.00 

f. s. 

.95195 

0.55 

4 

17 5.16 

26 28.9 

.8049704 

7.31 

0.23 

1 0,00 

f. s. 

.95201 

0.54 

5 

15 58.12 

25 33.3 

.8082667 

7.25 

0.25 

1 0.00 

f. s. 

.95207 

0.54 

6 

14 54.44 

24 35.1 

.8116564 

7.20 

0.28 

0.00 

f.s. 

.95213 

0.54 

7 

13 54.19 

23 34.7 

.8151349 

7.14 

0.30 

0.00 

f. s. 

.95219 

0.53 

8 

12 57.42 

22 32.7 

.8186977 

7.08 

0.32 

0.00 

f. s. 

.95226 

0.53 

9 

12 4.19 

21 29.4 

.8223403 

7.02 

0.34 

0.00 

f. s. 

.95232 

0.52 

10 

11 14.55 

20 25.3 

.8260584 

6.96 

0.35 

0.00 

f. s. 

.95239 

0.52 

11 

10 28.53 

19 20.7 

.8298474 

6.90 

0.38 

0.00 

f. s. 

.95245 

0.51 

12 

9 46.17 

18 16.1 

.8337027 

6.84 

0.40 

O.GO 

f. s. 

.95252 

0.51 

13 

9 7.49 

17 11.9 

.8376199 

6.78 

0.42 

0.00 

f. s. 

.95259 

0.50 

14 

8 32.48 

16 8.5 

.8415945 

6.72 

0.45 

O.GO 

f. s. 

.95266 

0.50 1 

15 

8 1.15 

15 6.0 

.8456223 

6.65 

0.47 

0.00 

f. s. 

.95273 

0.49 1 

16 

7 33.50 

14 4.8 

.8496990 

6.59 

0.49 

0.00 

f. s. 

.95279 

0.49 } 

17 

7 9.53 

13 5.3 

.8538203 

6.53 

0.51 

0.00 

f. s. 

.95285 

0,48 1 

18 

6 49.22 

12 7.7 

.8579820 

6.47 

0.53 

0.00 

f. s. 

.95291 

0.48 

19 

6 32.53 

11 12.2 

.8621805 

6.41 

0.55 

0.00 

f. s. 

.95296 

0.48 

20 

6 19.43 

10 18.9 

.8664121 

6.34 

0.57 

0.00 

f. s. 

.95302 

0.47 

21 

6 9.89 

9 27.9 

.8706731 

6.28 

0.59 

0.00 

f. s. 

.95308 

0.47 

22 

6 3.86 

8 39.4 

.8749601 

6.22 

0.60 

0.00 

f. s. 

.95313 

0.46 

23 

6 1.30 

7 53.6 

.8792697 

6.18 

0.62 

0.00 

f. s. 

.95318 

0.46 

24 

6 2.17 

7 10.5 

.8835988 

6.10 

0.63 

0.00 

f. s. 

.95322 

0.45 

25 

6 6.40 

6 30.2 

.8879446 

6.04 

0.65 

0.00 

f. s. 

.95326 

0.45 

26 

6 13.94 

5 52.6 

.8923044 

5.98 

0.66 

0.00 

f. s. 

.95330 

0.44 

27 

6 24.74 

5 17.7 

.8966756 

5.92 

0.67 

0.00 

f. s. 

.95333 

0.44 

28 

6 38.75 

4 45.5 

.9010558 

5.86 

0.68 

0.00 

f. s. 

.95336 

0.44 

29 

6 55.91 

4 16 

.9054427 

5.80 

0.70 

0.00 

f. s. 

.95340 

0.43 

30 

7 16.16 

3 49.1 

.9098341 

5.74 

0.71 

0.00 

f. s. 

.95343 

0.43 

31 

7 39.44 

3 24.8 

.9142280 

5.68 

0.72 

0.00 

f. s. 

.95345 

0.42 

Feb. 1 

8 5.71 

3 3.0 

.9186225 

6.63 

0.73 

0.00 

f. s. 

.95348 

0.42 

2 

8 34.91 

2 43.6 

.9230158 

5.57 

0.74 

0.00 

f. s. 

.95350 

0.41 

3 

9 7.00 

2 26.6 

.9274062 

5.51 

0.75 

0.00 

f. s. 

.95352 

0.41 

4 

9.41.92 

2 11.8 

.9317921 

5.46 

0.76 

0.00 

f. s. 

.95353 

0.40 

5 

5 10 19.62 

+26 1 59.1 

9.9361720 

5.40 

0.76 

0.00 

f. s. 

9.95354 

0.40 


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Ixxx 


EPHEMERIDES AND AUXILIARY TABLES. 
Ephemeris of Mars for the second series^ or opposition of 1851-52. 

"Vrasliington Mean Noon. 







All, 



1 ^ 
— T sec 0. 

Date. 

a. 

0. 

log. A. 

r. 




Def. limb. 

log. COS 6. 






In a COS d. 

In 5. 




1851. 

h, m, s. 

o / // 


// 

II 

II 



s. 

Dec. 12 

9 9 6.13 

+19 33 49.0 

9.9126138 

5.70 

0.69 

0.05 

p. 

9.97418 

0.40 

13 

9 16.94 

35 45.2 

.9090776 

5.75 

0.68 

0.05 

P- 

,97409 

0.41 

14 

9 24.63 

37 55.6 

.9055576 

5.80 

0.67 

0.04 

P- 

,97399 

0.41 

15 

9 29.16 

40 20.3 

.9020566 

5.84 

0.66 

0.04 

P- 

.97388 

0.41 

16 

9 30.48 

42 59.2 

.8985776 

5.89 

0.64 

0.04 

P- 

.97376 

0.42 

17 

9 28.54 

45 52.5 

.8951237 

5.94 

0.63 

0,03 

P- 

.97364 

0.42 

18 

9 23.31 

49 0.3 

.8916983 

5.98 

0.61 

0.03 

P. 

.97349 

0.42 

19 

9 14.76 

52 22.4 

.8883047 

6.03 

0.59 

0.03 

p. 

.97334 

0.43 

20 

9 2.85 

55 58.9 

.8849463 

6.08 

0.57 

0.03 

p. 

.97317 

0.43 

21 

8 47.56 

59 49.7 

. 8816269 

6.13 

0.56 

0.03 

p. 

.97300 

0.43 

22 

8 28.86 

20 3 54.6 

.8783502 

6.17 

0.54 

0.02 

p. 

.97280 

0.44 

23 

8 6.74 

8 13.5 

.8751200 

6.22 

0.52 

0.02 

p. 

.97261 

0.44 

24 

7 41.20 

12 46.1 

.8719402 

6.26 

0.50 

0.02 

P- 

.97239 

44 

25 

7 12.23 

17 32.1 

.8688148 

6.31 

0.48 

0.02 

P- 

.97217 

0.45 

26 

6 39.83 

22 31.2 

. 8657478 

6.35 

0.46 

0.02 

p. 

.97194 

0.45 

27 

6 4.00 

29 43.2 

.8627434 

6.40 

0.44 

0.02 

p. 

.97170 

0.46 

28 

5 24.76 

33 7.6 

.8598057 

6.44 

0.42 

0.02 

p. 

.97144 

0.46 

29 

4 42.13 

38 44.0 

.8569387 

6.48 

0.40 

0.01 

P- 

.97117 

0.46 

30 

3 56.13 

44 31.8 

.8541464 

6.53 

0.37 

0.01 

P- 

.97089 

0.47 

31 

3 6.80 

50 30.5 

.8514330 

6.57 

0.35 

0.01 

P- 

.97061 

0.47 

1852. 










Jan. 1 

2 14,17 

56 39.7 

.8488025 

6.61 

0.33 

0,01 

P- 

.97032 

0.47 

2 

1 18.29 

21 2 58.6 

.8462590 

6.64 

0.31 

0.01 

p. 

.97001 

0.47 

3 

9 19.19 

9 26.6 

.8438068 

6.68 ; 

0.29 

0.01 

P- 

.96969 

. 0.48 

4 

8 59 16.94 

16 3.1 

.8414499 

6.72 

0.27 

0.01 

P- 

.96937 

0.48 

5 

58 11.61 

22 47.3 

.8391924 

6.75 : 

0.25 

0.01 

p. 

.96904 

0.48 

6 

57 3.25 

29 38.5 

.8370382 

6.79 \ 

0.23 

0.00 

p. 

.96870 

0.49 

7 

55 51.93 

36 35.9 

.8349911 

6.82 ; 

0.21 

0.00 

P- 

.96835 

0.49 

8 

54 37,74 

43 38.7 

.8330552 

6.85: 

0.19 

0.00 

P- 

.96800 . 

0.49 

9 

53 20.78 

50 46.0 

.8312345 

6.88 ■ 

0.17 

0.00 

P- 

.96764 

0.49 

10 

52 1.15 

57 56.9 

.8295331 

6.91 : 

0.15 

0.00 

P- 

.96727 

0.50 

11 

50 38.97 

22 5 10.4 

.8279546 

6.93 \ 

0.13 

0.00 

P- 

.96690 

0.50 

12 

49 14.34 

12 25.7 

.8285024 

6.95 ■ 

0.11 

0.00 

p. 

.96653 

0.50 

13 

47 47.39' 

19 41.8 

.8251801 

6.97 ; 

0.10 

0.00 

P- 

.96616 

0.50 

14 

46 18.26^ 

26 57.7 

.8239911 

6.99 : 

0.08 

0.00 

P. 

.96577 

0.50 

15 

44 47.10 

i34 12.5 

.8229385 

7.01 ' 

0.07 

0.00 

P- 

.96540 

0.51 

16 

43 14.09 

41 25.1 

.8220251 

7.0>: 

0.06 

0.00 

p. 

,96501 

0.51 

17 

41 39.40 

48 34.4 

.8212534 

7.04 ; 

0.05 

0.00 

P- 

.96463 

0.5L 

18 

40 3.20 

55 39.6 

.8206256 

7.05- 

0.04 

0.00 

P- 

.96426 

0.51 

19 

38 25.66 

23 2 39.7 

.8201439 

7.06; 

0.03 

0.00 

p. 

.96389 

0.51 

20 

36 46.98 

■ ^ 9 33.7 

.8198102 

7.06: 

0.02 

0.00 

p. 

.96351 : 

0.51 

21 

35 7.38 ._... 

_16 20,6 

.8196254 

7,07. ... 

.. .0.01 

0.00 

Pv 

.96314 

J,l . 

22 

33 27.06 

22 59.5 

.8195900 

7.07 

0.00 

0.00 

p. 

.96278 

0.51 

23 

31 46.21 

29 29.6 

.8197045 

7.06 

0.00 

0.01 

P- 

.96243 

0.51 

24 

30 5.05 

35 50.2 

.8199693 

7.06 

0.00 

0.01 

P- 

.96208 

0.51 

25 

28 23.80 

42 0.5 

.8203842 

7.05 

0.00 

0.01 

f. 

.96174 

0.51 

26 

26 42.68 

47 59.6 

.8209485 

7.04 

0.00 

0.01 

f. 

.96140 

0.51 

27 

25 1.88 

53 47.0 

.8216610 

7.03 

0.01 

0.01 

f. 

.96108 

0.51 

28 

23 21.61 

59 22,1 

.8225200 

7.02 

0.01 

0.01 

f. 

.96077 

0.51 

29 

21 42.07 

24 4 44.4 

.8235236 

7.00 

0.01 

0.01 

f. 

.96046 

0.51 

30 

20 3.45 

9 53.4 

.8246700 

6.98 

0.02 

0.01 

f. 

.96018 

0.51 

31 

18 25.96 

14 48.8 

.8259568 

6.96 

0.03 

0.02 

f. 

.95989 

0.51 

Feb. 1 

16 49.79 

19 30.1 

.8273811 

6.94 

0.04 

0.02 

f. 

.95962 

0.51 

2 

15 15. 10 

23 57.1 

.8289401 

6.92 

05 

0.02 

f. 

.95937 

0.51 

3 

13 42.05 

28 9.6 

.8306311 

6.89 

0.06 

0.02 

f. 

.95913 

0.50 

4 

12 10.81 

32 7.5 

.8324509 

6.86 

0.07 

0.02 

f. 

.95890 

0.50 

5 

10 41.54 

35 50.6 

.8343961 

6.83 

0.08 

0.02 

f. 

.95869 

0,50 

6 

9 14.39 

39 18.8 

.8364634 

6.80 

0.09 

0.02 

f. 

.95848 

0.50 

7 

7 49.49 

42 32.1 

.8386489 

6.76 

0.10 

0.02 

f. 

.95830 

0.50 

8 

8 6 26.97 

+24 45 30.8 

9.8409489 

6.73 

j 0.12 

0.03 

f. 

9.95812 

0.49 


Hosted by 


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EPHEMERIDES AND AUXILIARY TABLETS 
Epkemeris of liars for the second series— Gontimied, 

^¥^asIiingtosi Mean IVooii. 


J vXXi 







Jh. 




Date. 

«. 

d. 

log. A. 

r. 



Def. limb 

log cos 0. 

-.-. r see (5, 








in a cos (J 

in 8, 



15 

1852. 

h. m. s. 

° / // 


II 

II 





Feb. 9 

8 5 6.97 

+24 48 14.6 

9.8433597 

6.69 

0.14 

0.03 

f. 

9.95797 

0.49 

10 

3 49.60 

50 43.8 

.8458776 

6.65 

0.16 

0.03 

f. 

.95782 

0.49 

11 

2 34.97 

52 58.4 

. 8484987 

6.61 

0.18 

0.03 

f. 

.95769 

0.49 

12 

1 23.18 

54 58.6 

.8512188 

6.57 

0.20 

0.03 

f. 

.95757 

0.48 

13 

8 14.33 

56 44.7 

.8540339 

6.53 

0.22 

0.03 

f. 

.95747 

0.48 

14 

7 59 8.51 

58 17.0 

.8569397 

6.48 

0.24 

0.03 

f. 

.95737 

0.48 

15 

58 5.79 

24 59 35.5 

.8599321 

6.44 

0.25 

0.03 

f. 

. 95730 

0.47 

16 

57 6.26 

25 40.5 

.8630070 

6.39 

0.27 

0.03 

f. 

.95724 

0.47 

17 

56 9.97 

1 32.4 

.8661602 

6.35 

0,29 

0,03 

f. 

.95719 

0.47 

18 

55 16.98 

2 11.4 

.8693875 

6.30 

0.31 

0.03 

f. 

.95715 

0.46 

19 

54 27.33 

2 37.8 

.8726847 

6.25 

0.33 

0.03 

f. 

.95712 

0.46 

20 

53 41.07 

2 52.0 

.8760473 

6.20 

0.35 

0.03 

f. 

.95711 

0.46 

21 

52 58.22 

2 54.3 

.8794711 

6.16 

0.37 

0.03 

f. 

.95711 

0.45 

22 

52 18.80 

2 44.9 

.8829520 

6.11 

. 0.39 

0.03 

f. 

.95712 

0.45 

23 

51 42.83 

2 24.2 

.8864859 

6.06 

0.41 

0.03 

1. 

.95714 

0.45 

24 

51 10.32 

1 52.5 

.8900685 

6.01 

0.43 

0.03 

f. 

.95717 

0.44 

25 

50 41.26 

1 10.1 

.893:958 

5.96 

0.45 

0.03 

f. 

.95721 

0.44 

25 

50 15.65 

25 17.3 

.8973641 

5.91 

0.48 

0.03 

f. 

.95726 

0.43 

27 

49 53.46 

24 59 14.5 

.9010698 

5.86 

0.50 

0.03 

f. 

.95732 

0.43 

28 

49 .34.66 

58 1.9 

.9048094 

5.81 

0.53 

0.03 

f. 

.95739 

0.43 

29 

49 19.24 

56 39 ..8 

.9085796 

5.76 

0.55 

0.03 

f. 

.95747 

0.42 

Mar. 1 

49 7.16 

55 8.5 

.9123771 

5.71 

0.57 

0.03 

f. 

.95756 

0.42 

2 

48 58.38 

53 28.3 

.9161986 

5.66 

0.58 

0.03 

f. 

.95766 

0.42 

3 

48 52.85 

51 39.4 

.9200413 

5.61 

0.59 

0.03 

f. 

.95777 

0.41 

4 

48 50.53 

49 42.0 

.9239026 

5.56 

0.60 

0.03 

f. 

.95788 

0.41 

5 

48 51.39 

47 36.3 

.9277799 

5.51 

0.60 

0.03 

f. 

.95800 

0.40 

6 

48 55.38 

45 22.6 

.9316708 

5.46 

0.61 

0.03 

f. 

.95813 

0.40 

7 

49 2.44 

43 1.0 

.9355728 

5.41 

0.62 

0.03 

f. 

.95827 

0.40 

8 

49 12.51 

40 31.8 

.9394838 

5.36 

0.62 

0.03 

f. 

.95841 

0.39 

9 

49 25.56 

37 55.0 

.9434017 

5.31 

0.63 

0.03 

f. 

.95856 

0.,39 

10 

49 41.54 

35 10.8 

.9473246 

5.27 

0.65 

0.03 

f. 

.95872 

0.39 

11 

50 0.41 

32 19.5 

.9512505 

5.22 

0.66 

0.03 

f. 

.95889 

0.38 

12 

50 22.11 

29 21.1 

.9551776 

5.17 

0.67 

0.03 

f. 

.95906 

0.38 

13 

50 46.60 

26 15.7 

.9591043 

5.12 

0.68 

0.03 

f. 

.95926 

0.37 

14 

51 13.82 

23 3.3 

.9630290 

5.08 

0.69 

0.03 

f. 

.95942 

0.37 

15 

51 43.73 

19 44.2 

.9669501 

5.03 

0.69 

0.03 

f. 

.95961 

0.37 

16 

52 16.28 

16 18.5 

.9708659 

4.99 

0.70 

0.03 

f. 

.95980 

0.36 

17 

52 51.42 

12 46.1 

.9747748 

4.94 

0.70 

0.03 

f. 

.90001 

0.36 

38 

53 29.10 

9 7.2 

.9786755 

4.90 

0.71 

0.03 

f. 

.96021 

0.36 

19 

54 9.27 

5 21.8 

.9825666 

4.85 

0.72 

0.03 

f. 

.96043 

0.35 

20 

7 54 51.88 

4-24 1 30.1 

9.9864469 

4.81 

0.72 

0.03 

f. 

9.96064 

0.35 


MO 


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IxXXii EPHEMERIDES AND AUXILIAEY TABLES. 

EpJiemeris of Venus for the first series, or inferior conjunction of 1850-5L 


Wasliingtan Mean SToon. 



Date. 

1 

a. 

s. 

log. A. 

r. 

l«)g. cos ^, — y sec 0. 
15 


1850. 

h. m. s. 

o / // 


II 


s. 


Oct. 16 

16 27 26.09 

—25 57 22.2 

9.7739178 

14.58 

9.95382 

1.08 


17 

31 22.11 

26 8 35.4 

.7683047 

14,77 

.95313 

1.10 


18 

35 16.32 

19 15.5 

,7626301 

14.96 

.95246 

1.11 


19 

39 8.57 

29 22.4 

.7568938 

15.16 

.95183 

1.13 


20 

42 58.71 

38 56.2 

.7510955 

15.37 

,95122 

1.15 


21 

46 46.60 

47 56.8 

.7452349 

15,57 

.95065 

1.16 


22 

50- 32.09 

26 56 24.2 

.7393117 

15.79 

.95011 

1.18 


23 

54 15.03 

27 4 18.4 

,7333257 

16,01 

,94960 

1.20 


24 

16 57 55.25 

11 39.6 

,7272767 

16.23 

,94913 

1.22 


25 

17 1 ^.57 

18 27,7 

.7211644 

16,46 

.94868 

1.23 


2(> 

5 6,83 

24 42.9 

.7149888 

16,70 

.94828 

1.25 


27 

8 37.85 

30 25.4 

.7087498 

16.94 

.94790 

1.27 


28 

12 5.45 

35 35.3 

.7024476 

17.19 

.947.56 

1.29 


29 

15 29.43 

40 12.9 

,6960822 

17„44 

,9472e 

1.31 


30 

18 49.60 

44 18.3 

,6896537 

17.70 

.94698 

1.33 


31 

22 5.73 

47 51.8 

.6831624 

17,97 

,94675 

1.35 


Nov. 1 

25 17,61 

50 53.8 

.6766086 

18,24 

,94655 

1.38 


2 

28 25,03 

53 24,4 

..6699930 

18,52 

,94638 

1.40 


3 

31 27,74 

55 24.0 

.6633164 

18,81 

.94624 

1.42 


4 

34 25.48 

56 52,9 

.6565798 

19,10 

,94615 

1.44 


5 

37 18.03 

57 51.3 

,6497844 

19.40 

.94608 

1.46 


6 

40 5.11 

58 19.5 

.6429320 

19,71 

,94605 

1.49 


7 

42 46.45 

58 17,9 

,6350245 

20,03 

,94605 

1.51 


8 

45 21.78 

57 46,8 

,6290645 

20 .,35 

,94608 

1.54 


9 

47 50.82 

56 46.5 

,6220548 

20.68 

.94615 

1.56 


10 

50 13.27 

5.5 17,2 

,6149989 

21,02: 

,94625 

1.59 


11 

52 28.83 

53 19.2 

,6079008 

21,37 

.94638 

1,61 


12 

54 37.21 

50 52.8 

.6007649 

21.72 

,94655 

1.64 


13 

56 38.10 

47 58.1 

,5935962 

22,08 

.94674 

1.66 


14 

17 58 31.19 

44 35.5 

,5864006 

22.45 

.94696 

1,69 


15 

18 16.19 

40 45.2 

,5791847 

22,83 

„9472^ 

1,72 


16 

1 52.80 

36 27.2 

.5719560 

23,21 

,94750 

1.75 


]7 

3 20.74 

31 41.6 

.5647227 

23,60 

,94782 

1.77 


18 

4 39.72 

26 28.4 

.5574940 

24,00 

,94816. 

1,80 


19 

5 49.45 

20 47.7 

.5502797 

24,40 

,94853 

1,83 


20 

6 49.65 

14 39.5 

.5430907 

24.81 

,94893 

1.86 


21 

7 40,07 

8 3.7 

.5359386 

25,22 

,94936 

1..89 


22 

8 20.49 

27 1 0.1 

.5288359 

25.63 

.94982 

1.92 


23 

8 50.67 

26 53 28.6 

.5217964 

26.05 

,95030 

1.95 


24 

9 10.43 

45 29.0 

.5148347 

26.47 

,95081 

1.98 


25 

9 19.61 

37 1.1 

.5079666 

26.90 

,95135 

2,01 


26 

9 18.07 

28 4.6 

.5012093 

27.32 

.95^91 

2,03 


27 

9 5.71 

18 39.0 

.4945810 

27.74 

.95250 

2.06 


28 

8 42.48 

26 8 44.0 

.4881006 

28.16 

.95312 

2.09 


29 

8 8.36 

25 58 19,3 

.4817880 

28.57 

.95376 

2,12 


30 

7 23.39 

47 24.9 

.4756642 

28.97 

.95444 

2,14 


Dec. 1 

6 27.65 

36 0.5 

.4697512 

29.37 

.95513 

2.17 


2 

5 21.30 

24 5.9 

.4640717 

29.76 

.95584 

2.19 


3 

4 4.58 

25 11 41.0 

,4586491 

30.13 

.95659 

2.22 


4 

2 37.79' 

24 58 46.1 

.4535072 

30,49 

.95734 

2.24 


5 

18 1 1.31 

45 21.4 

.4486698 

30.83 

.95813 

2.26 


6 

17 59 15.59 

31 27.5 

.4441610 

31,15 

.95894 

2.28 


7 

57 21.19 

17 5.4 

,4400052 

31.45 

.95976 

2.30 


8 

55 18.74 

24 2 16.2 

.4362259 

31.73 

.96060 

2.32 


9 

53 8.97 

23 47 1.5 

.4328452 

31.97 

,96146 

2.33 


10 

50 52.65 

31 23.2 

.4298840 

32.19 

.96232 

2.34 


11 

48 30.66 

23 15 23.8 

,4273616 

32.38 

.96320 

2.35 


12 

46 3.94 

22 59 5.9 

.4252948 

32.53 

.96408 

2.36 


13 

43 33.52 

42 32.7 

.4236976 

32.65 

,96495 

2.36 


14 

41 0.47 

25 47.6 

.4225813 

32.74 

.96583 

2.36 


15 

38 25.86 

22 8 54.6 

.4219542 

32.79 

.96671 

2.36 


16 

n 35 50,78 

—21 51 58.0 

9.4218215 

32.80 

9.96757 

2,36 










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EPHEMEKIDEJS AND AUXILIARY TABLES. 
Epliemeris of Venus for the first seWe^— Continued. 


Ixxxiii 


Wasliington. ]>Ieaii Noon* 


Date. 

a. 

s. 

log A. 

r. 

log cos ^^ 

^r.ec(J. 

1850. 

h. in. s. 




II 


s 

Dec. 17 

17 S3 16.36 

—21 35 2.5 

9.4221848 

32.77 

9.96843 

2,35 

18 

30 43.72 

18 12.8 

.4230420 

32,70 

,96926 

2.34 

19 

28 13.91 

21 1 33.5 

,424387« 

32,60 

,97007 

2.33 

20 

25 47,95 

20 45 9.3 

.4262131 

32,47 

,97086 

2.31 

21 

23 26.80 

29 5,1 

,4285052 

32,30 

,97163 

2,30 

22 

21 11,38 

20 13 25.5 

,4312487 

32.09 

.97236 

2.28 

23 

19 2.53 

19 58 14.9 

,4344261 

31,86 

,97307 

2.26 

24 

17 0.96 

43 37,2 

.4380176 

31,60 

,97374 

2.24 

25 

15 7.36 

29 35.1 

.4420012 

31.31 

.97437 

2,21 

26 

15 22.29 

16 14,8 

,4463532 

30.99 

.97496 

2.19 

27 

11 46.24 

19 3 36,2 

,4510497 

30,66 

,97552 

2.16 

28 

10 19,59 

18 51 42,5 

.4560665 

30.31 

,97603 

2.14 

29 

9 2,62 

40 35,6 

.4613789 

29.94 

,97651 

2.11 

30 

7 55.57 

30 17,0 

.4669623 

29.56 

.97695' 

2.08 

31 

6 58,60 

§0 47,6 

,4727919 

29.16 

.97735 

2.05 

1851. 







Jan. 1 

6 11.82 

12 7.8 

,4788439 

28,76 

,97771 

2.02 

2 

5 35.25 

18 4 17.9 

.4850958 

28,35 

.97803 

1.99 

3 

5 8.88 

17 57 17.6 

.4915256 

27.93 

,97832 

1.96 

4 

4 52,66 

51 6.3 

.4981120 

27.51 

,97857 

1.93 

5 

4 46.50 

45 43,0 

,5048354 

27,09 

.97879 

1.90 

6 

4 50.25 

41 6,6 

.5116777 

26,67 

.97898 

1,87 

7 

5 3,74 

37 15.9 

.5186239 

20.24 

,97913 

1.84 

8 ; 

5 26,83 

34 9.2 

.5256514 

25.82 

.97922 

1.81 

9 

5 59.33 

31 44.8 

.5327505 

25,40 

.97935 

1.78 

10 

6 41.01 

30 0.9 

.5399058 

24,99 

.97942 

1.75 

11 

7 31,65 

28 55,6 

.5471047 

24,58 

.97946 

1.72 

12 

8 31.05 

28 26,8 

.5543351 

24.17 

.97948 

1.69 

13 

9 38.98 

28 32.. 3 

.5615859 

23,77 

.97948 

1.66 

14 

10 55.21 

29 10,0 

,5688470 

23.38 

,97945 

1.63 

15 

12 19,52 

30 17.7 

.5761091 

22.99 

.97941 

1.61 

16 

13 51,67 

31 53.4 

.5833637 

22.61 

.97934 

1.58 

17 

15 31.40 

33 54.7 

,5906030 

22.24 

,97926 

1.56 

18 

17 18.48 

36 19.3 

,5978201 

21.87 

.,97917 

1.53 

19 

19 12.69 

39 5.2 

.6050086 

21.51 

,97906 

1.51 

20 

21 13.81 

42 10.1 

.6121629 

21.16 

.97893 

1.48 

21 

23 21,59 

45 31.8 

.6192780 

20.81 

.97880 

1.46 

22 

25 35,80 

49 8,2 

.6263493 

20.48 

,97865 

1.43 

23 

27 56.23 

52 57.2 

.6333728 

20.15 

.97849 

1.41 

24 

30 22.64 

17 56 56.8 

.6403450 

19.83 

.97833 

1.39 

25 

32 54.83 

18 1 5.1 

.6472630 

19.52 

.97817 

1.37 

26 

35 32.58 

5 20.0 

-.6541241 

19.21 

,97799 

1.35 

27 

38 15,70 

5 39.7 

,6609259 

13.91 

..97781 

1.33 

28 

41 3.98 

14 2.3 

.6676668 

18.62 

.97763 

1.31 

29 

43 57.22 

18 26.0 

.6743453 

18.34 

.97744 

1.29 

30 

46 55,24 

22 49,1 

.6809601 

18,06 

.97726 

1.27 

31 

49 57..87 

27 10.1 

.6875] 04 

17.79 

.97707 

1.25 

Feb. 1 

53 4.92 

31 27.3 

,6939956 

17.52 

.976a9 

1.23 

2 

56 16.23 

35 39.1 

.7004154 

17.27 

.97671 

1.21 

3 

17 59 31,64 

39 44.1 

,7087697 

17,02 

.97654 

1.20 

4 

18 2 50.99 

43 40.9 

.7130582 

16.77 

.97637 

1.18 

5 

6 14.13 

47 28.1 

.7192811 

16.53 

.97621 

1.16 

6 

.9 40.93 

Si 4.4 

.7254387 

16, .30 

.97606 

1.15 

7 

13 11.25 

54 28.5 

.7315313 

16.07 

.■97591 

1.13 

8 

16 44.96 

18 57 39.1 

.7375591 

15.85 

.97577 

1.12 

9 

20 21.93 

19 35.2 

.7435225 

15.64 

.97565 

1.10 

10 

24 2.03 

3 15.7 

.7494219 

15.43 

.97553 

1,09 

11 

27 45,16 

5 39.4 

.7552579 

15.22 

.97542 

1.07 

12 

31 31,20 

7 45.3 

.7610308 

15.02 

.97533 

1.06 

; 13 

18 35 20.04 

—19 9 32.5 

9.7667411 

14.82 

9.97525 

1.05 


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Ixxxiv 


EPHEMERIDES AND AUXILIARY TABLES. 


Ephemeris of Venus for the second series, or inferior conjunction 0/ 1852. 

ly^asliiiigtoii Mean Noon, 


Date. 

a. 

d. 

log A. 

r. 

log COS 0. 

irsecO^ 

1852. 

h. m. s. 

1 II 


It 


s. 

May 26 

7 28 35.95 

+24 50 45.1 

9.7753112 

14.53 

9.95781 

1.07 

27 

32 8,02 

40 39.3 

.7694729 

14.73 

.95841 

1.08 

28 

35 36.06 

30 11.6 

.7635691 

14.93 

.95901 

1.09 

29 

38 59.96 

19 23.0 

.7575999 

15.14 

.95963 

1.11 

30 

42 19.58 

24 8 14.5 

.7515657 

15.35 

.96027 

1.12 

31 

45 34.77 

23 56 47,1 

.7454669 

15.57 

.96091 

1.14 

June 1 

48 45.40 

45 1.9 

.7393039 

15.79 

,96157 

1.15 

2 

51 51.35 

32 59.7 

.7330773 

16.01 

,96223 

1.16 

3 

54 52.48 

20 41.5 

.7267881 

16.25 

.96291 

1.18 

4 

7 57 48.64 

23 8 8.5 

.7204371 

16.49 

.96359 

1.20 

5 

8 39.69 

22 55 21.8 

.7140253 

16.73 

.96427 

1.21 

6 

3 25.47 

42 22.3 

.VU7ob40 

16.98 

.96496 

1.23 

7 

6 5.84 

29 11.2 

.7010242 

17.24 

.96566 

1.24 

8 

8 40.64 

15 49.6 

.6944378 

17.51 

.96635 

1.26 

9 

11 9.72 

22 2 18.6 

.6877963 

17.78 

.96704 

1.28 

10 

13 32.90 

21 48 39.4 

.6811017 

18.05 

.96774 

1.30 

11 

15 50.01 

34 53.2 

.6743564 

18.33 

.96844 

1.31 

12 

18 0.88 

21 1.1 

.6675627 

18.62 

,96912 

1.33 

13 

20 5.32 

21 7 4.2 

.6607234 

18.92 

,96981 

1.35 

14 

22 3.14 

20 53 3.8 

.6538418 

19.22 

,97049 

1.37 

15 

23 54.15 

39 1.2 

.6469214 

19.53 

.97116 

1.39 

16 

25 38.14 

24 57.6 

.6399662 

19.85 

.97182 

1.41 

17 

27 14.89 

20 10 54.3 

.6329807 

20.17 

.97248 

1.43 

18 

28 44.19 

19 56 52.6 

,6259704 

20.50 

.97313 

1.45 

]9 

30 5.83 

42 53.7 

.6189411 

20.83 

.97377 

1.47 

20 

31 19.58 

28 59.0 

,6118993 

21.17 

.97439 

1.50 

21 

32 25.21 

15 9.9 

.6048524 

21.52 

.97501 

1.52 

22 

33 22.50 

19 1 27.6 

.5978088 

21.87 

.97561 

1.54 

23 

34 11.22 

18 47 53.5 

.5907778 

22.23 

.97619 

1.57 

24 

34 51,16 

34 29.0 

.5837692 

22.59 

.97677 

1.59 

25 

35 22.13 

21 15.5 

.5767938 

22.95 

.97733 

1.61 

26 

35 43.93 

18 8 14.2 

.5698634 

23.32 

.97787 

1.64 

27 

35 56.38 

17 55 26.5 

.5629913 

23.69 

.97839 

1.66 

28 

35 59.32 

42 53.8 

.5561920 

24.07 

.97890 

1.68 

29 

35 52.63 

30 37.3 

.5494807 

24.44 

.97940 

1.71 

30 

35 36.19 

18 38.3 

.5428732 

24.82 

.97987 

1.73 

July 1 

35 9.92 

17 6 57.9 

.5363863 

25.19 

,98032 

1.76 

2 

34 33.77 

16 55 37.4 

.5300382 

25.56 

.98076 

1.78 

3 

33 47.75 

44 38.0 

.5238480 

25.93 

.98118 

1.81 

4 

32 51.92 

34 0.7 

.5178354 

26.29 

.98159 

1.83 

5 

31 46.36 

23 46.4 

.5120209 

26.65 

.98197 

1.85 

6 

30 31.22 

13 56.0 

.5064250 

26.99 

.98233 

1.87 

7 

29 6.71 

16 4 30.6 

.5010687 

27.33 

.98268 

1.90 

8 

27 33.09 

15 55 30.9 

.4959735 

27.65 

.98300 

1.92 

9 

25 50.69 

46 57.7 

.4911613 

27.96 

.98331 

1.94 

10 

23 59.91 

38 51.5 

.4866534 

28.25 

.98360 

1.96 

11 

22 1.19 

31 13.0 

.4824704 

28.52 

.98387 

1.97 

12 

19 55.05 

24 2.7 

.4786323 

28.77 

.98411 

1.99 

13 

17 42.08 

17 20.9 

.4751580 

29.00 

.98435 

2.00 

14 

15 22.95 

11 7.9 

.4720657 

29.21 

.98456 

2.03 

15 

12 58.39 

5 23.8 

.4693721 

29.39 

.98476 

2.03 

16 

10 29.18 

15 9.0 

.4670919 

29.55 

.98494 

2.04 

17 

7 56.12 

14 55 23.5 

.4652377 

29.68 

.98510 

2.05 

18 

5 20.09 

51 7.2 

.4638199 

29.77 

,98525 

2.05 

19 

2 42.02 

47 19.9 

.4628470 

29.84 

.98537 

2.06 

20 

8 2.86 

44 1.4 

.4623245 

29.88 

,98548 

2.06 

21 

7 57 23.54 

41 11.4 

.4622553 

29.88 

,98557 

2.06 

22 

54 45.03 

38 49.5 

.4626392 

29.85 

.98566 

2.06 

23 

52 8.29 

36 55.2 

.46347:^ 

29.80 

.98571 

2.05 

24 

49 34.28 

35 28.0 

.4647517 

29.71 

.98576 

2.05 

25 

7 47 3.90 

+14 34 27.1 

9.4664665 

29.59 

9,98580 

2.04 


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EPHEMERIDES AND AUXILIARY TABLES. 


Ixxxv 


Epliemeris of Venus for the second series — Continued. 

"Wasliingtoii Mean IVooii, 


Date. 

a. 

8, 

log A. 

r. 

log cos §^ 

— ^sec J. 

1852. 

h. in. s. 

° 1 II 


II 


s. 

July 26 

7 44 38.03 

+14 33 51.8 

9.4686071 

29.45 

9.98581 

2.03 

27 

42 17.51 

33 41.3 

.4711603 

29.27 

.98582 

2.02 

28 

40 3.13 

33 54.7 

.4741106 

29.07 

.98581 

2.00 

29 

37 55.60 

34 30.9 

.4774406 

28.85 

.98579 

1.99 

30 

35 55.58 

35 28.7 

.4811314 

28.61 

.98576 

1.97 

31 

34 3.64 

36 47.1 

.4851627 

28.35 

.98572 

1.95 

Aug. 1 

32 20.26 

38 24.8 

.4895135 

28.06 

.98567 

1.93 

2 

30 45.89 

40 20.5 

.4941620 

27.76 

.98560 

1.91 

3 

29 20.88 

42 33.0 

.4990861 

27.45 

.98553 

1.89 

4 

28 5.50 

45 0.7 

.5042636 

27.13 

.98545 

1.87 

5 

26 59.96 

47 42.2 

.5096723 

26.79 

.98536 

1.85 

6 

26 4.40 

50 36.2 

.5152906 

26.45 

.98526 

1.82 

7 

25 18.90 

53 41.1 

.5210975 

26.10 

.98516 

1.80 

8 

24 43.50 

14 56 55.4 

.5270726 

25.74 

.98505 

1.78 

9 

24 18.18 

15 17.7 

.5331963 

25.38 

.98493 

1.75 

10 

24 2.85 

3 46.3 

.5394504 

25.01 

.98482 

1.73 

11 

23 57.40 

7 19.8 

.5458175 

24.65 

.98470 

1.70 

12 

24 1.69 

10 56.8 

.5522813 

24.29 

.98457 

1.68 

13 

24 15.58 

14 35.9 

.5588265 

23.92 

.98445 

1.65 

14 

24 38.88 

18 15.5 

.5654393 

23.56 

.98432 

1.63 

15 

25 11.38 

21 54.2 

.5721067 

23.20 

.98419 

1.60 

16 

25 52.85 

25 30.5 

.5788168 

22.85 

.98407 

1.58 

17 

26 43.06 

29 3.2 

.5855585 

22.50 

.98395 

1.56 

18 

27 41.78 

32 30.9 

.5923220 

22.15 

.98382 

1.53 

19 

28 48.78 

35 52.3 

.5990984 

21.80 

.98370 

1.51 

20 

30 3.81 

39 6.2 

.6058795 

21.47 

.98359 

1.49 

21 

31 26.62 

42 11.2 

.6126579 

21.13 

.98348 

1.46 

22 

32 56.97 

45 6.2 

.6194266 

20.81 

.98338 

1.44 

23 

34 34.64 

47 50.1 

.6261794 

20.49 

.98328 

1.42 

24 

36 19.39 

50 21.5 

.6329106 

20.17 

.98319 

1.40 

25 

38 10.98 

52 39.4 

.6396153 

19.86 

.98310 

1.38 

26 

40 9.17 

54 42.8 

.6462889 

19.56 

.98303 

1.36 

27 

42 13.74 

56 30.6 

.6529272 

19.26 

.98297 

1.34 

28 

44 24.47 

58 1.7 

.6595264 

18.97 

.98291 

1.32 

29 

46 41.14 

15 .59 15.2 

.6660828 

18.69 

.98287 

1.30 

30 

49 3.55 

16 10.2 

.6725935 

18.41 

,98284 

1.28 

31 

51 31.47 

45.7 

.6790557 

18.14 

.98282 

1.26 

Sept. 1 

54 4.70 

1 0.9 

.6854669 

17.87 

.98281 

1.24 

2 

56 43.03 

55.0 

.6918250 

17.61 

.98281 

1.22 

3 

7 59 26.26 

J6 27.3 

.6981281 

17.36 

.98283 

1.20 

4 

8 2 14.19 

15 59 37.0 

.7043746 

17.11 

.98285 

1.19 

5 

5 6.62 

58 23.4 

.7105631 

16.87 

.98291 

1.17 

6 

8 3.36 

56 45.9 

.7166925 

16.63 

.98296 

1.15 

7 

11 4.23 

54 43.9 

.7227618 

16.40 

.98303 

1.14 

8 

14 9.05 

52 16.9 

.7287702 

16.18 

.98312 

1.12 

9 

17 17.65 

49 24.5 

.7347174 

15.96 

.98322 

1.11 

10 

20 29.84 

46 6.1 

.7406030 

15.74 

.98334 

1.09 

11 

23 45.47 

42 21.4 

.7464268 

15.53 

.98348 

1.08 

12 

27 4.38 

38 9.9 

.7521888 

15.33 

.98362 

1.06 

13 

30 26.41 

33 31.3 

.7578892 

15.13 

.98379 

1.05 

14 

33 51.42 

28 25.4 

.7635283 

14.93 

.98397 

1.03 

15 

37 19.26 

22 52.0 

.7691064 

14.74 

.98416 

1.02 

16 

40 49.80 

16 50.7 

.7746240 

14.56 

.984.37 

1.01 

17 

8 44 22.91 

+15 10 21.5 

9.7800817 

14.37 

9.98459 

0.99 


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IxXXvi EPHEMERIDES AND AUXILIARY TABLES. 

The defect of illumination in right-ascension and declination may be readily obtained upon 
the admissible assumptions that the planet is spherical and illuminated by parallel solar rays. 
We are to compute the corrections to the measurements by a micrometer, the threads of which 
represent hour and declination-circles, and are tangent to the defective limbs at the points h 
and d, respectively. The illuminated portion of the planet is separated from the other half by 
a plane perpendicular to the line from the sun to the planet, and its visible boundary will be 
projected upon the plane of the apparent disc as a semi-ellipse. The plane is horned or gibbous, 
according as the planetocentric angle between earth and sun is more or less than 90°; and the 
unilluminated portion of the solar disc is, in each case, upon that side of the planet from which 
the sun is more than 180° distant— this geocentric angular distance being counted from the 
centre of the planet toward either side. 

Employing r, as heretofore, for the apparent semidiameter of the planet, and de|;ioting the 
semiaxes of the ellipse by a and &, we have r = a. And representing, in the plane triangle 
Sun-Earth-Planet, the two first angles by the initial letters of the respective bodies, we may 
assume, without appreciable error, 

6 ==z r cos (S' -f- E) 
an expression which gives to the minor semiaxis a negative sign when the visible ellipse is 
unilluminated — i. e., the planet horned. 

Denoting now the geocentric longitude, right-ascension, and declination of the sun, by L, A, D, 
the geocentric right-ascension and declination of the planet by a, d 
the heliocentric longitude and latitude '^ '' ^, ^ 

all of which quantities may be directly taken from the ephemerides— we have the equations 
cos 8= — cos /? cos (A — L) 
cos E:= sin d sin i) + cos 5 cos D cos («— ^) 
sin E cosp — — cos (? sin Z^ + sin d cos D cos (a— A) 
sin E 8mp=: — cos D sin (a— A) 
It is evident that the angle ^9 is equal to the angle made with the semiaxis a by the tangent 
at d, or to the complement of that made by the tangent at h. The first equation may also be 

written 

;S^zz:180° + i — A+2sin2i/3cotg (L — X) 

and of the three angles S, E,p, the first two determine the magnitude of the ellipse, and never 
exceed 180^, while the last, counted like other angles of position from north through east round 
to the semiaxis 6, fixes its position. 

A convenient mode of computing the angles E and jp is afforded by the employment of auxili- 
ary quantities g and G ; so that 

g sin G = cos E cos (a — A) 
g cos Gz=z sin E 

, cos E sin {a — A) 

^^"^ P - ~J^{G + d) 
cotg E = tan {G + d) cos p. 
The general expression for the tangent of the angle included between a tangent to the ellipse 
and its major axis is 

and the distance between the centre of the ellipse and the point where this tangent intersects 
the major axis is — • Hence we have 

at the point h cotgp = —^ 


at the point d tanp = — 




a^ y 


ji 


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EPHEMERIDES AND AUXILIARY TABLES. IxXXTil 

and transforming to oblique coordinates x^ and y^ parallel to the hour and declination circles, 

^1 = -7 . cos^; y^= sm p. 

X x' 

or eliminating x! and a/' by the equation of the ellipse a^ W •=.ly^ x- Ar c? y- 

x^ zzz a^ cos^ p + i^ sin^^3. 

y^^ =: a^ sin^ j9 + ^^ cos^^. 
in which the substitution of the values a =z r, b =z cos (S -{' E) give 

ccj = r V 1 — sin^ p sin^ {S + .£/) 

2/j = r V 1 ™ cos^ p sin^ (/S' + E) 
which_, being subtracted from the semidiameter, give the defect of illumination 

z/a cos ^ = r — x^izz r (1 — '^/ 1 — sin^ p sin^ [8 + E)^ 
Jd = r — y^ = r(l— V 1 — cos> sin^ (/S' + j&), 
For the preliminary correction in parallax we have, as usual, 

/ -s^^ p cos cp' . //J N 

A cos (J ^ ^ 

A ^ ^ sin C 

in which o! and d^ denote the geocentric places, and ^ is the auxiliary angle 

tan ^ zzz tan cp^ sec (^ — a) 
The second equation may be written, 

o^ — 8=: — __? ^o sin cp^ (sin 8 cotg C — cos (?) zr — ^ < /? cos ^p^ sin d cos (^ — «) — p sin ^' cos d i 

A COS (? 7c' sin <? //) N 

=: — COS (6 — a) 

A A ^ ^ 

It is very convenient to make use of auxiliary tables for these values, at least in the case of 
series so extended as the Santiago observations ; we, therefore, write 

a — o! z=z A sin (d — a) 
d — 8' = I) + Ecos (d — a) 

and construct tables of ^=: ~— ^ — -; D =: — .^L— — ; E=: 1 — ^]^ ^ , and for meridian observa- 

A cos (5 A A 

tions D + ^'z^ — ^ sin (cp' — d) 


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Ircxxviii 


EPHEMERIDES AND AUXILIARY TABLES 


Parallax-tahles for Santiago, 

Mars I. 


Washington Noon. 


1849.— Dec. 7 
8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
1850.— Jan. 1 
2 
3 
4 
5 


10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
1 
2 
3 
4 
5 


Feb. 


1.13625 

1.13703 

1.13765 

1.13811 

1.13840 

1.13852 

1.13848 

1.13827 

1.13790 

1.13735 

1.13684 

1.13576 

1.13472 

1.13352 

1.13315 

1.13062 

1.12894 

1.12710 

1.12512 

1.12299 

1.12071 

1.11829 

1.11574 

1.11306 

1.11026 

1.10734 

1.10430 

1.10115 

1.09790 

1.09455 

1.09110 

1.08756 

1.08393 

1.08022 

1.07644 

1.07258 

1.08866 

1.06468 

1.08064 

1.05654 

1.05210 

1.04821 

1.04399 

1.03974 

1.03545 

1.03114 

1.02680 

1.02244 

1.01807 

1.01368 

1.00928 

1.00487 

1.00046 

0.99605 

0.99163 

0.98721 

0.98279 

0.97838 

0.97397 

0.96957 

0.96517 


78 
62 
46 
29 
12 
"4 
21 
37 
55 
71 
88 
104 
120 
137 
153 
168 
184 
198 
213 
228 
242 
255 
268 
280 
292 
304 
315 
325 
335 
345 
354 
363 
371 
378 
386 
392 
398 
404 
410 
414 
419 
422 
425 
429 
431 
434 
436 
437 
439 
440 
441 
441 
441 
442 
442 
442 
441 
441 
440 
440 


+7.236 
7.244 
7.249 
7.252 
7.252 
7.250 
7.245 
7.238 
7.229 
7.217 
7.203 
7.186 
7.167 
7.145 
7.121 
7.095 
7.067 
7.036 
7.004 
6.970 
6.934 
6.896 
6.857 
6.816 
6.773 
6.729 
6.684 
6.637 
6.589 
6.540 
6.490 
6.439 
6.388 
6.336 
6.283 
6.229 
6.175 
6.120 
6.065 
6.010 
5.955 
5.900 
5.844 
5.788 
5.733 
5.678 
5.623 
5.568 
5.513 
5.459 
5.405 
5.351 
5.298 
5.245 
5.193 
5.141 
5.089 
5.038 
4.987 
4.937 
4-4.888 


12 
14 
17 
19 
22 
24 
26 
28 
31 
32 
34 
36 
38 
39 
41 
43 
44 
45 
47 
48 
49 
50 
51 
51 
52 
53 
54 
54 
55 
55 
55 
55 
55 
56 
56 
55 


55 
54 
54 
54 
53 
53 
52 
52 
52 
51 
51 
50 
49 


0.73328 

0.73456 

0.73565 

0.73655 

0.73726 

0.73778 

0.73810 

0.73823 

0.73816 

0.73789 

0.73742 

0.73675 

0.73589 

0.73483 

0.73358 

0.73215 

0.73053 

0.72873 

0.72676 

0.72461 

0.72230 

0.71983 

0.71720 

0.71443 

0.71151 

0.70846 

0.70528 

0.70197 

0.69855 

0.69502 

0.69138 

0.68765 

0.68382 

0.67991 

0.67592 

0.67185 

0.66772 

0.68353 

0.65928 

0.65499 

0.65085 

0.64628 

0.64187 

0.63743 

0.63297 

0.62849 

0.62400 

0.61949 

0.61498 

0.61046 

0.60594 

0.60142 

0.59690 

0.59239 

0.58788 

0.58338 

0.57889 

0.57441 

0.56995 

0.56550 

0.56107 


128 

109 
90 
71 
52 
32 
13 
~7 
27 
47 
67 
86 

108 

125 

143 

162 

180 

197 

215 ' 

231 

247 

263 

277 

292 

305 

318 

331 

342 

353 

364 

373 

383 

391 

399 

407 

413 

419 

425 

429 

434 

437 

441 

444 

446 

448 

449 

451 

451 

452 

452 

452 

452 

451 

451 

450 

449 

448 

446 

445 

443 


D-\-E. 


+12.65 
12.67 
12.69 
12.70 
12,71 
12.72 
12.72 
12. VI 
12.70 
12.69 
12.67 
12.64 
12.61 
12.58 
12.54 
12.49 
12.44 
12.39 
12.33 
12.27 
12.21 
12.14 
12.07 
12.00 
11.92 
11.84 
11.76 
11,67 
11.58 
11.49 
11.40 
11.31 
11.22 
11.12 
11.02 
10.93 
10.83 
10.73 
10.63 
10.53 
10.43 
10.33 
10.23 
10.13 
10.03 
9.93 
9.83 
9.73 
9.63 
9.54 
9.44 
9.35 
9.25 
9.16 
9.06 
8.97 
8.88 
8.79 
8.70 
8.61 
8.53 


10 
10 

9 

10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 

9 
10 

9 
10 

9 
10 


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EPHEMERIDES AND AUXILIARY TABLES. 
Purallax tables for Santiago. 


Ixxxix 


Mars II. 


Washington Noon. 


log. ^. 


18gl. Dec. 12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
1852. Jan. 1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 


10 
11 
12 
13 

14 
15 
16 
17 
IS 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 


30 
31 
Feb. 1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 


0.9B809 

0.97171 

0.97533 

97895 

0.98255 

0.98613 

0.98970 

0.99325 

0.99677 

1.00027 

1.00373 

1.00716 

1.01055 

1.01390 

1.01720 

1.02045 

1.02364 

1.02677 

1.02984 

1.03284 

1.03577 

1.03862 

1.04139 

1.04407 

1.04666 

1.04916 

1.05155 

1.05384 

?. 0.5602 

1.05808 

1.06003 

1.06185 

1.06355 

1.06512 

1.06655 

1.06784 

1.06899 

1.07000 

1.07086 

1.07157 

1.07212 

1.07252 

1.07276 

1,072:84 

1,07277 

1.07254 

1.07215 

1.07160 

1,07090 

1,07004 

1.06903 

1.06787 

1.06657 

1.06512 

1.06353 

1,06180 

1.05994 

1.05794 

1.05581 

1.05356 

1.05119 


362 
362 
362 
360 
358 
357 
355 
352 
350 
346 
343 
339 
335 
330 
325 
319 
313 
307 
300 
293 
285 
277 
268 
259 
250 
239 
929 
218 
206 
195 
182 
170 
157 
143 
129 
115 
101 
86 
7i 
55 
40 

24 i 
8 I 

23 

39 

55 

70 

86 
101 
116 
130 
145 
159 
173 
186 
200 
213 
225 
237 


+5.412 
5.455 
5,498 
5.541 
5.584 
5.627 
5.669 
5.712 
5.754 
5.796 
5.837 
5.878 
5.919 
5.959 
5,998 
6.036 
6.073 
6.109 
6.145 
6.180 
6.213 
6.245 
6.276 
6.305 
6.333 
6.359 
6.384 
6.408 
6.430 
6.4,50 
6,468 
6,484 
6.498 
6.510 
6.520 
6.528 
6.534 
6.538 
6.539 
6.539 
6.. 536 
6,531 
6.524 
6,515 
6.503 
6,489 
6.473 
6,456 
6,437 
6.416 
6,393 
6,368 
6,342 
6,314 
6.284 
6.253 
6.220 
6,186 
6,151 
6,115 
+6.077 


43 

43 

43 

43 

43 

42 

43 

42 

42 

41 

41 

41 

40 

39 

38 

37 

36 

36 

35 

33 

32 

31 

29 

28 

26 

25 

24 

22 

20 

18 

16 

14 

12 

10 


4 

1 



~3 

5 

7 

9 

12 

14 

16 

17 

19 

21 

23 

25 

26 


log. E. 


0.46712 

0.47135 

0.47564 

0.48000 

0.48441 

0.48888 

0.49340 

0.49797 

0.50259 

0.50725 

0.51194 

0.51666 

0.52140 

0.52616 

0.53093 

0.53570 

0.54046 

0.54521 

0.54994 

0.55464 

0.55931 

0.56393 

0.56850 

57301 

0.57745 

0.58181 

0.58608 

0.59026 

0.59433 

0.59829 

0.60212 

0.60582 

0.60939 

0.61281 

0.61607 

0.61917 

0.62209 

0.62483 

0.62740 

0.62978 

0.63196 

0.63395 

0.63573 

0.63730 

0.63867 

0,63983 

0.64077 

0,64150 

0.64202 

0.64233 

0,64242 

0,64231 

0,64199 

0.64147 

0.64075 

0.63983 

0,63872 

0.63742 

0.63594 

0.63428 

0.63244 


423 

429 

436 

441 

447 

452 

457 

462 

466 

469 

472 

474 

476 

477 

477 

476 

475 

473 

470 

467 

462 

457 

451 

444 

436 

427 

418 

407 


383 
370 
357 
342 
326 
310 
292 
274 
257 
238 
218 
199 
178 
157 
137 
116 
94 
73 
52 
31 
9 
IT 
32 
52 

'72 
92 

111 

130 

148 

166 

184 

201 


JD+E. 


+8.34 
8.42 
8,49 
8,56 
8,64 
8.71 
8,78 
8.86 
8,94 
9,01 
9.09 
9.16 
9,24 
9.32 
9.39 
9.47 
9,54 
9.62 
9,69 
9.77 
9.84 
9,91 
9,98 
10.05 
10.11 
10.18 
10,24 
10.30 
10 36 
10.42 
10.47 
10,52 
10.57 
10.61 
10.65 
10,69 
10,72 
10,75 
10.78 
10.80 
10.82 
10.84 
10.85 
10.85 
10.86 • 
10.85 
10,85 
10.84 
10.82 
10.80 
10.78 
10.76 
10.73 
10.69 
10,66 
10,62 
10.57 
10,52 
10.48 
10.42 
+10.37 


5 
5 
4 
4 
4 
3 
3 
3 
2 
2 
2 
1 

1 

T 

1 
2 

2 

2 

2 

3 

4 

3 

4 

5 

5 

4 

6 

5 


NO 


Hosted by 


Google 


xc 


EPHEMERIDES AND AUXILIARY TABLES. 

Parallax taUes for Santiago. 


Mars II — Continued. 


Washington Noon. 


1852. Feb. 11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 

21 

22 

23 

24 

25 

26 

27 

28 

29 

Mar. 1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 

21 


log. ^. 


1.04870 
1.04610 
1.04339 
1.04057 
1.03765 
1.03464 
1.03154 
1.02835 
1.02508 
1.02173 
1.01831 
1.01482 
1.01126 
1.00765 
1.00398 
1.00026 
0.99649 
0.99268 
0.98883 
0.98495 
0.98103 
0.97708 
0.97310 
0.96910 
0.96508 
0.96104 
0.95698 
0.95291 
0.94883 
0.94474 
0.94064 
0.93654 
0.93243 
0.92832 
0.92421 
0.92010 
0.91599 
0.91189 
0.90779 
0.90370 


249 
280 
271 
282 
292 
301 
310 
319 
327 
335 
342 
349 
356 
361 
367 
372 
377 
381 
385 
388 
392 
395 
398 
400 
402 
404 
406 
407 
408 
409 
410 
410 
411 
411 
411 
411 
411 
410 
410 


D. 


+6.039 
6.000 
5.960 
5.919 
5.877 
5.835 
5.792 
5.748 
5.704 
5.660 
5.616 
5.571 
5.526 
5.481 
5.436 
5.391 
5.346 
5.301 
5.256 
5.211 
5.167 
5.123 
5.079 
5.035 
4.992 
4.949 
4.906 
4.864 
4.822 
4.780 
4.739 
4.698 
4.658 
4.618 
4.579 
4.540 
4.501 
4.463 
4.425 
-{-4.388 


38 
39 
40 
41 
42 
42 
43 
44 
44 
44 
44 
45 
45 
45 
45 
45 
45 
45 
45 
45 
44 
44 
44 
44 
43 
43 
43 
42 
42 
42 
41 
41 
40 
40 
39 
39 
39 
38 
38 
37 


log. E. 


0.63043 
0.62826 
0.62592 
0.62343 
0.62079 
0.61800 
0.61508 
0.61203 
0.60885 
0.60555 
0.60214 
0.59862 
0.59499 
0.59127 
0.58745 
0.58355 
0.57956 
0.57549 
0.57135 
0.56714 
0.56286 
0.55852 
0.55413 
0.54968 
0.54518 
0.54063 
0.53604 
0.53140 
0.52672 
0.52201 
0.51726 
0.51247 
0.50765 
0.50280 
0.49793 
0.49303 
0.48810 
0.48315 
0.47817 
0.47318 


201 
217 
234 
249 
264 
279 
292 
305 
318 
330 
341 
352 
363 
372 
382 
390 
399 
407 
414 
421 
428 
434 
439 
445 
450 
455 
459 
464 
468 
471 
475 
479 
482 
485 
487 
490 
493 
495 
498 
499 


J)-{-E. 


^-10. 31 
10.25 
10.19 
10.12 
10.05 
9.98 
9.91 
9.84 
9.77 
9.69 
9.62 
9.54 
9.46 
9.38 
9.30 
9.22 
9.14 
9.06 
8.98 
8.90 
8.82 
8.74 
8.66 
8.58 
8.50 
8.42 
8.34 
8.26 
8.18 
8.11 
8.03 
7.95 
7.88 
7.80 
7.73 
7.65 
7.58 
7.50 
7.43 
+7.36 


Hosted by 


Google 


EPHEMERIDES AND AUXILIARY TABLES. 
Parallax tables for Santiago, 


XCl 


Venus I, 


Washington Noon. 


1850. 


Nov, 


Oct. 16 
17 

18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 


10 
11 
12 
13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 

21 

22 

23 

24 

25 

26 

27 

28 

29 

30 

Dec, 1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 


1.12715 

1.13345 

1,13979 

1,14616 

1.15256 

1,15899 

1.16546 

1,17196 

1,17848 

1.18503 

1,19162 

1,19824 

1,20488 

1.21155 

1,21825 

1,22498 

1.23173 

1.23851 

1,24532 

1,25216 

1.25902 

1.26590 

1.27281 

1.27974 

1,28668 

1,29363 

1,30060 

1,30757 

1,31455 

1,32152 

1.32848 

1.33542 

1.34234 

1,34923 

1.35607 

1.36286 

1.36959 

1.37624 

1.38279 

1,. 38924 

1.39557 

1.40176 

1.40780 

1.41367 

1.41934 

1.42479 

1.43001 

1.43497 

1.43965 

1.44403 

1,44808 

1.45177 

1.45512 

1.45806 

1.46059 

1.46268 

1,46433 

1.46552 

1.46623 

1.46647 

1.46622 

1.46549 


630 
634 
637 
640 
643 
647 
650 
652 
655 
659 
662 
664 
667 
670 
673 
675 
678 
681 
684 


691 
693 
694 
695 
697 
697 
698 
697 
696 
694 
692 
689 
684 
679 
673 
665 
655 
645 
633 
619 
604 
587 
.567 
.545 
522 
496 
468 


253 
209 
163 
119 
71 
24 
25 
73 
122 


+7.107 
7.188 
7.27] 
7.357 
7.446 
7.537 
7.631 
7.728 
7,828 
7.931 
8.037 
8,146 
8,258 
8.374 
8.494 
8.617 
8.744 
8.875 
9.009 
9.148 
9.291 
9.438 
9.589 
9.745 


10.070 
10,239 
10,412 
10,590 
10,773 
10,960 
11.151 
11.347 
11.547 
11.750 
11.957 
12,167 
12.381 
12,597 
12.816 
13.036 
13.2.58 
13.480 
13.702 
13.923 
14.143 
14.360 
14.573 
14.781 
14,984 
15.179 
15.366 
15.543 
15.709 
15.863 
16.003 
16.129 
16.239 
16.332 
16.407 
16.464 
-f- 16.502 


81 
83 
86 
89 
91 
94 
97 
100 
103 
106 
109 
112 
116 
120 
123 
127 
131 
134 
139 
143 
147 
151 
156 
160 
165 
169 
173 
178 
183 
187 
191 
196 
200 
203 

207 

210 

214 

216 

219 

220 

222 

222 

222 

221 

220 

217 

213 

208 

203 

195 

187 

177 

166 

154 

140 

126 

110 
93 
75 
57 
38 
18 


log. E. 


710.72213 

nO. 73064 

wO. 73905 

nO. 74736 

wO. 75557 

nO. 76369 

wO. 77172 

wO, 77967 

nO. 78753 

wO. 79531 

nO. 80302 

nO, 81065 

nO. 81820 

nO, 82568 

710,83309 

710.84044 

710,84772 

710.85494 

710,86209 

710,86918 

710,87620 

710.88316 

7i0, 89006 

710.89690 

710.90367 

7^0.91037 

710,91700 

7x0,92356 

710,93003 

710,93642 

7x0.94271 

7x0,94890 

7x0,95498 

7x0,96094 

7x0,96677 

7x0, 97246 

7x0.97799 

7x0.98335 

7x0,98852 

nO, 99348 

7x0.99822 

7x1.00271 

ril. 00694 

7x1,01088 

7x1.01451 

7x1.01779 

7x1.02071 

7x1.02323 

7x1.02533 

7x1.02699 

7x1.02817 

7x1.02885 

7x1.02901 

7x1.02861 

7x1.02765 

7x1.02610 

7x1.02395 

7x1.02120 

7x1.01784 

7x1.01386 

7x1.00928 

7x1.00412 


851 

841 

831 

821 

812 

803 

795 

786 

778 

771 

763 

755 

748 

741 

735 

728 

722 

715 

709 

702 

696 

690 

684 

677 

670 

663 

656 

647 

639 

629 

619 

608 

596 

583 

569 

553 

536 

517 

496 

474 

449 

423 

394 

363 

328 

292 

252 

210 

166 

118 
68 
16 
40 
96 

155 

215 

275 

336 

398 

458 

516 

573 


D-fjE. 


+1,83 
1.81 
1.79 
1,77 
1,75 
1.74 
1,72 
1.71 
1.70 
1.69 
1,68 
1,68 
1,68 
1,68 
1.68 
1.69 
1.70 
1,72 
1.73 
1.75 
1.77 
1,80 
1.83 
1.86 
1,89 
1,94 
1,98 
2,03 
2.08 
2.14 
2,20 
2,26 
2.33 
2.41 
2.49 
2,57 
2.66 
2,76 
2.86 
2,97 
3.08 
3.20 
3.32 
3,45 
3.58 
3.72 
3,87 
4.02 
4.18 
4,34 
4.51 
4.68 
4.85 
5.03 
5.21 
5.38 
5.56 
5.74 
5.91 
6.08 
6.25 
+ 6.41 


2 

2 
2 
2 
1 
2 
1 
1 
1 
1 


~0 


1 
1 

2 
1 

2 
2 
3 
3 
3 
3 
5 
4 
5 
5 
6 
6 
6 
7 


10 
10 
11 
11 
12 
12 
13 
13 
14 
15 
15 
16 
16 
17 
17 
17 
18 
18 
17 
18 
18 
17 
17 
17 
16 
15 


Hosted by 


Google 


XCli 


EPHEMERIDES AND AUXILIARY TABLES. 

Parallax tahlesfor Santiago, 


Veiiiis I— Continued. 


Washington Noon. 

lo^. A. 

Z). 

iog.E. 

D^E. 



122 

// 

18 


573 

II 

15 

1850. Dec. 17 

1.46427 

169 

4-16.520 

1 

910.99839 

627 

+6.56 

14 

18 

1.46258 

16.519 


wO. 99212 

6.70 



216 


20 


678 


13 

19 

1.48042 

262 

16.499 

39 

«0. 98534 

725 

6,83 

12 

20 

1.45780 

305 

16.460 

58 

wO. 97809 

769 

6.95 

11 

21 

1.45475 

348 

16.402 

75 

910.97040 

808 

7.06 

10 

22 

1.45127 

388 

16.327 

93 

«0. 96232 

842 

7.16 

8 

23 

1.44739 

426 

16.234 

109 

«0. 95390 

871 

7.24 

7 

24 

1.44313 

461 

16.125 

124 

wO. 94519 

895 

7.31 

6 

25 

1.43852 

495 

16.001 

138 

«0. 93624 

915 

7,37 

4 

26 

1.43357 

525 

15.863 

151 

nO. 92709 

929 

7.41 

3 

27 

1.42832 

553 

15.712 

162 

«0. 91780 

939 

7.44 

1 

28 

1.42279 

579 

15.550 

172 

nO. 90841 

945 

7.45 



29 

1.41700 

602 

15.378 

181 

»iO. 89896 

945 

7.45 

T 

30 

1.41098 

623 

15.197 

189 

wO. 88951 

943 

7.44 

2 

31 

1.40475 

641 

15,008 

195 

nO. 88008 

937 

7.42 

3 

1851. Jan. 1 

1.39834 

658 

14.813 

201 

wO. 87071 

927 

7.39 

5 

2 

1.39176 

672 

14.612 

205 

710.86144 

915 

7.34 

5 

3 

1.38504 

684 
694 

14. .407 

209 
211 

wO. 85229 

901 

884 

7.29 

6 

7 

4 

1.37820 

14.198 

«0. 84328 

7.23 

5 

1.37126 

13.987 

nO. 83444 

7.16 



703 


213 


866 


8 

6 

1.36423 

710 

13.774 

213 

wO. 82578 

847 

7.08 

8 

7 

1.35713 

715 

13.561 

214 

riO. 81731 

827 

7.00 

10 

8 

1.34998 

719 

13.347 

213 

nO. 80904 

806 

6.90 

9 

9 

1.34279 

722 

13.134 

213 

?i0. 80098 

785 

6.81 

10 

10 

1. 33657 

724 

12.921 

211 

wO. 79313 

764 

6,71 

10 

11 

1.32832 

725 

12.710 

210 

wO. 78549 

742 

6.61 

11 

12 

1.32107 

724 

12.500 

207 

nO. 77807 

721 

6.50 

11 

13 

1.31383 

12,293 

710.77086 

6.39 



724 


205 


701 


11 

14 

1.30659 

722 

12.088 

202 

710.76385 

681 

6.28 

11 

15 

1.29937 

719 

11.886 

198 

710.75704 

662 

6.17 

11 

16 

1.29218 

716 

11.688 

195 

710.75042 

643 

6.06 

11 

17 

1.28502 

712 

11.493 

192 

710.74399 

626 

5.95 

12 

18 

1.27790 

708 

11.301 

188 

710.73773^ 

609 

5.83 

11 

19 

1.27082 

703 

11.113 

185 

7x0.73164 

593 

5.72 

11 

20 

1.26379 

698 

10.928 

181 

710.72571 

579 

5.61 

11 

21 

1.25681 

692 

10.747 

177 

710.71992 

565 

5.50 

11 

22 

1.24989 

687 

10.570 

173 

710.71427 

553 

5.39 

11 

23 

1.24302 

681 

10.397 

170 

«0. 70874 

541 

5,28 

10 

24 

1.23621 

675 

10.227 

165 

710.70333 

531 

5.18 

11 

25 

1.22946 

669 

10.062 

162 

710.69802 

521 

5.07 

10 

26 

1.22277 

662 

9.900 

158 

710.69281 

513 

4.97 

10 

27 

1.21615 

656 

9.742 

154 

710.68768 

506 

4.87 

]0 

28 

1.20959 

649 

9.588 

150 

710.68262 

500 

4.77 

9 

29 

1.20310 

643 

9.438 

147 

710.67762 

494 

4.68 

10 

30 

1.19667 

637 

9.291 

143 

nO. 67268 

490 

4.58 

8 

31 

1.19030 

630 

9.148 

139 

710.66778 

487 

4,50 

9 

Feb. 1 

1.18400 

625 

9,009 

136 

710.66291 

484 

4.41 

9 

2 

1.17775 

618 

8.873 

132 

710.65807 

482 

4.32 

8 

3 

1.17157 

612 

8.741 

129 

710.65325 

482 

4.24 

8 

4 

1.16545 

606 

8.612 

126 

710.64843 

481 

4.16 

8 

5 

1.15939 

600 

8.486 

123 

710.64362 

482 

4.08 

7 

6 

1.15339 

595 

8.363 

119 

710.63880 

484 

4,01 

7 

7 

1.14744 

589 

8.244 

116 

710.63396 

486 

3.94 

7 

8 

1.14155 

583 

8.128 

113 

710.62910 

488 

3.87 

6 

9 

1.13572 

578 

8.015 

110 

710.62422 

492 

3.81 

7 

10 

1.12994 

573 

7.905 

108 

710.61930 

496 

3.74 

6 

11 

1.12421 

568 

7.797 

104 

710.61434 

501 

3,68 

6 

12 

1.11853 

564 

7.693 

102 

710.60933 

506 

3.62 

5 

13 

1.11289 


4-7.59] 


710.60427 


+3,57 



Hosted by 


Google 


EPHEMERIDES AND AUXILIARY TABLES. 
Parallax tables for Santiago, 


XClll 


Venus II, 


Washington Noon. 


1852. May 26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
June 1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 


10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
July 1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21- 
22 
23 
24 
25 


log. ^. 


1.12176 

1.12701 

1.13231 

1.13765 

1.14305 

1.14850 

1.15401 

1.15957 

1.16519 

1.17086 

1.17659 

1.18237 

1.18820 

1.19409 

1.20004 

1.20604 

1.21209 

1.21820 

1.22435 

1.23055 

1.23680 

1.24309 

1.24942 

1.25579 

1.26218 

1.26860 

1.27503 

1.28147 

1.28792 

1.29435 

1.30077 

1.30716 

1.31350 

1.31979 

1.32601 

1.33214 

1.33817 

1.34408 

1.34985 

1.35547 

1.36090 

1.36613 

1.37114 

1.37591 

1.38041 

1.38463 

1.38855 

1.39214 

1.39538 

1.39825 

1.40075 

1.40285 

1.40455 

1.40582 

1.40667 

1.40708 

1.40706 

1.40660 

1.40570 

1.40437 

1.40262 

1.40046 


525 
530 
534 
540 
545 
551 
556 
562 
567 
573 
578 
583 
589 
595 
600 
605 
611 
615 
620 
625 
629 
633 
637 
639 
642 
643 
644 
645 
643 
642 
639 
634 
629 
622 
513 
603 
591 
577 
562 
543 
523 
501 
477 
450 
422 
392 
359 
324 
287 
250 
210 
170 
127 
85 
41 
2 
46 
90 
133 
175 
216 
256 


D. 


+ 7.150 
7.256 
7.366 
7.478 
7.594 
7.713 
7.835 
7.960 
8.089 
8.221 
8.356 


8.638 
8.784 
8.934 
9.087 
9.244 
9.405 
9.569 
9.737 
9.909 
10.084 
10.263 
10.446 
10.632 
10.821 
11.014 
11.209 
11.407 
11.608 
11.812 
12.017 
12.223 
12.430 
12.638 
12.846 
13.053 
13.259 
13.462 
13.662 
13.859 
14.051 
14.236 
14.415 
14.586 
14.748 
14.900 
15.041 
15.169 
15.285 
15.387 
15.475 
15.547 
15.603 
15.642 
15.665 
15.671 
15.660 
15.632 
15.588 
15.528 
+15.452 


106 
110 
112 
116 
119 
122 
125 
129 
132 
135 
139 
143 
146 
150 
153 

157 

161 

164 

168 

172 

175 

179 

183 

186 

189 

193 

195 

198 

201 

204 

205 
206 
207 
208 


207 
206 
203 
200 
197 
192 
185 
179 
171 
162 
152 
141 
128 
116 
102 
88 
72 
56 
39 
23 
6 

n 

28 
44 
60 
76 
90 


log. E. 


0.70301 

0.70608 

0.70910 

0.71206 

0.71496 

0.71782 

0.72062 

0.72337 

0.72608 

0.72874 

0.73135 

0.73392 

0.73645 

0.73894 

0.74139 

0.74380 

0.74617 

0.74851 

0.75081 

0.75308 

0.75532 

0.75753 

0.75972 

0.76188 

0.76401 

0.76612 

0.76820 

0.77025 

0.77228 

0.77428 

0.77625 

0.77819 

0.78010 

0.78197 

0.78380 

0.78558 

0.78730 

0.78897 

0.79057 

0.79210 

0.79354 

0.79489 

0.79614 

0.79727 

0.79828 

0.79915 

0.79987 

0.80043 

0.80082 

0.80103 

0.80105 

0.80087 

0.80047 

0.79986 

0.79902 

0.79795 

0.79665 

0.79513 

0.79338 

0.79140 

0.78919 

0.78676 


307 

302 

296 

290 

286 

280 

275 

271 

266 

261 

257 

253 

249 

245 

241 

237' 

234 

230 

227 

224 

221 

219 

216 

213 

211 

208 

205 

203 

200 

197 

194 

191 

187 

183 

178 

172 

167 

160 

153 

144 

135 
125 
113 
101 

87 

72 

56 

39 

21 
2 

18 

40 

61 

84 
107 
130 
152 
175 
198 
221 
243 
264 


D+E. 


+12.20 

14 

12.34 


14 

12.48 



15 

12.63 



15 

12.78 



16 

12.94 



15 

13.09 



16 

13.25 



16 

13.41 



17 

13.58 



16 

13.74 



17 

13.91 



18 

14.09 



18 

14.27 



18 

14.45 



18 

14.63 



19 

14.82 



19 

15.01 



19 

15.20 



20 

15.40 



20 

15.60 



21 

15.81 



20 

16.01 



21 

16.22 



22 

16.44 



22 

16.66 



22 

16.88 



22 

17.10 



22 

17.32 

24 

17.56 


23 

17.79 



23 

18.02 

23 

18.25 


23 

18.48 



24 

18.72 



23 

18.95 

23 

19.18 


23 

19.41 



23 

19.64 



22 

19.86 



22 

20.08 



21 

20.29 



20 

20.49 



19 

20.68 



19 

20.87 



17 

21.04 



17 

21.21 



15 

21.36 



13 

21.49 



12 

21.61 



10 

21.71 

9 
6 
5 
3 


21.80 

21.86 

21.91 

21.94 

21.94 

21.93 

1 

21.90 

3 

21.85 

5 

21.78 

7 


10 

21.68 

11 

+21.57 


Hosted by 


Google 


XCIV 


EPHEMERIDES AND AUXILIAEY TABLES. 


Parallax tables for Santiago, 

■Venus II — Continued. 


Washington Noon. 


1852. 


July 27 

28 


Aug. 


Sopt, 


30 

31 

1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 

21 

22 

23 

24 

25 

26 

27 

28 

29 

30 

31 

1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 


log. ^. 


1.39790 
1.39496 
1.39165 
1.38799 
1.38400 
1.37970 
1.37512 
1.37027 
1.36517 
1.35985 
1.35433 
1.34863 
1.34276 
1.33675 
1.33062 
1.32438 
1.31804 
1.31162 
1.30513 
1.29859 
1.29200 
1.28538 
1.27874 
1.27208 
1.26541 
1.25874 
1.25208 
1.24543 
1.23879 
1.23217 
1.22557 
1.21900 
1.21245 
1.20594 
1.19946 
1.19302 
1.18661 
1.18025 
1.17393 
1.16765 
1.16142 
1.15523 
1.14909 
1.14299 
1.13694 
1.13094 
1.12498 
1.11907 
1.11321 
1.10739 
1.10162 
1.09589 
1.09021 


256 
294 
331 
366 
399 
430 
458 
485 
510 
532 
552 
570 
587 
601 
6]3 
624 
634 
642 
649 
654 
659 
662 
664 
666 
667 
667 
666 
665 
664 
662 
660 
657 
655 
651 
648 
644 
641 
636 
632 
628 
623 
619 
614 
610 
605 
600 
596 
591 
586 
582 
577 
573 
568 


+15.362 

15.257 

15.140 

15.011 

14.871 

14.721 

14.562 

14.395 

14.222 

14.043 

13.860 

13.672 

13.482 

13.290 

13.096 

12.902 

12.708 

12.514 

12.321 

12.130 

11.941 

11.754 

11.569 

11.386 

11.207 

11.031 

10.858 

10.688 

10.521 

10.358 

10.198 

10.042 

9.889 

9.740 

9.594 

9.452 

9.313 

9.178 

9.046 

8.917 

8.792 

8.670 

8.551 

8.436 

8.323 

8.213 

8.106 

8.002 

7.901 

7.802 

7.706 

7.612 

+ 7.521 


90 
105 
117 
129 
140 
150 
159 
167 
173 
179 
183 
188 
190 
192 
194 
194 
194 
194 
193 
191 
189 
187 
185 
183 
179 
176 
173 
170 
167 
163 
160 
156 
153 
149 
145 
142 
139 
135 
132 
129 
125 
122 
119 
115 
113 
110 
107 
104 
101 
99 
96 
94 
91 


log. E. 


0.78412 
0.78128 
0.77824 
0.77502 
0.77162 
0.76806 
0.76434 
0.76048 
0.75649 
0.75237 
74814 
0.74380 
0.73938 
0.73483 
0.73021 
0.72551 
0.72073 
0.71.588 
71096 
0.70597 
0.70092 
0.69580 
0.69061 
0.68535 
0.68003 
0.67464 
0.66918 
0.66365 
0.65804 
0.65236 
0.64660 
0.64076 
0.63483 
0.62881 
0.62270 
0.61650 
0.61020 
0.60380 
0.59730 
0.59068 
0.58395 
0.57710 
0.57013 
0.56303 
0.55581 
0.54845 
0.54095 
0.53330 
0.525,'50 
0.51754 
0.50942 
0.50112 
0.49265 


264 
284 
304 
322 
340 
356 
372 
386 
399 
412 
423 
434 
444 
453 
462 
470 
478 
485 
492 
499 
505 
512 
519 
526 
532 
539 
546 
553 
561 
568 
576 
584 
593 
602 
611 
620 
630 
640 
650 
662 
673 
685 
697 
710 
722 
736 
750 
765 
780 
796 
812 
830 
847 


D-f-jE. 


-j-21.44 
21.30 
21.14 
20.97 
20.78 
20.58 
20.37 
20.16 
19.93 
19.70 
19.46 
19.22 
18.97 
18.72 
18.47 
18.22 
17.96 
17.71 
17.46 
17.21 
16.96 
16.72 
16.47 
16.23 
15.99 
15.76 
15.53 
15.30 
15.07 
14.85 
14.63 
14.42 
14.20 
13.99 
13.79 
13.59 
13.39 
13.19 
13.00 
12.81 
12.63 
12.45 
12.27 
12.09 
11.92 
11.75 
11.58 
11.42 
11.26 
11.10 
10.94 
10.78 
-1-10.63 


13 
14 
16 
17 
19 
20 
21 
21 
23 
23 
24 
24 
25 
25 
25 
25 
26 
25 
25 
25 
25 
24 
25 
24 
24 
23 
23 
23 
23 
22 
22 
21 
22 
21 
20 
20 
20 
20 
19 
19 
18 
18 
18 
18 
17 
17 
17 
16 
16 
16 
16 
16 
15 


For correcting the Santiago observations for differential refraction we have, using as before, 
« ^ a, d, to denote the respective positions of the planet and its comparison-star ; k, the refrac- 
tion from BesseVs third table, and C the zenith distance : 

cos C = sin n sin {N + d) 
and as a correction for the measured differences, 

K (5 — d) 
d{a — a)r— ^ ^ 


sin^-^^+d) 
_ K (^ — d) 


^2lil±^ eotg n 
cos^ d 


^(«5-d)=^,^, 


sin2 {N+ d) 


Hosted by 


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EPHEMERIDES AND AUXILIARY TABLES. 


XCV 


in which the auxiliary quantities iV^cotg n sin n are taken from the following table, which has 
been computed for the latitude of Santiago, and for the hour-angle /? — a as argument. 
Table for computation of differential refraction at Santiago, 


1 — a. 


h. m. 


1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 


10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 

27 

28 

29 

30 

31 

32 

33 

34 

35 

36 

37 

38 

39 

40 

41 

42 

43 

44 

45 

46 

47 


50 
51 
52 
53 
54 
55 
56 
57 
58' 
59 
60 


123 26 25 
26 26 
26 29 
26 34 
26 40 
26 48 

26 58 

27 10 
27 23 
27 39 

27 56 

28 15 
28 36 

28 58 

29 23 

29 49 

30 17 

30 47 

31 18 

31 52 

32 27 

33 4 

33 44 

34 24 

35 7 

35 52 

36 38 

37 26 

38 16 

39 8 

40 2 

40 57 

41 55 

42 54 

43 55 

44 58 

46 3 

47 10 

48 19 

49 29 

50 42 

51 56 

53 12 

54 30 

55 51 
57 13 

123 58 36 

124 2 
1 30 

3 

4 31 

6 5 

7 40 
9 18 

10 57 
12 39 
14 22 

16 8 

17 55 
19 44 

124 21 36 


1 

3 

5 

6 

8 

10 

12 

13 

16 

17 

19 

21 

22 

25 

26 

28 

30 

31 

34 

35 

37 

40 

40 

43 

45 

46 

48 

50 

52 

54 

55 

58 

59 

61 

63 

65 

67 

69 

70 

73 

74 

76 

78 

81 


90 

91 

94 

95 

98 

99 

102 

103 

106 

107 

109 

112 


log. COtg 7 


7.56122 

7.86226 

8.03836 

8.16331 

8.26023 

8.33943 

8.40639 

8.46441 

8.51559 

8.56137 

8.60280 

8.64062 

8.67542 

8.70764 

8.73765 

8.76573 

8.79211 

8.81698 

8.84052 

8.86285 

8.88411 

8.90437 

8.92374 

8.94230 

8.96010 

8.97721 

8.99368 

9.00956 

9.02488 

9.03969 

9.05402 

9.06791 

9.08137 

9.09444 

9.10713 

9.11947 

9.13148 

9.14318 

9.15457 

9.16568 

9.17653 

9.18712 

9.19747 

9.20758 

9.21747 

9.22716 

9.23664 

9.24592 

9.25502 

9.26394 

9.27270 

9.28128 

9.28971 

9.29799 

9.30612 

9.31412 

9.32197 

9.32970 

9.33730 

9.34477 


30104 
17610 
12495 
9692 
7920 
6696 
5802 
5118 
4578 
4143 
3782 
3480 
3222 
3001 
2808 
2638 
2487 
2354 
2233 
2126 
2026 
1937 
1856 
1780 
1711 
1647 
1588 
1532 
]481 
1433 
1389 
1346 
1307 
1269 
1234 
1201 
1170 
1139 
1111 
1085 
1059 
1035 
1011 


910 
892 
876 

858 
843 
828 
813 
800 
785 
773 
760 
747 


0.00000 
0.00000 
9.99999 
9.99997 
9.99995 
9.99992 
9.99990 


9.99982 
9.99977 
9.99971 
9.99965 
9.99959 
9.99951 


'.99935 


9.99917 


9.99907 

10 
11 
11 
12 
12 
13 
14 
14 
15 
15 
16 
16 
17 
18 
18 
19 

19 

20 

20 

21 

22 

22 

23 

23 

24 

25 

25 

25 

26 

27 

28 

28 

28 

29 

30 

30 

31 

31 

32 

33 

33 

9.99896 

9.99885 

9.99873 

9.99861 

9.99848 

9.99834 

9.99820 

9.99805 

9.99790 

9.99774 

9.99758 

9.99741 

9.99723 

9.99705 

9.99686 

9.99667 

9.99647 

9.99627 

9.99606 

9.99584 

9.99562 

9.99539 

9.99516 

9.99492 

9.99467 

9.99442 

9.99417 

9.99391 

9.99364 

9.99336 
9.99308 

9.99280 

9.99251 

9.99221 

9.99191 

9.99160 

9.99129 

9.99097 

9.99064 

9.99031 


9.98963 


34 
34 


h. m. 

1 
1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 


10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 

21 

22 

23 

24 

25 

26 

27 

28 

29 

30 

31 

32 

33 

34 

35 

36 

37 

38 

39 

40 

41 

42 

43 

44 

45 


49 
50 
51 
52 
53 
54 
55 
56 
57 
58 
59 
60 


N. 


124 21.6 
23.5 
25.4 
27.4 
29.4 
31.4 
33.4 
35.5 
37.7 


/ 


42.0 
44.2 
46.5 
48.8 
51.1 
53.5 
55.9 

124 58.4 

125 0.9 
3.4 
5.9 
8.5 

11.1 
13.8 
16.5 
19.2 
22.0 
24.8 
27.6 
30.5 
33.4 
36.4 
39.4 
42.4 
45.5 
48.6 
.51.8 
55.0 

125 58.2 

126 1.5 
4.8 
8.1 

11.5 
14.9 
18.4 
21.9 
25.5 
29.1 
32,7 
36.4 
40.1 
43.9 
47.7 
51.5 
55.4 

126 59.3 

127 3.3 
7.3 

11.4 

15.5 

127 19.6 


1.9 

1.9 

2.0 

2.0 

2.0 

2.0 

2.1 

2.2 

2.1 

2.2 

2.2 

2.3 

2.3 

2.3 

2.4 

2.4 

2.5 

2.5 

2.5 

2.5 

2.6 

2.6 

2.7 

2.7 

2.7 

2.8 

2.8 

2.8 

2.9 

2.9 

3.0 

3.0 

3.0 

3.1 

3.1 

3.2 

3.2 

3.2 

3.3 

3.3 

3.3 

3.4 

3.4 

3.5 

3.5 

3.6 

3.6 

3.6 

3.7 

3.7 

3.8 

3.8 

3.8 

3.9 

3.9 

4.0 

4.0 

4.1 

4.1 

4.1 


9.34477 

9.35213 

9.35938 

9.36652 

9.37355 

9.38047 

9.38730 

9.39403 

9.40066 

9.40721 

9.41367 

9.42004 

9.42633 

9.43254 

9.43867 

9.44472 

9.45070 

9.45660 

9.46244 

9.46821 

9.47391 

9.47954 

9.48512 

9.49063 

9.49608 

9.50148 

9.50681 

9.51208 

9.51731 

9.52248 

9.52760 

9.53267 

9.53769 

9.54266 

9.54759 

9.55246 

9.55729 

9.56208 

9.56683 

9.57153 

9.57619 

9.58081 

9.58539 

9.58993 

9.59444 

9.59891 

9.60334 

9.60773 

9.61209 

9.61642 

9.62071 

9.62497 

9.62919 

9.63338 

9.63755 

9.64169 

9.64579 


736 
725 
714 
703 
692 
683 
673 
663 
655 
646 
637 


9.65390 
9.65792 
9.66191 


621 

613 

605 

598 

590 

584 

577 

570 

563 

558 

551 

545 

540 

533 

527 

523 

517 

512 

507 

502 

497 

493 

487 

483 

479 

475 

470 

466 

462 

458 

454 

451 

447 

443 

439 

436 

433 

429 

426 

422 

419 

417 

414 

410 

407 

404 

402 

399 


Hosted by 


Google 


XCVl EPHEMERIDES A]^^D AUXILIARY TABLES. 

Table for computation of differential refractions at Santiago — Continued. 


d — a. 

N. 

log. cotg n. 

h. m. 

o 


2 

127 19.6 ' 

9.66191 


4.2 

396 

1 

23.8 

9.66587 


4,3 

393 

2 

28.1 

9.66980 


4.3 

391 

3 

32.4 

9.67371 


4.3 

388 

4 

36.7 

9.67759 


4.4 

386 

5 

41.1 

9.68145 


4.4 

383 

6 

45.5 

9.68528 


4.5 

380 

7 

50.0 

9.68908 


4.5 

378 

8 

54.5 

9.69286 „ ^ 


4.6 

376 

9 

127 59.1 

128 3.7 '•' 

9.69662 
9.70035 ^^^ 

10 


4.7 

371 

11 

8.4 

9.70406 


4.7 

369 

12 

13.1 

9.70775 


4.7 

367 

13 

17.8 
22.6 ''^ 

9.71506 '^^ . 

14 


4.9 

363 

15 

27.5 
32.4 '•' 

'-''''' 360 
9.72229 ^l 

16 


4.9 

358 

17 

37.3 

9.72587 


5.0 

356 

18 

42.3 

9.72943 


5.1 

354 

19 

47.4 
52.5 '-' 

128 57.7 "^l 

129 2.9 

9.73297 ^ 

9.73999 
.9.74347 r 

20 

21 

22 


5.3 

346 

23 

8.2 

9.74693 ^, 


5.3 

345 

24 

13.5 

9.75038 


5.3 

342 

25 

18.8 
24.2 '-' 

-- 5^ 
35.2 ^'^ 

9.75380 

'•'''"'' 339 
9.76060 

9.76397 „ 

26 

27 

28 


5.6 

336 

29 

40.8 

9.76733 ^^^ 


5.6 

333 

30 

46.4 

9.77066 ^^ 


5.7 

332 

31 

52.1 

9.77398 _ 


5.8 

331 

32 

129 57.9 

9.77729 ^^^ 


5.8 

329 

^ 33 

130 3.7 

9.78058 ^^^ 


5.8 

327 

34 

9.5 

9.78385 ^^ 


5.9 

325 

35 

15.4 

9.78710 ^^^ 


6.0 

,, ,,„^, 324 

36 

21.4 

9.79034 


6.0 

322 

37 

27.4 

9.79356 _^ 


6.1 

321 

38 

33.5 

9.79077 ^^^ 


6.1 

^ ^^^^^ 319 

39 

39.6 

9.79996 


6.2 

318 

40 

45.8 

9.80314 ^_ 


6.3 

316 

41 

130 58.4 ^ ^ 

131 4.8 '-' 

9.80630 ^^^ 
9.80945 
9.81259 ^_ 

42 

43 


6.4 

312 

44 

11.2 

9.81571 ^^^ 


6.5 

^ ,on 311 

45 

17.7 

9.81882 ^^^ 


6.5 

309 

46 

24.2 

9.82191 ^^^ 


6.6 

308 

47 

30.8 

9.82499 ^^^ 


6.7 

306 

48 

37.5 

9.82805 ^^^ 


6.8 

o oo..n 305 

49 

44.3 

9.83110 ^^^ 


6.8 

304 

50 

51.1 

9.83414 ^_ 


6.9 

302 

51 

131 58.0 

9.83716 ^^, 


6.9 

« 301 

52 

132 4.9 

9.84017 ^^^ 


7.0 

o >.o.^ 300 

53 

11.9 

9.84317 ^^^ 


7.0 

299 

54 

18.9 

9.84616 ^^„ 


7.1 

298 

55 

26.0 

9.84914 ^^^ 


7.2 

^ n « 296 

56 

33.2 

9.85210 ^ 


7.3 

295 

57 

40.5 

9.85505 ^^^ 


7.3 

293 

58 

47.8 

9.85798 ^^,^ 


7.4 

r. o.n^^ 292 

59 

55.2 

9-86090 ^^^^ 


7.4 

292 

60 

133 2.6 

9.86382 


Hosted by 


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EPHEMERIDES AND AUXILIARY TABLES. XCVii 

The Cambridge observations were given without any correction for refraction. The series is 
not sufficiently extensive to warrant the computation of tables for this purpose ; but manuscript 
tables computed for the Oloverden observatory, which is only about half a mile distant from the 
Harvard observatory and differs but a few seconds in latitude, furnished values of the requisite 
auxiliary quantities. These tables are omitted here, on account of the disproportionate length to 
which it would be necessary to print them, inasmuch as of all the twenty-six Cambridge observa- 
tions o{ Mars, (only seventeen of which were contemporaneous with the Santiago series,) there 
are but three when the hour-angle was less than 2^, and but four others when the planet was 
within 3^ of the meridian The remainder were at very low altitudes, the meridian distances 
ranging from 3^ to 6^ 53"^, and the differential refraction in declination amounting in one 
instance to F.45. These values are, moreover, uncertain, to some extent, from the absence of 
the corresponding readings of any meteorological instrument, excepting the external ther- 
mometer. 

At the Cape of Good Hope observatory, forty-seven determinations and forty-nine compari- 
sons were made, the hour-angle exceeding 46"^ in only five instances, and approaching the 
maximum 1^ 35"" in but a single isolated case. And since the latitude of this observatory difiers 
from that of Santiago by less than half a degree, and the whole differential refraction for the 
observations of the Cape series exceeds 0''.75 in only two instances, we may without sensible 
error employ, in reducing this series, the tables computed for Santiago, with slight modifica- 
tion in extreme cases. Thus, since 

cos n = cos <p sin (d — a) 

sin n cos A^zz: sin ^ 
and, consequently, 

1 — cos^ <p sin^ {d — a) 
tgN 1= cotg <p cos (d — d) 

1 — cos^ <p sin^ (0 — a) ^ 
we have even when (d — a)=. 15° 

^A^z= 1.013 ^ ^ zz: 0° 30^ 0^' 
The observations of Mr. Maclear having been thoroughly reduced under the personal super- 
vision of that eminent astronomer, the labor was very considerably lightened, since the two 
computations served reciprocally as checks. 

§ 5. COMPAEISON STARS. 

The determination of the comparison-stars,— by far the most laborious and time-consuming 
portion of the work, and one entirely foreign to the original plan of investigation, — ^became 
unexpectedly but imperatively necessary, in consequence of the circumstances already narrated, 
which entailed the necessity of a thorough examination of all the observations which could be 
found. In the quest of measured declinations of these stars, no accessible source has been left 
unexplored ; still, the attempt to identify the objects employed for comparison has offered 
problems of much difficulty, and has, in some instances, proved altogether unavailing. For 
instance, out of the twenty-six comparisons at Cambridge eleven were with stars not merely 
different from those selected by Lieut. G-illiss and proposed in his ephemeris, but quite unknown 
even to the observer, and only capable of detection by groping, as it were, in zones and cata- 
logues ; and of these, two were of magnitudes as low as the 13th. Eight of them have not been 
found, although sought for with extreme diligence. luv other cases, especially among the 
southern stars of the first Fenus-Beiies, the determinations on record have been found so dis- 
cordant as to preclude any reliance upon them, until new observations should be made, to 
decide which were to be considered erroneous. 


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XCVlll COMPARISON-STAES. 

The declinations of the comparison stars^ used for the Washington micrometer observations — as 
well as those of many other stars not easily identified in the standard catalogues, or whose 
positions appeared for any reason not altogether trustworthy — have been redetermined at the 
United States Naval Observatory, at Washington, with the mural circle; chiefly through the 
zeal and courtesy of Prof. Yarnall, whose careful assiduity has materially aided the present 
investigations, and on some nights by Prof. Major. At the earnest instance of the writer, 
application was made to the superintendent of the Naval Observatory, by Lieut. Gilliss, for 
observation of still other declinations. The season of the year naturally prevented the re- 
determination of all that could be desired, but many important additional positions have been 
thus provided by Prof. Yarnall, to whom the charge of the mural circle is assigned. The 
observations, as communicated by Lieutenants Maury and Brasher, are given in their appropriate 
place. 

Application was also made to my respected friend Prof. Brlinnow, of the observatory of 
the University of Michigan, at Ann Arbor, whose recently acquired and magnificent meridian 
circle had just been mounted. But the arrangements of the observatory not being completed, 
and the instrument not yet fully brought into working condition, Prof. Briinnow was able to 
make but few of the desired observations, and these were not received in sufficient season to be 
incorporated into the results. They are, however, given with the other determinations for the 
sake of comparison and reference. 

The materials collected for the compilation of a definite catalogue of star-places, to be adopted 
as final in the present discussion, are here presented in detail. 

In the first place, the observations of Lieut. Gilliss himself, at Santiago, provide a rich mine 
of positions of fixed stars, among which are many of those employed for comparison, and all of 
those used during the second opposition of Mars, During the first ifars-series the instrument 
was dismantled, as explained by Lieut, Gilliss in his narrative, and during the two series of 
Venus observations it was impossible to observe the comparison-stars upon the meridian in the 
full glare of day. The following tables present the several observations, their reduction to the 
mean equinox at the beginning of those years in which they were respectively used for com- 
parison with the planets, and finally a list of mean positions at these epochs for the comparison- 
stars, as given by the Santiago meridian-circle. The reference-figures in the last column 
indicate the number of the star in the special list, or in the General Catalogue of comparison- 
stars, as the case may be. 


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COMPARISON-STARS. 


XCIX 


Reduction to mean places of stars, determined ivitli the meridian-circle at Santiago, 










Reduct'ntomean 

Mean place for 1852.0. 


Name. 

Date. 

Obs'd «. 

Circle-reading. 

Refraction. 

Nadir. 

Observed 0, 

equinox 1852.0. 

j 

6C. 

8, 

No. 

in a. \ in 0. 


1852. 

h. m, s. 

o / // 


,^ 

o 1 /; 

s. 

II 

h. m. s. 

/ // 


Bcssel 341 

Feb. 

28 

7 48 38.68 

301 40 46.68 

—1 26.14 

+5.2 

+24 54 8.37 

—0.46 

+1.86 

7 48 38.20 

+24 54 10.23 

52 



29 

38.42 

46.43 

26.88 

4.3 

10.26 

0.45 

1.81 

37.97 

12.07 



Mar. 

1 

38.58 

42.78 

25.19 

3.8 

12.72 

0.43 

1.75 

38.15 

14.47 




2 

38.92 

43.70 

24.17 

5.2 

9.38 

0.42 

1.68 

38.50 

11.06 




3 

39.14 

45.05 

25.25 

4.8 

9.51 

0.41 

1.61 

38.73 

11.12 


H. C. 15401 

Mar. 

6 

7 46 33.90 

301 50 4.42 

—1 24.35 

+5.0 

+24 44 49.04 

— 0..37 

+1.44 

7 46 33.53 

+24 44 50.48 

47 



13 

37.11 

3.10 

24.27 

4.0 

.51.28 

0.26 

1.02 

36.85 

52.30 




15 

36.58 

5.32 

25.31 

4.8 

49.30 

0.23 

0.88 

36.35 

50.18 


H. C. 15412 

Mar. 

8 

7 46 57.57 

301 58 5.68 

—1 25.51 

+5.3 

+24 36 48.64 

—0.34 

+ 1.37 

7 46 57.23 

+24 33 50.01 

48 



9 

57.51 

6.75 

23.57 

4.1 

46.83 

0.32 

1.31 

57.19 

48.14 




10 

57.63 

5.82 

24.70 

5.2 

47.79 

0.31 

1.25 

57.32 

49.04 


Bessel 339 

Mar. 

12 

7 50 59.90 

302 6 27.95 

—1 23 ..84 

+4.4 

+24 28 25.60 

—0.31 

+1.19 

7 50 59.59 

+24 28 26.79 

54 



13 

59.85 

27.39 

23.39 

4.0 

26.11 

0.30 

1.13 

59.55 

27.24 




23 

59.72 

26.60 

24.33 

5.1 

26.74 

0.13 

0.53 

59.59 

27.27 


H. C. 15608 

Mar. 

14 

7 52 38.80 

302 15 55.02 

-1 23.00 

+3.5 

+24 18 58.59 

-0.27 

+1.12 

7 52 38.. 53 

+24 18 59.71 

55 



15 

38.46 

56.28 

24.02 

4.8 

57.05 

0.26 ; 1.06 

.38.20 

58.11 




19 

38.52 

57.00 

24.79 

4.1 

57.80 

0.20 

0.83 

38.32 

58.63 



1851. j 











Bessel 275 

Dec. 

19 

9 7 25.42 

308 43 26.18 

—1 12.71 

—7.8 

+19 51 28.44 

+0.36 

+1.95 

9 7 25.78 

+19 51 30.39 

103 


1852. 












Apr. 

2 

26.14 

8.02 

11.88 

+7.7 

30.27 

—0.37 

1.63 

25.77 

31.90 


Washington 

Mar. 

16 

9 8 15.15 

306 19 9.88 

—1 12.11 

+6.2 

+20 15 30.14 

—0.60 +2.71 

9 8 14.55 

+20 15 32.85 

107 



26 

15.24 

8.25 

11.39 

4.9 

32.35 

0.46 

2.00 

14.78 

34.35 




27 

14.92 

1.22 

11.99 

13.1 

31.78 

0.45 

1.93 

14.47 

33.71 




29 

15.09 

4.32 

11.78 

8.9 

32.67 

0.42 

1.79 

14.67 

34.43 


Bessel 275 

Mar. 

30 

9 8 14.82 

306 42 23.05 

—1 10.75 

+8.8 

+19 52 10.01 

—0.41 

+1.84 

9 8 14.41 

+19 52 11.85 

103 



31 

14.67 

26.15 

10.15 

8.3 

9.81 

0.37 

1.63 

14.30 

11.44 


Bessel 275 

Mar. 

10^ 

9 4 27.46 

305 57 8.14 

—1 13.14 

+5.2 

+20 37 33.91 

—0.61 

+3.03 

9 4 26.85 

+20 37 33.94 

102 



23* 

27.26 

5.05 

13.43 

5.1 

37.39 

0.46 

2.09 

26.80 

39.48 




25 

27.39 

5.45 

13.13 

5.0 

36.79 

0.43 

1.95 

26.98 

38.74 


Bessel 278 

Mar. 

15 

8 47 26.28 

304 19 33.50 

—1 17.82 

+4.8 

+22 15 13.62 

—0.51 

+2.08 

8 47 25.77 

+22 15 15.70 

91 



16 

26.83 

31.70 

17.61 

6.2 

13.82 

0.50 

2.01 

26.33 

15.83 




22 

26.46 

31.82 

17.51 

5.5 

14.30 

0.43 

1.57 

23.03 

15.87 




26 

26.60 

' 32.98 

16.83 

4.9 

13.03 

0.36 

1.29 

28.24 

14.35 


Bessel 344 

Mar. 

13 

8 40 18.16 

303 50 7.68 

—1 18.38 

+3.9 

+22 44 40.91 

— 0..50 

+1.99 

8 40 17.66 

+22 44 42.90 

87 



15 

18.10 

8.42 

19.23 

4.8 

40.12 

0.47 

1.80 

17.63 

41.92 


B. A, C. 3181 

Mar. 

13 

9 12 18.49 

306 51 53.20 

—1 10.28 

+3.9 

+19 42 47.29 

—0.61 

+3.06 

9 12 17.88 

+19 42 50.35 

109 



15 

18.07 

53.55 

11.01 

4.8 

46.77 

0.60 

2.94 

17.47 

49.71 


X Cancri 

Jan. 

19 

8 11 44.15 

302 5 57.68 

—1 24.47 

+1.3 

+24 28 59.60 

-0.48 

+4.01 

8 n 43.67 

+24 29 3.31 

64 



20 

44.57 

58.88 

24.17 

—0.6 

60.00 

0.49 

4.00 

44.08 

4.00 




21 

44.24 

6 1.82 

24.91 

-0.4 

57.60 

0.51 

3.99 

43.73 

1.59 




22 

44.45 

5 57.08 

24.87 

+3.6 

58.30 

0.52 

3.98 

43.93 

2.28 




23 

44.29 

57.98 

25.20 

1.0 

60.33 

0.53 

3.93 

43.76 

4.29 




24 

44.42 

57.10 

25.14 

+2.0 

60.15 

0.54 

3.93 

43.88 

4.08 




25 

44.38 

58.12 

24.52 

—0.5 

61.01 

0.55 

3.91 

43.83 

4.92 




27 

44.33 

58.05 

24.41 

+0.1 

60-37 

0.56 

3.88 

43,77 

4.23 




28 

44.37 

6 1.33 

24.68 

3.5 

56.97 

0.57 

3.83 

43.80 

0.80 




30 

44.38 

0.45 

25.17 

+0.6 

58,23 

0.58 

3 77 

43.80 

2.00 




31 

44.12 

1.30 

24.32 

—1.2 

58.33 

0.58 

3.74 

43.54 

2.07 



Feb. 

1 

44.25 

5 57.95 

23.85 

+2,5' 

57.51 

0.59 

3.70 

43.66 

1.21 




2 

44.00 

57.65 

23.80 

+2.3 

57.93 

0.60 

3.60 

43.40 

1.62 




3 

44.40 

56.00 

24.03 

1.7 

60.44 

0.60 

3.61 

43.80 

4.03 




4 


57.63 

24.58 

1.1 

59.93 

0.61 

3.53 


3.. 52 




8 

44.02 

57.45 

23.62 

1.5 

58.78 

0.61 

3.39 

43.41 

2.17 




9 

43.78 

59.88 

23.70 

1.2 

.56.73 

0.62 

3.34 

43.16 

0.07 




10 

44.30 

49.58 

23.76 

9.8 

.58.49 

0.62 

3.29 

43.68 

2.17 



Hosted by 


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COMPARIS( )N-STAltS. 
Eeduction of stars determined at Santiago — Continued. 










Reduct'n to mean 

Mean place for 1852.0. 


Name. 

Date. 

Obs'd a. 

Circle-reading. 

Refraction. 

Nadir. 

Observed 0, 

equinox 1852.0. 



No. 

in a. 

in d. 

a. 

8, 


1852. 

h. m. s. 

o 1 II 

/ // 

II 

o 1 II 

s. 

II 

h. m. s. 

° 1 II 


A Cancri 

Feh. 

11 

8 11 44.38 

302 5 51.08 

—1 24.45 

+7.9 

+24 28 59.58 

-0.61 

+3.24 

8 11 43.77 

+24 29 2.82 

64 

(Cont'd.) 


13 

44.45 

49.13 

24.17 

9.6 

59.55 

0.61 

3.13 

43.84 

3.39 




14 

44.31 

51.93 

24.52 

6.3 

60.40 

0.61 

3.08 

43,70 

3.48 




15 

44.22 

54,93 

24.61 

4.7 

59.09 

0.60 

3.02 

43.62 

2.11 




16 

44.39 

54.45 

24.36 

4.9 

59.12 

0.60 

2.96 

43.79 

2.08 




17 

44.50 

53.05 

24.74 

6.9 

58.90 

0.60 

2.90 

43.90 

1.80 




18 

44.35 

52.77 

25.92 

6.0 

61.26 

0.60 

2.84 

43.75 

4.10 




19 

44.30 

55.38 

24.58 

3.5 

59.81 

0.59 

2.78 

43.71 

2.59 




20 

44.17 

54.15 

24.35 

2.9 

61 .41 

0.59 

2.72 

43.58 

4.13 




21 

44.25 

53.45 

23.51 

6.4 

57.77 

0.59 

2.66 

. 43.67 

0.43 




22 

43.96 

55.83 

24.06 

2.7 

59.64 

0.58 

2.59 

43.38 

3.02 




23 

44.21 

55.52 

24.86 

4.6 

. 58.85 

0.57 

2.53 

43.64 

1.38 




24 

44.22 

53.65 

23.88 

4,7 

59.64 

0.57 

2.47 

43.65 

2.11 


1 

Mar. 

13 

44.09 

50.20 

23.55 

3.9 

63.56 

0.39 

1.26 

43.70 

4.82 


j 


15 

43.78 

50.75 

24.59 

4.8 

63.15 

0.36 

1.12 

43.42 

4.27 


Washington 

Mar. 

19 

8 28 3.38 

303 37.92 

—1 22.73 

+ 4.1 

+23 34 14.82 

+0.37 

+1.26 

8 28 3.01 

+23 34 17.83 

78 



20 

3.32 

. 35.90 

21.72 

3.9 

16.03 

0.36 

1.18 

2.96 

17.21 




22 

3.14 

34.18 

21.31 

5.5 

15.74 

0.33 

1.10 

2.81 

16.74 


Bessel 344 

Jan. 

24 

8 28 15.34 

302 49 19.65 

—1 22.84 

+ 2.0 

+23 45 35.30 

—0.53 

+4.10 

8 28 14.81 

+23 45 39.40 

79 



25 

15.10 

24.38 

22.62 

— 0.5 

32.85 

0.54 

4.09 

14.56 

36.94 



Mar. 

13 

15.02 

15.52 

"21.18 

+ 3.9 

35.87 

0.46 

, 1.63 

14.56 

37.50 


Washington 

Jan. 

27 

8 27 32.17 

302 36 27.33 

—1 22.92 

+ .0.1 

+23 58 7.11 

—0.56 

+4.04 

8 27 31.61 

+23 58 11.15 

*77 


Mar. 

15 

31.73 

47.28 

22.97 

4.8 

5.00 

0.43 

1.42 

31.30 

6.42 




16 

32.35 

46.22 

22.75 

6.2 

4.44 

0.43 

1.35 

31.92 

5.79 


H. C. 16464 

Jan. 

28 

8 16 36.37 

302 33 25.30 

—1' 23.20 

+ 3.5 

+24 1 28.51 

—0.57 

+3.88 

8 16 35.80 

+24 1 32.39 

69 


Mar. 

31 

35.85 

13.02 

18.50 

8.3 

31.29 

0.13 

0.26 

35.72 

31.55 


Washington 

Mar. 

23 

8 20 55.47 

302 29 17.42 

—1 23.36 

+ 5.1 

+24 5 34.95 

—0.28 

+0.78 

8 20 ,55.19 

+24 5 35.73 

73 



28 

55.00 

26.00 

22.40 

4.9 

25.61 

0.23 

0.57 

54.77 

26.18 


Washington 

Mar. 

16 

8 19 47.60 

302 25 15.22 

—1 23.^ 

+ 6.2 

+24 9 38.01 

—0.31 

+1.21 

8 19 47.29 

+24 9 37.22 

71 



22 

47.17 

11.38 

23.08 

5.5 

40.31 

0.28 

0.80 

46:89 

41.11 




25 

47.56 

11.82 

23.15 

5.0 

40.44 

0.24 

+0.59 

47.32 

41.03 



April 

6 

46.67 

6.00 

23.28 

8.2 

43.19 

0.05 

—0.26 

46.62 

42.93 


Washington 

Mar. 

27 

8 19 50.05 

302 15 1.05 

—1 23.66 

+13.1 

+24 19 43.62 

—0.21 

+0.45 

8 19 49.84 

+24 19 44.07 

72 



29 

49.83 

6.70 

23.42 

8.9 

41.93 

0.18 

+0.32 

49.65 

42.25 



April 

8 

49.75 

5.90 

23.37 

8.0 

43.58 

0.01 

—0.30 

49.74 

43.28 


Bessel 344 

Feb. 

1 

8 16 9.13 

302 9 56.52 

—1 23.75 

— 2.5 

+24 25 3.84 

—0.60 

+3.74 

8 16 8.53 

+24 25 7.58 

68 



2 

8.68 

53.33 

23.51 

+ 2.3 

1.99 

0.60 

3.70 

8.08 

5.69 



Mar. 

18 

8.83 

50.92 

26.49 

5.8 

3.88 

0133 

0.98 

8.50 

4.86 


Washington 

Mar. 

13 

8 13 10.23 

302 5 28.40 

—1 23.58 

+ 3.9 

+24 29 25.39- 

—0,39 

+1.29 

8 13 9.84 

+24 29 26.68 

66 



15 

9.88 

35.35 

24.61 

4.8 

18.57 

0.29 

1.15 

9.59 

19.72 


Bessel 341 

Feb. 

7. 

8 6 16.60 

301 47 55.53 

—1 24.04 

+ 0.2 

+24 46 62.42 

—0.61 

+3.32 

8 6 15.99 

• +24 46 65.72 

62 



8 


48 0.43 

24.59 

1.5 

56.77 

0.61 

3.27 


60.04 




9 

15.69 

47 59.63 

24.57 

1.2 

57.85 

0.61 

3.22 

15.0& 

61.07 



Mar. 

13 

16.26 

54.78 

24.48 

3.9 

59.91 

0.36 

1.14 

1*5.90 

60.05 




16 

16.60 

54.58 

25.34 

6.2 

58.67 

0.32 

0.94 

16.28 

59.61 




18 

16.18 

55.98 

27.72 

5.8 

60.05 

0.29 

0.81 

15.89 

60.86 




19 

16.22 

57.80 

26.49 

4.1 

58.70 

0.28 

0.74 

15.94 

59.44 


Bessel 341 

Feb. 

11 

7 59 24.83 

301 42 12.72 

—1 25.71 

+ 7.9 

+24 52 39.20 

—0.59 

+3.01 

7 59 24.24 

+24 52 42.21 

60 


Mar. 

13 

24.60 

13.38 

24.79 

3.9 

41.62 

0.33 

1.08 

24.27 

42.70 




15 

24.18 

13.95 

25.94 

4.8 

41.. 30 

0.30 

0.94 

23.88 

42.24 


H. 0. 15707 

Feb. 

11 

7 55 16.13 

301 39 42.05 

—1 25.86 

+ 7.9 

+24 55 10.02 

—0.59 

+2.94 

7 55 15.54 

+24 55 12.96 

58 



13 

16.16 

41.45 

25.52 

9.6 

8.58 

0.58 

2.83 

15.58 

11.41 




14 

16.03 

46.86 

25.94 

6.3 

6.89 

0.58 

2.78 

15.45 

9.67 




15 

16.08 

52. 7i 

26.04 

4.7 

2.74 

0.57 

2.73 

15.51 

5^47 




16 

16.00 

49.03 

25.79 

4.9 

5.97 

0.57 

2.68 

15.43 

8.65 



Mar. 

25 

16.02 

43.35 

25.43 

5.0 

11.19 

0.07 

0.25 

15.95 

11.44 



* Micrometer. 


Hosted by 


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COMPARISON-STARS. 
Beduction of stars determined at Santiago— QontimxQ^. 


ci 









Reducl'n to mean Mean place for 1852.0. 


Name. 

Date. 

Obs'd a. 

Circle reading 

f. Refraction 

Nadir. 

Observed §^ 

equinox, 1852. C 

. 

No. 

in a. 

in 5. 

<^ 

8, 


3852. 

h. m. s. 






- 




Bessel 34] 

Feb. 14 

7 55 3.85 

301 34 34.23 

—1 26.23 

-f 6.3 

° / // 
+25 19.81 

s. 

-0.58 

// 
+2.75 

h. m. s. 
7 55 3.27 

O 1 II 

+25 22.56 

57 


15 

3.87 

40.58 

26.33 

4.7 

15.16 

0.57 

2.70 

3.30 

17.86 



16 

3.87 

38.90 

26.07 

4.9 

16.38 

0.57 

2.64 

3.30 

19.02 



17 

4.09 

35.70 

26.46 

6.9 

17.97 

0.56 

2.58 

3.53 

20.55 



18 

3.91 

34.33 

27.56 

6.0 

21.34 

0.56 

2.52 

3.35 

23.86 



19 

3.95 

34.08 

26.31 

3.5 

22.84 

0.55 

2.46 

3.40 

25.30 



20 

3.70 

38.16 

26.07 

2.9 

19.12 

0.55 

2.40 

3.15 

21.52 



21 

3.76 

37.45 

25.10 

6.4 

15.36 

0.54 

2.34 

3.22 

17.70 



23 

3.73 

38.68 

25.45 

4.6 

17.28 

0.52 

2.21 

3.21 

19.49 



Mar. 1 

3.36 

35.58 

25.64 

3.8 

20.37 

0.46 

3.78 

2.90 

22.15 



2 

3.83 

33.62 

24.68 

5.2 

19.97 

0.45 

1.71 

3.38 

21.68 



4 

3.91 

34.82 

25.34 

5.3 

39.33 

0.42 

1.58 

3.49 

20.91 



6 

3.43 

36Ap 

25.20 

5.0 

17.91 

0.40 

1.46 

3.03 

19.37 



7 

3.60 

34.95 

26.07 

5.5 

19.73 

0.39 

1.39 

3.21 

21.12 



8 

3.87 

37.10 

26.81 

5.3 

18.52 

0.37 

1.33 

3.50 

19.85 


Bessel 341 

Feb. 25 

7 47 6.21 

301 31 54.00 

—1 26.04 

+ 4.5 

+25 3 1.65 

—0.48 

+2.00 

7 47 5.73 

+25 3 3.65 

49 


26 

6.22 

52.20 

25.07 

^.1 

1.88 

0.47 

1.93 

5.75 

3.81 



27 
1851. 

6.16 

53.88 

25.37 

5.1 

0.50 

0.46 

1.87 

5.66 

2.37 


Bessel 275 

Dee. 21 

9 10 21.60 

306 32 11.72 

—1 13.58 

+14.3 

+20 2 21.67 

+0.31 

+2.10 

9 10 21.91 

+20 2 23.77 

108 


22 

1852. 

21.40 

16.90 

12.07 

10.9 

23.29 

+0.28 

2.21 

21.68 

25.50 



Mar. 20 

22.23 

20.00 

11.82 

3.9 

22.03 

—0.54 

2.06 

21.69 

24.09 



1851. 











RUmker 2800 

Dec. 26 

9 7 42.79 

308 6 55.48 

—1 12.77 

+10.1 

+20 27 41.30 

+0.15 

+2.73 

9 7 42.94 

+20 27 44.03 

105 


27 
1852. 

43.30 

7 1.50 

13.47 

8.7 

43.98 

+0.13 

2.82 

43.43 

46.80 



Mar. 15 

42.99 

7 0.58 

12.93 

4.8 

41.66 

—0.58 

2.71 

42.41 

44.37 



1851. 











Kumker2799 

Dec. 30 
1852. 

9 7 40.53 

305 53 33.70 

—1 14.25 

+ 8.7 

+20 41 5.96 

+0.05 

+3.13 

9 7 40.58 

+20 41 9.09 

104 


Mar. 13 

1851. 

40.87 

35.50 

12.77 

3.9 

7.48 

—0.60 

2.70 

40.27 

10.18 


Anon. . . 

Dec. 31 
1852. 

9 3 20.27 

305 44 23.28 

—1 14.35 

+ 9.1 

+20 57 18.28 

+0.02 

+3.29 

9 3 20.29 

+20 57 21.57 

99 


Mar. H 

20.80 

37 24.18 

13.61 

3.5 

20.04 

—0.58 

2.62 

20.22 

22.66 


Bessel 277 

Jan. 1 

9 3 19.71 

305 32 55.70 

—1 14.49 

+10.4 

+21 1 42.50 

—0.03 

+3.36 

9 3 39.68 

+21 1 45.86 
44.15 

100 


Mar. 16 

20.44 

33 0.40 

14.17 

6.2 

41.68 

0.55 

2.47 

19.89 


Bessel 275 

Jan. 2 

8 58 16.30 

305 28 23.65 

—1 14.87 

+ 6.9 

+21 6 18.43 

—0.06 

+3.46 

8 58 16.24 

+21 6 21.89 

97 


Mar. 10 

17.14 

23.98 

14.37 

5.2 

19.30 

0.59 

2.80 

16.55 

22.18 



12 

17.05 

21.75 

13.79 

4.5 

21.65 

0.58 

2.67 

16.47 

24.32 



18 

17.07 

24.90 

16.56 

5.8 

19.97 

0.51 

2.26 

16.56 

22.23 



20 

16.97 

23.38 

14.50 

3.9 

21.33 

0.49 

2.32 

16.48 

23.45 


II. C. 18132, 

Jan. 4 

9 4 16.80 

305 17 55.48 

—1 16.14 

+ 5.4 

+21 16 49.37 

—0.09 

•^3.53 

9 4 16.71 

+21 16 52.90 

101 


Mar. 19 

17.04 

57.92 

16.17 

4.1 

48.26 

0.53 

1.82 

16.51 

50.08 



22 

16.93 

53.90 

14.76 

5.5 

49.47 

0.49 

1.60 

16.44 

51.07 


Bessel 278 

Jan. 5 

8 59 27.31 

305 5 28.87 

—1 16.33 

+ 5.5 

+21 29 15.87 

—0.13 

+3.72 

8 59 27.38 

+21 29 19.59 

98 


Mar. 13 

28.11 

24.80 

14,92 

3.9 

20.25 

0.57 

2.53 

27.54 

22.78 



15 

27.75 

27.35 

15.70 

4.8 

17.66 

0.55 

2.. 39 

27.20 

20.05 


Bessel 278 

Jan. 6 
Mar. 15 

8 53 47.45 
47.32 

305 36.70 

40.48 

—1 15.14 
15.90 

+ 5.9 

4.8 

+21 34 6.65 

4.73 

—0.17 
0.53 

+3.79 
2.31 

8 53 47.28 
46.79 

+21 34 10.44 
7.04 

96 


16 

48.06 

38.72 

15.65 

6.2 

4.84 

0.52 

2.25 

47.54 

7.09 


Bessel 278 

Jan. 7 

8 50 25.75 

304 50 31.10 

—1 16.94 

+12.4 

+21 44 7.55 

—0.21 

+3.85 

8 50 25.54 

+21 44 11.40 

94 


8 

25.74 

26.58 

17.39 

14.8 

10.12 

0.23 

3.89 

25.51 

14.01 



Mar. 9 

26.21 

34.68 

15.26 

4.1 

10.59 

0.58 

2.63 

25.63 

13.22 



10 

26.23 

35.12 

16.13 

5.2 

9.92 

0.57 

2.57 

25.66 

12.49 



12 

26.28 34.62 

15.53 

4.5 

10.52 

0.55 

2.43 

25.73 

12.95 



19 

25.98 36.30 

' 17.46 4.1 

11.17 

0.47 

1.95 

25.51 

13.12 



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oil 


C0MPAR1S0N-8TAKS. 
lieduciion of Stars determined at Santiago — Continued. 









Reduct'n to mean 

Mean place for 1852.0. 








Observed 0, 

equinox, 1852.0. 




Name. 

Date. 

obs'd a 

Circle reading. 

Refraction. 

Nadir. 




No. 

in«. 

in 0, 

a. 

d. 



1852. 

h. m. s. 

o / // 

/ // 

II 

o / // 

s. 

II 

h. m. s. 

o 1 II 


Bessel 278 

Jan. 9 

8 48 54.61 

304 39 43.58 

—1 17.56 

+12.9 

+21 54 55.19 

—0.25 

+3.92 

8 48 54.36 

+21 54 59.11 

93 


Mar. 13 

55.02 

50.20 

16.06 

3.9 

56.07 

0.53 

2.31 

54.49 

58.38 


Bessel 278 

Jan. 10 

8 52 13.44 

304 32 10.15 

—1 17.35 

4-14.2 

+22 2 27.11 

—0.25 

+4.00 

8 52 13.18 

+22 2 31.11 

95 


Mar. 18 

13.62 

20.20 

19.25 

5.8 

27.38 

0.49 

1.88' 

13.13 

29.24 



20 

13.70 

20.00 

17.12 

3.9 

27.33 

0.47 

1.74 

13.23 

29.07 


Bessel 278 

Jan. 11 

8 47 33.10 

304 25 55.40 

—1 18.49 

+13.5 

.+22 8 42.70 

—0.30 

+4.04 

8 47 32.80 

+22 8 46.74 

92 


April 2 

33.07 

59.75 

18.23 

1.1 

44.89 

0.26 

0.83 

32.81 

45.72 



6 

32.71 

55.35 

17.15 

8.2 

47.71 

0.20 

0.55 

32.51 

48.26 


Bessel 278 

Jan. 14 

8 44 15.48 

304 58.25 

—1 18.55 

— 0.7 

+22 33 55.11 

—0.36 

+4.15 

8 44 15.12 

+22 33(59.66) 

88 


Mar. 19 

15.76 

1 17.38 

19.87 

+ 4.1 

32.50 

0.45 

1.68 

15.31 

34.18 



23 

15.54 

12.80 

18.83 

5.1 

35.04 

0.40 

1.39 

15.14 

36.43 



25 

15.71 

18.40 

18.39 

5.0 

29.10 

0.37 

1.25 

15.34 

30.35 


Bessel 278 

Jan. 13 

8 45 58.27 

304 12 10.78 

—1 20.00 

+ 0.8 

+22 22 42.53 

—0.34 

+4.11 

8 45 57.93 

+22 22 46.64 



Mar. 25 

58.51 

5.34 

17.86 

5.0 

41.63 

0.37 

1.31 

58.14 

42.94 



27 

58.48 

11 56.25 

17.77 

13.1 

42.53 

0.35 

1.17 

58.13 

43.70 


H. C. 17513 

Jan. 17 

8 45 28.48 

303 43 19.08 

-1 19.32 

— 2.1 

+22 51 36.45 

—0.41 

+4.23 

8 45 28.07 

+22 51 40.68 

89 


Mar. 18 

28.50 

12.90 

21.65 

+ 5.8 

37.06 

0;47 

1.67 

28.03 

38.73 



20 

28.08 

14.40 

19.56 

3.9 

35.37 

0.44 

1.63 

27.64 

37.00 


Bessel 344 

Mar. 13 

8 35 7.26 

303 20 19.52 

—1 19.83 

+ 3.9 

+23 14 30.52 

—0.48 

+1.83 

8 35 6.78 

+23 14 ^.35 

85 


15 

6.90 

21.22 

20.73 

4.8 

28.82 

0.46 

1.69 

6.44 

30., 51 


Washi 

Mar- 26 

8 31 41.30 

303 18 35.82 

—1 19.87 

+ 4.9 

+23 16 13.26 

—0.29 

+0.89 

8 31 41.01 

+23 16 14.15 

82 


27 

40.98 

33.12 

20.35 

13.1 

8.24 

0.28 

0.82 

40.70 

9.06 



29 

41.07 

33.62 

20.16 

8.9 

11.75 

0.25 

0.68 

40.82 

12.43 


Washington 

Mar. 23 

8 30 11.90 

303 10 28.52 

—1 21.28 

+ 5.1 

+23 24 21.77 

—0.33 

+1.03 

8 30 11.57 

+23 24 22.80 

80 


25 

11.97 

, 30.58 

20.78 

5.0 

19.31 

0.29 

0.90 

11.68 

20.21 



27 

12.08 

21.88 

20.77 

13.1 

19.90 

0.25 

0.77 

11.83 

20.67 



Mean places for 1852.0 of Gomparison-Stars determined at Santiago, 


Refer- 
ence No. 

Name. 

a. 

No. 
obs. 

8. 

No. 
obs. 

Refer- 
ence No- 

Name. 

a. 

No. 
obs. 

d. 

No. 
obs. 



h. m. s. 


/ // 




h. m. s. 


1 II 


47 

H. C. 15401 . 

1 46 36.58 

3 

+24 44 50.99 

3 

87 

Bessel 344 , . 

8 40 17.65 

2 

+22 44 42.41 

2 

48 

H. C. 15412 . 

7 46 57.25 

3 

24 36 49.05 

3 

88 

Bessel 278 . . 

8 44 15.23 

4 

22 33 33.65 

4 

49 

Bessel 341 . . 

7 47 5.71 

3 

25 3 3.28 

3 

89 

H. C. 17513 . 

8 45 27.91 

3 

22 51 38.80 

3 

52 

Bessel 341 . . 

7 48 38.31 

5 

24 54 11.79 

5 

90 

Bessel 278 . . 

8 45 58.07 

3 

22 22 44.43 

3 

54 

Bessel 339 . . 

7 50 59.58 

3 

24 28 27.10 

3 

91 

Bessel 278 . . 

8 47 26.09 

4 

22 15 15.44 

4 

55 

H. C. 15608 . 

7 52 38.37 

3 

24 18 58.82 

3 

92 

Bessel 278 . . 

8 47 32.71 

3 

22 8 46.91 

3 

57 

Bessel 341 . . 

7 55 3.29 

15 

25 20.86 

15 

93 

Bessel 278 . . 

8 48 54.43 

2 

21 54 58.75 

2 

■ 58 

Bessel 341 . . 

7 55 15.59 

6 

24 55 10.27 

6 

94 

Bessel 278 . . 

8 50 25.60 

6 

21 44 12.86 

6 

60 

Bessel 341 . . 

7 59 24.13 

3 

24 52 42.38 

3 

95 

Bessel 278 . . 

8 52 13.18 

3 

22 2 29.81 

3 

62 

Bessel 341 . . 

8 6 16.01 

6 

24 47 0.18 

7 

96 

Bessel 278 . . 

8-53 47.20 

3 

21 34 8.19 

3 

64 

ACancri . . . 

8 11 43.69 

32 

24 29 2.83 

33 

97 

Bessel 275 . . 

8 58 16.46 

5 

21 6 22.81 

o 

66 

Washington . 

8 13 9.72 

2 

24 29 21.42 

2 

98 . 

Bessel 278 . . 

8 59 27.31 

3 

21 29 80.81 

3 

68 

Bessel 344 . . 

8 16 8.37 

3 

24 25 6.04 

3 

99 

Anon. . . . 

9 3 20.26 

2 

20 57 22.12 

2 

69 

H. C. 16464 . 

8 16 35.76 

2 

24 1 31.97 

2 

100 

Bessel 277 . . 

9 3 19.79 

2 

21 1 45.00 

2 

71 

Washington . 

8 19 47.03 

4 

24 9 40.57 

4 

101 

H. C. 18132 . 

9 4 16.55 

3 

21 16 51.35 

3 

72 

Washington 

8 19 49.74 

3 

24 19 43.20 

3 

102 

Bessel 275 , . 

9 4 26.87 

3 

20 37 38.39 

3 

73 

Washington . 

8 20 54.98 

2 

24 5 30.96 

2 

103 

Bessel 275 . . 

9 7 25.78 

2 

19 51 31.15 

2 

77 

Washington . 

8 27 31.61 

3 

23 58 5.55 

3 

104 

Rumker2799 . 

9 7 40.43 

2 

20 41 9.64 

2 

78 

Washington 

8 28 2.93 

3 

23 34 17.26 

3 

105 

Rumker2800 . 

9 7 42.93 

3 

20 27 45.07 

3 

79 

Bessel 344 . . 

8 28 14.64 

3 

23 45 37.95 

3 

106 

Bessel 275 . . 

9 8 14.36 

2 

19 52 11.65 

2 

80 

Washington . 

8 30 11.69 

3 

23 24 21 .23 

3 

107 

Washington 

9 8 14.62 

4 

20 15 33.84 

4 

82 

Washington 

8 31 40.84 

3 

23 16 11.88 

3 

108 

Bessel 275 . , 

9 10 21.76 

3 

20 2 24.45 

3 

85 

Bessel 344 . . 

8 35 6.61 

2 

+23 14 31.43 

2 

109 

B. A. C. 3181 . 

9 12 17.68 

2 

+19 42 50.03 

2 


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COMPAEISON-STAES. ciii 

The Washington observations were reduced by Prof. Tarnall with the aid of special tables, 
which immediately refer the declinations to the mean equinox for the commencement of the 
nearest decade,- being in almost all cases 1860.0 

The declinations, as observed with the mural circle, were usually accompanied, for the sake 
of identification, by the apparent right-ascension, roughly noted at the time of transit over 
the middle thread of the instrument, so that the several observations were, for the most part 
given in the form of approximate apparent right-ascensions and mean declinations for the 
epoch 1860.0. The right-ascensions of the first seven stars in the list were determined with the 
Washington transit-instrument, and reduced also to the mean equinox of 1860.0 by Prof. 
Lawrence. The right ascensions of the remainder are either estimated for the apparent equinox 
by the observer, as already mentioned, in which case they are enclosed within parentheses, or 
in the other cases taken to the nearest second from such sources as were most readily accessible 
by myself, and referred to the epoch of the declinations. A few star-positions for 1850.0, taken 
from earlier Washington observations, are incorporated in the list. But all the places, for 
which the contrary is not specially indicated by parentheses or otherwise, are counted irom the 
mean equinox and equator of 1860.0. 

Annexed to the table of observations is a compend analogous to that which follows the 
Santiago observations, and containing the resultant list of declinations determined by the 
Naval Observatory. It gives the means of the several determinations as counted from the mean 
equinox of 1860.0, and also the reductions to the beginning of the year in which the comparison 
was made. The right-ascensions are, of course, entitled to the same confidence as in the pre- 
ceding tables from which they are derived. As was the case with the arrangement of the 
Santiago star-places, the reference-numbers given in the last column of the table of observations 
denote the number of the star in the special list, and those given in the special list relate to 
the number m the General Catalogue of Comparison-Stars. 


Hosted by 


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CIV 


COMPARISON-STARS 
Observations of Comparison- Stars with the Washington mural circle. 


star. 

a. 

Date. 

Mean declina- 
tion, 1860.0. 

Obs'r. 

Star. 

a. 

Date. 

Mean declina- 
tion, 1860.0. 

Obs'r. 


h. m. s. 

1855. 

° / // 



h. m. s. 

1855. 

o / // 


Bessel Z. 396 . 

5 3 41.899 

Dec, 3 

+28 17 8.99 

Y. 

Bessel Z. 405 

5 46 56.049 

Dec. 3 

+26 27 0.71 

Y. 


41.716 

18 

8.28 

Y. 



18 

26 59.57 

Y. 


41.664 

20 
30 
1856. 

8.97 
9.52 

Y. 
Y. 



30 
1856. 
Jan. 3 

59.63 
59 37 

Y. 
Y. 



Jan. 3 

7.59 

Y. 



10 

26 58 90 

Y. 



4 

7.95 

Y. 



15 

27 1.19 

Y. 



10 

9.29 

Y. 

1 


18 

0.82 

Y. 



15 

9.16 

Y. 



22 

0.14 

Y. 



16 

9.97 

Y. 



23 

1.64 

Y. 



18 

7.83 

Y. 



28 

27 0.12 

Y. 



22 

9.31 

Y. 



1855. 





23 

9.13 

Y. 

Rumker 1673 

5 54 44.989 

Dec. 3 

+26 16 36.00 

Y. 



1855. 





18 

35.98 

Y. 

Bessel Z. 405 . 

5 11 6.522 

Dec. 3 

+26 6 ^ 24 

Y. 



30 

36.26 

Y. 


6.529 

30 

1856. 

31.60 

Y. 



1856. 
Jan. 3 

36.13 

Y. 


6.412 

Jan. 3 

31.09 

Y. 



10 

35.09 

Y. 



4 

31.63 

Y. 



15 

35.80 

Y. 



10 

31.63 

Y. 



18 

36.03 

Y. 



15 

31.34 

Y. 



22 

36.29 

Y. 



18 

31.46 

Y. 



23 

36.27 

Y. 



22 

32.31 

Y. 



28 

36.00 

Y. 



23 

32.46 

Y. 



1855. 





28 

32.75 

Y. 

Rumker 1680 

5 55 8.8 

Dec. 3 

+26 21 5.68 

Y. 



1855. 





18 

5.77 

Y. 

Bessel Z. 523 . 

5 18 25.222 

Dec. 3 

+26 27 30.11 

Y. 



30 

5.43 

Y. 


25.130 

18 

29.89 

Y. 



1856. 





30 

29.74 

Y. 



Jan. 3 

5.57 

Y. 



1856. 





4 

5.25 

Y. 



Jan. 3 

29.91 

Y. 



10 

5.51 

Y. 



10 

30.80 

Y. 



15 

6.48 

Y. 



15 

31.06 

Y. 



18 

6.25 

Y. 



18 

30.34 

Y. 

- 


22 

7.50 

Y. 



22 

29.73 

Y. 



3 

6.82 

Y. 



23 

31.15 

Y. 



^8 

6.64 

Y. 



28 

30.21 

Y. 








1855. 



W. 

8 13 39 

April 6 

+24 27 56.20 


Bessel Z. 405 . 

5 22 20.521 

Dec. 3 

+26 28 20.94 

Y. 



8 

55.25 



20.^22 

18 

19.83 

Y. 

Bessel Z. 344 

8 16 37 

April 6 

+24 23 36.29 




30 

20.30 

Y. 



8 

34,91 




1856. 
Jan. 3 

20.36 

Y. 

Lai. 16464 . . 

8 17 5 

April 9 

+24 2.08 




4 

19.39 

Y. 

Bessel Z. 344 . . 

8 28 '43 

April 9 

+23 44 0.00 




10 

15 

19.78 
20.67 

Y. 
Y. 

W. 0. . . . . 

8 30 40 

April 6 

+23 22 44.75 




18 

20.33 

Y. 

Bessel Z. 344 . . 

8 35 35^ 

April 6 

+23 12 51.83 




22 

19.54 

Y. 



8 

51.26 




23 

20.96 

Y. 

Bessel Z. 278 . . 

8 46 26 

April 8 

+22 20 59.44 




28 

19.80 

Y. 



18 

59.43 




1855. 



Bessel Z. 278 . . 

8 47 54 

April 6 

+22 13 29.11 


Bessel Z. 405 . 

5 30 14.012 

Dec. 3 

4-26 31 57.08 

Y. 







14.035 

18 

56.08 

Y. 

Bessel Z. 278 . . 

8 50 54 

April 11 

+21 42 25.27 



13.866 

20 

56.44 

Y. 

Bessel Z. 278 . . 

8 52 40 

April 18 

+22 39.67 




30 
1856. 

57.91 

Y. 

Bessel Z. 278 . . 

8 54 15 

April 6 

+21 32 19.25 




Jan. 3 

56.74 

Y. 



8 

18.01 




10 

56.67 

Y. 

Bessel Z. 275 . . 

8 58 44 

April 6 

+21 4 31.03 




15 

- 57.44 

Y. 



8 

30.85 


1 


16 

18 

57.69 
57.30 

Y. 
Y. 

Bessel Z. 278 . . 

8 59 55 

April 11 

18 

+21 27 30.39 
30.20 


1 


22 
23 

57.10 
57.49 

Y. 
Y. 

W. 

9 8 42 

April 8 

+20 13 .37.41 


1 


28 

+ 26 31 57.09 

Y. 

Bessel Z. 275 . . 

9 4 54 

April 11 

+20 35 43.67 

...-x— ^ 


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COMPARISON-STARS. 
Observations of Comparison-Stars zvith the Washington mural ciVc^e— Continued. 


cv 


Star. 

a. 

Date. 

Mean declina- 
tion, 1860.0. 

Obs'r 


h. m. s. 

1856. 

/ // 


W. 0. . . . 

9 10 49 

April 6 

+20 27.81 


* 


11 

26.77 


Piazzi rx,50 . 

9 12 45 

April 18 

+19 40 52.63 



(16 41 19) 

May 20 

—26 29 36.48 

Y. 



22 

36.90 

Y. 



June 3 

37.96 

Y. 



18 

36.85 

Y. 



July 1 

36.88 

Y. 



4 

37.06 

Y. 



10 

36.92 

Y. 


(16 43 21) 

May 20 

—26 40 38.66 

Y. 



22 

39.14 

Y. 



28 

37.58 

Y. 



June 21 

38.87 

Y. 


(16 49 36) 

June 3 

—26 53 25.06 

Y. 



19 

23.99 

Y. 



21 

24.43 

Y. 



July 1 

24.56 

Y. 


(16 50 30) 

June 3 

—26 57 37.84 

Y. 



19 

36.67 

Y. 



21 

37.96 

Y. 



July 1 

37.12 

Y. 


(16 52 24) 

May 20 

—27 2 17.89 

Y. 



21 

18.29 

M. 



22 

18.39 

Y. 



June 18 

18.34 

Y. 


(16 55 6) 

May 20 

—27 38.73 

Y. 



21 

40.07 

M. 



22 

39.60 

Y. 



June 18 

38.51 

Y. 


(17 9) 

May 22 

-27 12 41.09 

Y. 



23 

39.74 

M. 



28 

41.00 

Y. 



June 18 

40.35 

Y. 


(17 7 32) 

May 20 

—27 23 56.32 

Y. 



22 

55.79 

Y. 



June 3 

55.18 

Y. 



19 

54.32 

Y. 


(17 11 34) 

May 23 

—17 36 21.32 

M. 



June 18 

23.00 

Y. 



20 

21.96 

M. 



27 

21.44 

M.' 


(17 13 16) 

May 20 

—27 51 34.32 

Y. 



21 

36.10 

M. 



22 

35.12 

Y. 



July 14 

36.40 

M. 



17 

34.85 

Y. 


(17 13 48) 

June 3 

—27 32 7.01 

Y. 



19 

5.35 

Y. 



July 10 

7.69 

Y. 



15 

7.09 

Y. 


(17 14 17) 

June 21 

—27 50 43.70 

Y. 


(17 14 16) 

May 28 

—17 33 46.62 

Y. 



June 18 

46.79 

Y. 



20 

46.59 

M. 



27 

45.81 

M. 


Star. 


h. 7W, s, 

(17 25 38) 


(17 29 10) 


(17 32 21) 


(17 39 5) 


Date. 


(17 44 18) 


(17 46 42) 


(17 47 40) 


(17 52 49) 


(17 53 53) 


(17 56 20) 


(17 59 26) 


(18 15) 


(18 4 32) 


(18 5 11) 


1856. 

May 20 
22 
28 

June 3 
18 

May 20 
21 
22 

June 20 

June 3 
18 
19 

May 20 
22 
23 

June 3 
18 
19 

May 20 
21 
22 

June 19 

May 28 

June 2 

18 

20 

May 21 
22 

June 3 
19 

May 23 
28 

June 19 
20 

May 21 

22 

June 3 

July 1 

May 22 

28 

June 3 

July 1 

May 22 

23 

June 18 

July 4 

June 2 

3 

19 

July 1 

May 28 

June 3 

19 

July I 

June 2 
18 
21 

July 1 


Mean declina- 
tion, 1860.0. 


—17 44 


/ // 
0.15 
0.32 
0.73 
0.39 
0.85 


-27 57 25.59 
26.66 
25.43 
26.26 

-18 15.29 
15.43 
15.63 

-18 3 0.43 
3 0.53 

2 59.93 

3 0.44 
0.49 
0.73 


Obs'r, 


—28 


1 10.01 
9.68 
10.67 
9.92 

-18 15 41.16 
39.56 
39.93 
39.52 

—28 2 17.50 
18.28 
18.86 
17.79 

-27 52 5.62 

6.00 

6.28 

7.16 

—27 49 17.16 

17.18 

17.91 

17.25 

—27 50 14.01 
13.93 
13.74 
13.42 

—27 39 26.84 
28.04 
27.14 
28.93 


-27 45 


2.73 
4.29 

2.48 
2.99 

-25 10 50.45 
51.56 
51.36 
49.94 

-27 32 5.23 
6.89 
6.66 
5.71 


Y. 
Y. 
Y. 
Y. 
Y. 

Y. 
M. 
Y. 
M. 

Y. 
Y^ 
Y^ 

Y. 
Y. 
M. 
Y. 
Yt 
Y. 

Y. 

M. 
Y. 
Y. 

Y. 
Y. 
Y. 
M. 

M. 
Y. 
Y. 
Y. 

M. 
Y. 
Y. 
M. 

M. 
Y. 
Y. 
Y. 

Y. 
Y. 
Y. 
Y. 

Y. 

M. 
Y. 
Y. 

M. 
Y. 
Y. 
Y. 

Y. 
Y. 
Y. 
Y. 

M. 
Y. 
Y. 

Y. 


po 


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CVl COMPARISON-STARS. 

Observations of Comparison-Stars with the Wa§hi7igton m!ural circle---Contm}iQd. 


Star. 

a. 

Date. 

Mean declina- 
tion, 1860 0. 

Obs'r. 

Star. 

a. 

Date. 

Mean declina- 
tion, 1860.0. 

Obs'r. 


h. m. s. 

1856. 

a 1 II 



h, m, s. 

1856. 

/ // 



(18 7 4) 

May 23 

—25 45 0.64 

M. 


(18 15 44) 

May 28 

—26 33 41.65 

Y. 



June 20* 

2.62 

M. 



30 

42.13 

H^ 



July 14 

3.23 

M. 



June 3 

42.33 

Y. 



15 

1.99 

Y. 



18 

41.91 

Y. 


(18 7 24) 

May 21 

—27 27 14.37 

M. 


i 

21 

42.52 

Y. 


(18 9 5) 

22 
July 10 

May 30 
June 3 

13.05 
15.15 

—27 5 19.94 
20.06 

Y. 
Y. 

Y. 
Y. 


(17 21 37) I 

i 

May 20 
22 
23 

—17 41 44.21 
44.40 
44.78 

Y. 
Y. 



27 
July, 17 

20.72 
22.04 

Y. 
Y. 


(18 18 47) i 

May 20 
21 

—26 42 45.29 
46.31 

Y. 

M. ; 


(18 9 25) 

June 18 

—18 50 41.15 

Y. 



22 

46.35 

Y. ; 



19 

41.^ 

Y. 



23 

46.55 

Y. ; 



July 4 

42. 62 

Y. 







(18 9 49) 
(18 12 19) 

May 28 
June 21 
July 1 

May 20 
22 

-25 59 3.08 
2.76 
2.46 

—26 8 33.06 
33.43 

Y. 
Y. 
Y. 

Y. 
Y. 


(18 24 3) 

May 20 

22 

June 2 

3 

—19 4 5.95 
6.56 
6.96 
6.27 

Y. ; 
Y. 

M. ; 
Y. : 



July 15 

33 77 

Y 




Mean declina- 



(18 12 57) 

June 18 

19 

July 15 

—18 55 4.68 
5.78 
6.67 

Y. 
Y. 
Y. 




tion, 1850.0. 





(18 18 34)" 

1853. 
Aug. 8 

—26 43 2.86 



(18 15 26) 

May 30 

—26 28 38.29 

Y. 



12 

2.41 




July 1 

38.85 

Y. 



19 

2.50 




10 

39.07 

Y. 



1854. 





17 

38.92 

Y. 



Sept. 2 

3.91 



Hosted by 


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2 

3 

,4 

5 

8 

11 

13 

14 

66 

68 


85 
90 
91 
94 


97 
98 
102 
107 
108 
109 
110 
111 
112 
113 
114 
115 
116 
117 
118 
119 
120 
121 
122 

124 

125 

126 

127 

128 

129 

130 

131 

132 

133 

134 

135 

136 

137 

138 

139 

140 

141 

142 

143 

144 

145 

146 

147 

148 


COMPARISON-STARS, 
Mean declinations of Comparison' Stars determined at Washington, 


evil 


Besse.l 396 . 

Bessel 405 . 

Bessel 523 . 

Bessel 405 . 

Bessel 405 . 

Bessel 405 . 

Rumker 1673 

Rumkerl680 

W. 0.. . . 

Bessel 344 . 

Lalande 16464 

Bessel 344 . 

W. 0. . . . 
Bessel 344 . 
■ Bessel 278 . 
Bessel 278 . 
Bessel 278 
Bessel 278 . 
Bessel 278 . 
Bessel 275 . 
Bessel 278 . 
Bessel 275 . , 
W. 0.. . . . 
W. 0. . . . , 
Piazzi IX 50 


Mean place, 1860.0. 


«. 


h. m. s. 
5 3 41.760 
5 11 6.488 
5 18 25.176 
5 22 20.422 
5 30 13.971 
5 46 56.049 
5 54 44.989 
5 55 ■ 8.80 
8 13 39 
8 .16 37 
8 17 5 
8 28 43 
8 30 40 
8 35 35 
8 46 26 
8 47 54 
8 50 54 
8 52 40 
8 54 15 
8 58 44 

8 59 55 

9 4 54 
9 8 42 
9 10 49 
9 12 45 

16 41 32 
16 43 33 
16 49 49 
16 50 42 
16 52 36 

16 55 19 

17 21 
17 7 45 
17 11 44 
17 13 28 
17 14 
17 14 29 
17 14 26 
17 25 49 
17 29 23 
17 32 32 
17 39 16 
17 44 30 
17 46 55 
17 47 52 
17 53 2 
17 54 G 
17 56 32 

17 59 38 

18 28 

4 44 

5 24 
7 17 
7 38 
9 18 
9 38 

18 10 7 
18 12 30 
18 13 10 
18 13 38 
18 15 56 
18 19 
18 24 15 


+26 17 8.83 
26 6 31.85 
26 27 30.29 
; 26 28 20.17 
26 31 57.08 
26 27 0.22 
26 16 35.98 
26 21 6.08 
24 27 55.72 
24 23 35.60 
24 2.08 
23 44 0.00 
23 22 44.75 
23 12 51.54 
22 20 59.44 
22 13 29.11 

21 42 25.27 

22 39.67 
21 32 18.63 
21 4 30.94 
21 27 30.30 
20 35 43.67 
20 13 37.41 
20 27.29 

+19 40 52.63 

—26 29 37.01 

26 40 38.56 

26 53 24.51 

26 57 37.40 

27 2 18.23 
27 39.23 
27 12 40.55 
27 23 55.40 
17 36 21.93 
27 51 35.36 
27 32 6.71 
27 50 43.70 
17 33 46.45 

17 44 0.49 

27 57 25.99 

18 15.45 
18 3 0.43 

28 1 10.07 
18 15 40.04 
28 2 18.11 
27 52 6.27 
27 49 17.38 
27 50 13.78 
27 39 27.74 
27 45 3.12 
25 10 50.83 
27 32 6.12 
25 45 2.12 
27 27 14.19 
27 5 20.69 
18 50 41.73 

25 59 2.77 

26 8 33.42 
18 55 5.71 
26 28 38.78 
26 33 42.09 
26 42 46.13 

—19 4 6.69 


No. obs 


12 

10 

10 
Hi 

12 

10 

10 

11 
2 
. 2 
1 
1 

1 

2 

2 

1 

2 

1 

2 

2 

2 

1 

1 

2 

1 

7 

4 

3 

3 

4 

4 

4 

4 

4 
5 
4 
1 
4 
5 


Year of 
, comp. 


Red. in «. 


1850 
1850 
1850 
18^0 
1849 
1849 
1849 
1849 
1852 

, 1852 
1852 
1852 
1852 
1852 
1852 
1852 
1852 
1852 
1852 
1852 
1852 
1851 
1851 
1851 
1851 
1850 
1852 
1850 
1850 
1850 
1850 
1850 

1850 

1851 

1850 

1850 

1851 

1851 

1851 

1850 

1851 

1851 

1850 

1851 

1850 

1850 

1850 

1850 

1850 

1850 

1850 

1850 

1850 

1850 

1850 

1851 

1850 

1850 

1851 

1850 

1850 

1850 

1851 


-37.12 
37.12 
37.26 
37.28 
41.06 
41.10 
41.05 
41.07 


Mean O for beg. 
of year. 


For No. 121 the 6 i« assumed to be —27" 49' instead of —27* 50'. 


Red. in ( 


« / // 
+26 16 19.79 

/ // 
—0 49.04 

26 5 49.12 

42.73 

26 26 53.83 

36.46 

26 27 47.09 

33.08 

26 31 28.18 

28.90 

26 26 47.32 

12.90 

26 16 30.60 

5.38 

26 21 1.08 

—0 5.00 

24 29 23.94 

+1 28.22 

24 25 5.54 

1 29.94 

24 1 32.29 

130.21 

23 45 36.83 

1 36.83 

23 24 22.66 

1 37.91 

23 14 32.17 

1 40.63 

22 22 45.86 

1 46.42 

22 15 16.30 

1 47.19 

21 44 14.01 

1 48.74 

22 2 27.26 

1 47.59 

21 34 9.08 

1 50.45 

21 6 23.57 

1 52.63 

21 29 23.59 

1 53.29 

20 37 53.86 

2 10.19 

20 15 49.85 

2 12.44 

20 2 40.67 

2 13.38 

+19 43 7.03 
—26 28 29.65 

2 14.40 
1 7.36 

26 39 32.64 

1 5.92 

26 52 23.79 

1 0.72 

26 56 37.42 

59.98 

27 1 19.84 

58.39 

26 59 43.12 

56.11 

27 11 48.68 

51.87 

27 23 9.80 

45.60 

17 35 44.00 

37.93 

27 50 54.67 

40.69 

27 31 26.46 

40.25 

27 49 3.87 

39.83 

17 33 10.60 

35.85 

17 43 34.25 

26.24 

27 56 59.01 

26.98 

17 59 53.68 

21.77 

18 2 43.91 

16.52 

28 56.27 

13.80 

18 15 29.52 

10.52 

28 2 7.21 

10.90 

27 51 59.93 

6.34 

.27 49 12.06 

5.32 

27 50 10.47 

3.31 

27 39 27.14 

+0 0.60 

27 45 3.25 

—0 0.13 

25 10 54.71 

3.88 

27 32 10.56 

4.44 

25 45 8.23 

6.11 

27 27 20.72 

6,53 

27 5 28.55 

7.86 

18 50 49.10 

7.37 

25 59 11.27 

8.50 

26 8 44.09 

10.67 

18 55 15.85 

10.14 

26 28 50.43 

11.65 

26 33 55.76 

13.67 

26 43 2.69 

16.56 

—19 4 25.54 

—0 18.85 


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CVlll 


COMPARISON-STARS. 


Ninety-three observations of comparison-stars were afforded by Bessel's zones, and are bere 
appended, and reduced to the mean equinoxes of 1825.0, and of the commencement of the year 
of comparison. The reference-numbers are to the General Catalogue. 

Comparison- Stars from BesseVs Zones, 


i 

ISI 

Mag. 

Observed 

Reduction to 
1825.0. 

Mean place, 1825.0. 

i 

o 

Reduction to begin- 
ning of year. 

Mean place. 

No. 

a. 

d. 

a. 

d. 

a. 

d. 

«. 

d. 

a. 

d. 

62 

7 

h, in, s. 
7 31 42.30 

o 1 II 

+14 37 49.1 

s. 

+28.72 

II 
—74.0 

h. m. s, 

7 32 11.02 

1 II 

+14 36 35.] 

1852 

tn. s. 
+1 31.53 

1 II 
—3 33.6 

h. m. s, 

7 33 42.55 

o / // 

+14 33 1.5 

42 

146 

8 

7 27 50.30 

14 44 34.7 

7.00 

63.3 

7 27 57.30 

14 43 31.4 

1852 

1 31.67 

3 24.5 

7 29 28.97 

14 40 6.9 

38 


7 

7 32 3.70 

14 37 37.8 

6.98 

63.9 

7 32 10.68 

14 36 33.9 

1852 

1 31.53 

3 33.6 

7 33 42.21 

" 14 33 0.3 

42 

273 

9 

7 27 52.20 

15 28 49.1 

3.82 

44.6 

7 27 56.02 

15 28 4.5 

1852 

1 ^.13 

3 24.4 

7 29 28.15 

15 24 40.1 

37 


9.10 

7 29 2.38 

14 57 48.8 

3.83 

45.3 

7 29 6.21 

14 57 3.5 

1852 

1 31.79 

3 26„9 

7 30 38.00 

14 53 36.6 

39 


8 

7 29 22.60 

14 51 52.2 

3.83 

45.4 

7 29 26.43 

14 51 6.8 

1852 

1 31.72 

3 27.7 

7 30 58.15 

14 47 39.1 

40 


8 

7 31 8.36 

15 44 36.8 

3.81 

44.2 

7 31 12.17 

15 43 52.6 

1852 

1 32.24 

3 31.5 

7 32 44.41 

15 40 21.1 

41 


9 

7 32 13.43 

15 54 8.7 

3.80 

43.7 

7 32 17.23 

15 53 25.0 

1852 

1 32.32 

3 33.9 

7 33 49.55 

15 49 51.1 

43 


9 

7 51 55.66 

16 2 59.1 

3.75 

42.0 

7 51 59.41 

16 2 17.1 

1852 

1 32.03 

4 15.8 

7 53 31,44 

15 58 1,3- 

56 


9 

8 10 16.16 

16 1 22.4 

3.70 

40.8 

8 10 19.86 

16 41.6 

1852 

1 31.59 

4 53.1 

8 11 51.45 

15 55 48.5 

65 


8 

8 13 23.89 

15 50 13.8 

3.70 

41.0 

8 13 27.59 

15 49 32.8 

1852 

1 31.40 

4 59.3 

8 14 58.99 

15 44 33.5 

67 


7.8 

8 22 49.95 

15 52 17.3 

3.68 

40.3 

8 22 53.63 

15 51 37.0 

1852 

1 31.18 

5 17.6 

8 24 24.81 

15 46 19.4 

75 


8.9 

8 25 23.48 

16 20 9.7 

3.67 

39.4 

8 25 27.15 

16 19 30.3 

1852 

1 31.37 

5 22.5 

8 26 58.52 

16 14 7.8 

76 

274 

9 

8 30 48.50 

18 52 21.9 

4.13 

36.3 

8 30 52.63 

18 51 45.6 

1852 

1 32.60 

5 32.7 

8 32 25-23 

18 46 12.9 

83 


9 

8 30 59.02 

19 6 52.0 

4.12 

35.9 

8 31 3.14 

19 6 16.1 

1852 

1 32.73 

5 33.1 

8 32 35.87 

19 43.0 

84 


9 

8 37 48.40 

18 42 4.3 

4.12 

36.0 

8 37 52.52 

18 41 28.3 

1852 

1 32.28 

5 45.6 

8 39 24.80 

18 35 42.7 

86 

275 

8 

8 56 39.01 

21 13 12.3 

4.48 

29.2 

8 56 43.49 

21 12 43.1 

1852 

1 32.89 

6 18.7 

8 58 16.38 

21 6 24.4 

97 


8.9 

9 1 42.19 

21 8 39.1 

4.48 

29.1 

9 1 46.67 

21 8 10.0 

1852 

1 32.66 

6 27.1 

9 3 19.33 

21 1 42.9 

100 


9 

9 2 49.60 

20 44 34.3 

4.48 

29.6 

9 2 54.08 

20 44 4.7 

1851 

1 28.96 

6 14.5 

9 4 23.04 

20 37 50.2 

102 


9 

9 5 49.10 

19 58 32.6 

4.49 

30.6 

9 5 53.59 

19 58 2.0 

1851 

1 28.48 

6 19.2 

9 7 22.07 

19 51 42.8 

103 


9 

9 6 37.63 

19 59 13.4 

4.49 

30.6 

9 6 42.12 

19 58 42.8 

1851 

1 28.45 

6 20.5 

9 8 10.57 

19 52 22.3 

106 


9 

9 8 45.72 

20 9 29.1 

4.48 

30.2 

9 8 50.20 

20 8 58.9 

1851 

1 28.44 

6 23.8 

9 10 18.62 

20 2 35.1 

108 

276 

9 

7 25 15.60 

15 19 5.3 

4.42- 

45.2 

7 25 20.02 

15 18 20.1 

1852 

1 32.17 

3 18.7 

7 26 52.19 

15.15 1.4 

36 


8.9 

7 27 51.92 

15 28 53.6 

4.40 

44.9 

7 27 56.32 

15 28 8.7 

1852 

1 32.13 

3 24.4 

7 29 28.45 

15 24 44.3 

37 


8 

7 31 7.64 

15 44 38.9 

4.39 

44.5 

7 31 12.03 

15 43 54.4 

1852 

1 32.24 

3 31.5 

7 32 44.27 

15 40 22.9 

41 

277 

8.9 

9 1 43.50 

21 4 18.8 

4.01 

30.3 

9 1 47.51 

21 3 48.5 

1852 

1 32.62 

6 27.2 

9 3 20.13 

20 57 21.3 

99 


8.9 

9 1 43.02 

21 8 41.1 

4.02 

30.2 

9 1 47.04 

21 8 10.9 

1852 

1 32.66 

6 27.1 

9 3 19.70 

21 1 43.8 

100 

278 

9 

7 57 34.80 

22 55 45.7 

4.28 

31.2 

7 57 39.08 

22 55 14.5 

1852 

1 36.16 

4 27.6 

7 59 15.24 

22 50 46.9 

59 


8 

8 8 34.80 

22 2 25.5 

4.28 

31.8 

8 8 39.08 

22 1 53.7 

1852 

1 35.22 

4 49.9 

8 10 14.30 

21 57 3.8 

63 


7 

8 17 50.50 

21 43 54.6 

4.25 

31.8 

8 17 54.75 

21 43 22.8 

1852 

1 34.71 

5 8.1 

8 19 29.46 

21.38 14.7 

70 


8 

8 33 27.60 

23 20 40.2 

4.18 

29.0 

8 33 31.78 

23 20 11.2 

1852 

1 35.05 

5 37.7 

8 35 6.83 

23 14 33.5 

85 


9 

8 42 36.40 

22 39 58.4 

4.17 

29.4 

8 42 40.57 

22 39 29.0 

1852 

1 34.27 

5 54.3 

8 44 14.84 

22 33 34.7 

88 


8.9 

8 43 49.43 

22 58 4.9 

4.16 

29.0 

8 43 53.59 

22 57 35.9 

1852 

1 34.42 

5 5^.5 

8 45 28.01 

22 51 39.4 

89 


8 

8 44 6.32 

22 53 5.6 

4.16 

29.1 

8 44 10.48 

22 52 36.5 

1852 

1 34.36 

5 57.0 

8 45 44.84 

22 46 39.5 

s 


8 

8 44 19.57 

22 29 12.1 

4.17 

29.6 

8 44 23.74 

22 28 42.5 

1852 

1 34.10 

5 57.3 

8 45 57.84 

22 22 45.2 

90 


8 

8 45 48.00 

22 21 44.7 

4.16 

29.7 

8. 45 52.16 

22 21 15.0 

1852 

1 33.96 

6 0.0 

8 47 26.12 

22 15 15.0 

91 


9 

8 45 54.74 

22 15 16.2 

4.17 

29.8 

8 45 58.91 

22 14 46.4 

1852 

1 33.93 

6 0.1 

8 47 32.84 

22 8 46.3 

92 


8 

8 47 16.60 

22 1 29.9 

4,17 

30.0 

8 47 20.77 

22 59.9 

1852 

1 33.72 

6 2.5 

8 48 54.49 

21 54 57.4 

93 


7.8 

8 48 47.88 

21 50 50.8 

4.16 

30.2 

8 48 52.04 

21 50 20.6 

1852 

1 33.56 

6 5.2 

8 50 25.60 

21 44 15.4 

94 


8 

8 50 34.50 

22 9 15.5 

4.15 

29.8 

8 50 38.65 

22 8 38.9 

1852 

1 33.64 

6 8.3 

8 52 12.29 

22 2 30.6 

95 


9 

8 52 10.00 

21 40 50.8 

4.16 

30.3 

8 52 14.16 

21 40 20.5 

1852 

1 33.32 

6 11.0 

8 53 47.48 

21 34 9.5 

96 


7 

8 56 39.20 

21 13 16.5 

4.16 

30.5 

8 56 43.36 

21 12 46.0 

1852 

1 32.89 

6 18.7 

8 58 16.25 

21 6 27.3 

97 


9 

8 57 50.07 

21 36 11.4 

4.15 

30.1 

8 57 54.22 

21 35 41.3 

1852 

1 33.03 

6 20.7 

8 59 27.25 

21 29 20.6 

98 


9 

9 1 43.72 

21 4 17,2 

4.14 

30.6 

9 1 47.86 

21 3 46.6 

1852 

1 32.62 

6 27.2 

9 3 20.45 

20 57 19.4 

99 


9 

9 1 42.83 

21 8 45.0 

4.15 

30.5 

9 1 46.98 

21 8 14.4 

1852 

1 .•^.66 

6 27.1 

9 3 19.64 

21 1 47,3 

100 


8.9 

9 2 39.60 

21 23 52.2 

4.14 

30.2 

9 2 43.74 

21 23 22.0 

1852 

1 32.75 

6 28.7 

9 4 16.49 

21 16 53,3 

101 

279 

9 

7 57 34.82 

22 55 44.3 

4.63 

32.7 

7 57 39.45 

22 55 11.5 

1852 

1 36.16 

4 27.6 

7 59 15.61 

22 50 43,9 

59 

339 

7 

7 37 48.59 

23 34 15.1 

16.44 

19.2 

7 38 5.03 

23 33 55.9 

1852 

1 37.21 

3 46.5 

7 39 42.24 

23 30 9,4 

t 


8 

7 39 57.70 

24 10 21.6 

16.41 

18.1 

7 40 14.11 

24 13 3.5 

1852 

1 37.56 

3 51.1 

7 41 51.67 

24 9 12.5 

45 


7 

7 42 20.26 

22 46 51.3 

16.48 

19.6 

7 42 36.74 

22 46 31.7 

1852 

1 36.53 

3 56.1 

7 44 13.27 

22 42 35.6 

k 


7.8 

7 45 21.02 

24 4 56.8 

16.42 

17.6 

7 45 37.44 

24 4 40.4 

1852 

1 37.30 

4 2.5 

7 47 14.74 

24 37.9 

50 


9 

7 46 44.20 

+24 58 31.1 

+16.38 

—16.2 

7 47 0.58 

+24 58 14.9 

1852 

+1 37.86 

—4 5.3 

7 48 38.44 

+24 54 9.6 

52 


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COMPARISON-STARS. 

Comparison-Stars from BesseVs Zones — Continued. 


cix 




Observed 

Reduction to 
1825.0. 

Mean place, 1825.0. 


Reduction to begin- 
ning of year. 

Mean place. 


Mag 












No. 

a. 

d. 

«♦ 

d. 

«. 

3. 

«. 

8. 

«. 

d. 



h. m. s. 

/ /• 

m. s. 

II 

h. m. s. 

Of II 


in, s. 

1 II 

h. m. s. 

o ! II 


339 

9 

7 49 5.28 

+24 32 54.8 

+16.40 

—16.6 

7 49 21.68 

+24 32 38.2 

1852 

+1 37.49 

—4 10.4 

7 50 59.17 

+24 28 27.8 

54 


8 

7 50 44.60 

24 23 29.2 

16.41 

16.3 

7 51 1.01 

24 23 12.9 

1852 

1 37.36 

4 13.9 

7 52 38.37 

24 18 59.0 

55 




7 53 21.74 

24 59 42.6 

16.39 

15.3 

7 53 38.13 

24 59 27.3 

1852 

1 37.68 

4 19.3 

7 55 15.81 

24 55 8.0 

58 


8 

7 55 57.20 

22 57 21.5 

16.48 

17.1 

7 56 13.68 

22 57 4.4 

1852 

1 36.24 

4 24.7 

7 57 49.92 

22 52 39.7 

I 

341 

8 

7 45 5.38 

25 7 19.8 

22.24 

17.6 

7 45 27.62 

25 7 2.2 

1852 

1 38.02 

4 2.2 

7 47 5.64 

25 3 0.0 

49 


9 

7 46 38.15 

24 58 31.7 

22.25 

17.6 

7 47 0.40 

24 58 14.1 

1852 

1 37.86 

4 5.3 

7 48 38.26 

24 54 8.8 

52 


9 

7 53 2.95 

25 4 58.7 

22.24 

16.7 

7 53 25.19 

25 4 42.0 

1852 

1 37.72 

4 18.8 

7 55 2.91 

25 23.2 

57 


8 

7 53 15.47 

24 59 46.2 

22.25 

16.8 

7 53 37.72 

24 59 29.4 

1852 

1 37.68 

4 19.3 

7 55 15.40 

24 55 10.1 

58 


9 

7 57 24.70 

24 57 23.7 

22.25 

16.5 

7 57 46.95 

24 57 7.2 

1852 

1 37.47 

4 27.8 

7 59 24.42 

24 52 39.4 

60 


9 

8 4 16.22 

24 51 58.9 

22.26 

15.9 

8 4 38.48 

24 51 43.0 

1852 

1 37.16 

4 41.8 

8 6 15.64 

24 47 1.2 

62 


7.8 

8 15 52.20 

25 6 18.7 

22.24 

14.1 

8 16 14.44 

25 6 4.6 

1852 

1 36.88 

5 4.9 

8 17 51.32 

25 59.7 

m 

344 

7 

8 9 43.30 

24 34 8.2 

22.33 

14.0 

8 10 6.63 

24 33 54.2 

1852 

1 36.76 

4 52.8 

8 11 43.39 

24 29 1.4 

64 


8 

8 14 8.58 

24 30 16.7 

23.34 

13.5 

8 14 31.92 

24 30 3.2 

1852 

1 36.54 

5 1.5 

8 16 8.46 

24 25 1.7 

68 


8.9 

8 14 36.01 

24 6 49.1 

23.36 

14.0 

8 14 59.37 

24 6 35.1 

1852 

1 36.28 

5 2.4 

8 16 35.65 

24 1 3^.7 

69 


8 

8 15 51.10 

25 6 17.1 

23.32 

12.6 

8 16 14.42 

25 6 4.5 

1852 

1 36.88 

5 4.9 

8 17 51.30 

25 59.6 

m 


6.7 

8 20 45.17 

24 40 1.7 

23.33 

12.4 

8 21 8.50 

24 39 49,3 

1852 

1 36.40 

5 14.4 

8 22 44.90 

24 34 34.9 




7 

8 22 15.26 

24 40 34.2 

23.34 

12.3 

8 22 38.60 

24 40 21.9 

1852 

1 36.34 

5 17.2 

8 24 14.94 

24 35 4.7 

P 


9 

8 26 15.71 

23 51 18.4 

23.37 

13.0 

8 26 39.08 

23 51 5.4 

1852 

1 35.64 

5 24.8 

8 28 14.72 

23 45 40.6 

79 


9 

8 33 8.40 

23 20 20.0 

23.38 

12.5 

8 33 31.78 

23 20 7.5 

1852 

1 35.05 

5 37.7 

8 35' 6.83 

23 14 29.8 

85 


9 

8 38 20.13 

22 50 41.2 

23.40 

12.7 

8 38 43.53 

22 50 28.5 

1852 

1 34.57 

5 47.2 

8 40 18.10 

22 44 41.3 

87 


8.9 

8 43 47.23 

22 52 48.9 

23.39 

12.2 

8 44 10.62 

22 52 36.7 

1852 

1 34.33 

5 57.0 

8 45 44.95 

22 46 39.7 

s 

345 

9 

8 43 24.35 

22 57 45.6 

29.27 

12.6 

8 43 53.62 

22 57 33.0 

1852 

1 34.42 

5 56.5 

8 45 28.04 

22 51 36.5 

89 


8 

8 43 41.22 

22 52 50.7 

29.27 

12.3 

8 44 10.49 

22 52 38.4 

1852 

1 34.33 

5 57.0 

8 45 44.82 

22 46 41.4 

8 

348 

7 

6 16.60 

24 27 24.9 

31.79 

32.1 

6 48.39 

24 26 52.8 

1849 

1 28.28 

3.2 

6 2 16.67 

24 26 49.6 

g 


9 

6 16 45.35 

24 21 38.5 

31.72 

29.7 

6 17 17.07 

24 21 8.8 

1849 

1 28.16 

37.8 

6 18 45.23 

24 20 31.0 

24 


9 

6 25 21.15 

24 34 12.6 

31.67 

28.1 

6 25 52.82 

24 33 44.5 

1849 

1 28.25 

55.8 

6 27 21.07 

24 32 48.7 

32 


9 

6 25 52.91 

24 32 29.5 

31.67 

28.1 

6 26 24.58 

24 32 1.4 

1849 

1 28.22 

56.9 

6 27 52.80 

24 31 4.5 

33 


9 

6 26 46.22 

24 58 47.5 

+31.65 

27.5 

6 27 17.87 

24 58 20.0 

1849 

1 28.52 

58.7 

6 28 46.39 

24 57 21.3 

34 

396 

8 

4 55 42.20 

26 11 28.9 

—37.60 

49.9 

4 55 4.60 

26 10 39.0 

1850 

1 32.59 

+2 18.6 

4 56 37.19 

26 13 .... 

1 


8 

5 2 9.58 

26 14 59.7 

37.66 

48.1 

5 1 31.92 

26 14 11.6 

1850 

1 32.76 

2 4.9 

5 3 4.68 

26 16 16.5 

2 

405 

9 

5 10 6.40 

26 4 44.7 

53.23 

42.2 

5 9 13.17 

26 4 2.5 

1850 

1 32.75 

1 48.8 

5 10 29.92 

26 5 51.3 

3 


7.8 

5 19 23.63 

25 36.8 

53.19 

40.6 

5 18 30.44 

24 59 56.2 

1850 

1 32.13 

1 28.6 

5 20 2.57 

25 1 24.8 

c 


9 

5 21 3.27 

26 27 2.7 

53.35 

38.5 

5 20 9.92 

26 26 24 2 

1850 

1 33.17 

1 25.0 

5 21 43.09 

26 27 49.2 

5 


8 

5 21 56.13 

26 33 19.4 

53.37 

33.4 

5 21 2.76 

26 32 46.0 

1849 

1 29.50 

1 19.9 

5 22 32.26 

26 34 5.9 

6 


9 

5 25 4.06 

26 26 26.6 

53.38 

37.4 

5 24 10.68 

26 25 49.2 

1849 

1 29.46 

1 13.4 

5 25 40.14 

26 27 2.6 

7 


7 

5 27 6.77 

26 48 59.0 

53.43 

36.4 

5 26 13.34 

26 48 22.6 

1850 

1 33.51 

1 12.0 

5 27 46.85 

26 49 34.6 

d 


7 

5 28 57.02 

26 31 0.4 

53.40 

36.1 

5 28 3.62 

26 30 24.3 

1849 

1 29.57 

1 5.4 

5 29 33.19 

26 31 29.7 

8 


7 

5 29 47.16 

25 48 0.3 

53.34 

36.6 

5 28 53.82 

25 47 23.7 

1849 

1 29.07 

1 3.6 

5 30 22.89 

25 48 27.3 

e 


9 

5 45 38.81 

,26 26 48.7 

53.51 

31.2 

5 44 45.30 

26 26 17.5 

1849 

1 29.63 

30.4 

5 46 14.93 

26 26 47.9 

11 


9 

5 53 52.68 

26 21 17.7 

53.55 

28.8 

5 52 59.13 

26 20 48.9 

1849 

1 29.59 

+0 13.2 

5 54 28.72 

26 21 2.1 

14 


8.9 

6 54.82 

26 2 45.0 

53.55 

27.0 

6 1.27 

26 2 18.0 

1849 

1 29.37 

— 1.6 

6 1 30.64 

26 2 16.4 

15 


9 

6 1 46.40 

26 1 14.0 

53.55 

26.7 

6 52.85 

26 47.3 

1849 

1 29.35 

34 

6 2 22.20 

26 43.9 

16 


9 

6 10 56.16 

25 46 35.8 

53.57 

24.2 

6 10 2.59 

25 46 11.6 

1849 

1 29.16 

22.6 

6 11 31.75 

25 45 49.0 

20 


7 

6 14 50.64 

25 8 15.3 

53.53 

23.7 

6 13 57.11 

25 7 51.6 

1849 

1 28.71 

30.8 

6 15 25.82 

25 7 20.8 

21 


9 

6 16 11.49 

25 36 23.5 

53.58 

22.8 

6 15 17.91 

25 35 47.0 

1849 

1 29.02 

21.2 

6 16 46.93 

25 35 25.8 

22 


8.9 

6 25 9.70 

25 3 12.3 

53.56 

20.7 

6 24 16.14 

25 2 .51.6 

1849 

1 28.60 

52.4 

6 25 44.74 

25 1 59.2 

30 


9 

6 28 11.40 

24 58 44.6 

53.57 

19.8 

6 27 17.83 

24 58 24.8 

1849 

1 28.52 

—0 58.7 

6 28 46.35 

24 57 26.1 

34 

523 

7.8 

4 56 38.10 

26 11 55.1 

1 34.49 

77.7 

4 55 3.61 

26 10 47.4 

1850 

1 32.59 

+2 18.6 

4 56 36.20 

26 13 6.0 

1 


8.9 

5 17 49.11 

26 26 12.9 

1 34.78 

54.7 

5 16 14.33 

26 25 18.2 

1850 

1 33.07 

+1 33.5 

5 17 47.40 

26 26 51.7 

4 


9 

6 18 4.80 

25 28 18.9 

1 35.02 

19.1 

6 16 29.78 

25 27 59.8 

1849 

1 28.92 

—0 36.2 

6 17 58.70 

25 27 23.6 

23 


8 

6 19 30.61 

25 43 30.6 

1 35.08 

18.0 

6 17 55.53 

25 43 12.6 

1849 

1 29.09 

39.2 

6 19 24.62 

25 42 33.4 

25 


9 

6 21 8.80 

25 15 26.6 

1 34.97 

17.4 

6 19 33.83 

25 15 9.2 

1849 

1 28.76 

42.6 

6 21 2.59 

25 14 26.6 

26 


9 

6 21 42.26 

+25 32 16.0 - 

-1 35.05 

—16.8 6 20 7.21 

+25 31 59.2 

1849 . 

fl 28.95 

— 43.8 6 21 36.16 

+25 .31 15.4 

28 


NOTES TO COMPAEISON-STARS FROM BESSEL'S ZONES. 

For N°- 1, the d as given in zone 396 has been rejected, and only that of zone 523 been 
retained. 


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c^ 


GOIffi^ISOH-STMS. 


For N^- 3, the observation of zione 405 lias been employed^ altbougli the rigbt-ascensions 
differ by 16^* The error seems^not improbable, and has been assumed. 

For 'N^' 22, the scale reading has been assumed as 1049, instead of 1089, making the observed 
.apparent 3 +25° 36' 9''.8 ; and for 1849, the mean d +25° 35' 25''. 8. 

For N°- 45, there is evidently a mistake of one division (=3') in the observation, making the 
declination observed by Bessel +24° 13' 21". 6. 

For N°- 95, zone 278, the scale-reading has been assumed as 990, instead of 1010, making the 
observed apparent ^+ 22° 9' 8".T, and for 1852 the mean^ +22° 2' 30".6. 

For N^- 97, the^ of zone 275 has been retained, and that of zone 278 rejected. 

The Argelander Zones, that copious fountain of accurate positions of stars which are to be 
ihet with in no other catalogue, furnish forty-one places of southern stars; the original observa- 
tions of which, together with their reductions, here follow : 

Comparison-Stars from Argelander' s Zones, 


Ref. 
No. 

Zone and 
No. 

Observed 

Reduction to 
1850.0. 

Mean place, 1850.0. 

Year 

of 

Comp. 

Reduction to be- 
ginning of year. 

Mean place. 

a. 

d. 

in a. 

in ^, 

II 
—10.7 

a. 

d\ 

ilia. 

in^. 

a. 

d. 

ill 

212, 

7i 

AJ m. s. 
16 43 27.51 

o 1 II 

— 26 39 18.8 • 

s. 
—31.38 

h. m. s. 
16 42 56.13 

/ // 

—26 39 29:5 

1850 



h, m. s. 
16 42 56.13 

o 1 II 

—26 39 29.5 

115 


85^ 

16 55 13.48 

26 59 20.4' 

31.37 

—19.4 

16 54 42.11 

26 59 39;8 

1850 



16 54 41.98 

26 59 41.4 

112 

214, 

54 

16 49 44.00 

26 52 42.2- 

32.44 

-f-24.6 

16 49 11.56' 

26 52 17.6 

1850 



16 49 11.81 

26 52 19.3 

113 


56 

16 50 37.43 

26 56 57.6 

32.44 

22 8 

16 50 4.99 

26 56 34:8 

1850 


. . 

16 50 4.99 

26 56 35.3 

115 


63 

16 55 14.48 

27 6.1 

32.44 

22.1 

16 54 42.04 

26 59 44:0 

18.50 





'117 


76 

17 7 40.30 

27 23 25.5 

32.43 

14.2 

17 7 7.87 

27 23 11.3 

1850 



17 7 7.73 

27 23 9.6 

120 


84 

17 13 54.82 

27 31 35.8 

32.43 

4-11.5 

17 33 22.39 

27 31 24.3 

1850 



17 13 22.27 

27 31 24.2 

136 

217, 

81 

18 4 40.26 

25 11 6.4 

33.06 

+10.6' 

18 4 7.20 

25 10 55.8 

1850 


. . 

18 4 7.37 

25 10 54.0 

127 

218, 

11 

17 39 14.00 

18 2 40.0 

33.12 

— 1.5 

17 38 40.88 

18 2 41.5 

1851 

+3.50 

—1.86 

17 38 44.48 

18 2 45.2 

129 


19 

17 46 52.25 

18 15 24.5 

33.12 

2.8 ' 

17 46 19.13 

18 15 27.3 

1851 

3.51 

-1.19 

17 46 22.58 

18 15 29.1 

141 


58 

18 9 35.09 

18 50 44.7 

33.11 

6.2 

18 9 1.98 

18 50 50.9 

1851 

3.53 

+0.80 

18 9 5.49 

18 50 49 6 

148 


81 

18 24 12.60 

19 4 16.5 

33.10 

— 7.3 

18 23 39.50 

19 4 23.8 

1851 

+3.53 

+2.07 

18 23 42.99 

19 4 24.0 

141 

219, 

49 

18 9 35.29 

18-50 56.4 

33,30 

+ 3.9 

18 9 1.99 

18 50 52.5 

1851 

+3.53 

+0.80 



136 

220, 

96 

18 4 40... 

25 10 33.3 

. . 

—19.4 

.... 

25 10 52.7 

1850 





133 

223, 

38 

17 56 28.00 

27 50 21.5 

33.84 

+ 9.7 

17 55 54.16 

27 50 11.9 

1850 

. 


17 55 54.16 

27 50 11.9 

135 


46 

18 24.37 

27 45 13.4 

33.85 

+11.7 

11 59 50.52 

27 45 1.7 

1850 

. . 


17 59 50.52 

27 45 1.7 

141 

227, 

27 

18 9 35.50 

18 50 50.6 

33.69 

+ 0.9 

18 9 1.81 

18 50 49.7 

1851 

+3.53 

+0.80 



148 


52 

18 24 13.24 

19 4 26.2 

33.73 

— 1.1 

18 .23 39.51 

19 4 27.3 

1851 

+3.53 

+2.07 



123 

300,111 

17 21 54.60 

17 41 7.3 

40.52 

— 0.2 

17 21 14.08 

17 41 7.5 

1851 

+3.49 

—3.37 

17 21 17.73 

17 41 12.1 

112 

304, 

88 

16 49 51.32 

26 52 0.2 

39.37 

—19.9 

16 49 11.95 

26 52 20.1 

1850 





113 


90 

16 50 44.50 

26 56 15.6 

39.37 

—21.5 

16 50 5.13 

26 56 37.1 

1850 





136 

306, 

91 

18 4 48.50 

25 11 6.2 

40,96 

+12.6 

18 4 7.54 

25 10 53.6 

1850 





138 


95 

18 7 21 .45 

25 45 7,1 

41.00 

+ 3.0 

18 6 40.45 

25 45 4.1 

1850 

. . 

. . 

18 6 40.46 

25 45 4.0 

138 

308, 

27 

18 7 24.16 

25 45 6.4 

43.68 

+ 2.6 

18 6 40.48 

25 45 3.8 

1850 





146 


43 

18 16 2.88 

26 33 38.6 

43.71 

—12.6 

18 15 19.17 

26 33 51.2 

1850 

, . 

, 

18 15 19.17 

26 33 51.2 

147 


47 

18 19 6.58 

26 42 43.1 

—43.72 

—15.7 

18 18 22.86 

26 42 58.8 

1850 

. . 

. . 

18 18 22.86 

26 42 58.8 

112 

388, 

81 

16 48 38.80 

26 52 51.0 

+33.12 

+30.8 

16 49 11.92 

26 52 20.2 

1850 





113 


83 

16 49 31.73 

26 57 3.5 

33.11 

29.4 

16 50 4.84 

26 56 34.1 

1850 





114 


85 

16 51 26.00 

27 1 44.6 

33.11 

27.4 

16 51 59.11 

27 1 17.2 

1850 





115 


90 

16 54 8.70 

27 8.0 

33.10 

27.6 

16 54 41.80 

26 59 40.4 

1850 





116 


99 

16 59 11.10 

27 12 11.2 

33.08 

^.8 

16 59 44.18 

27 11 48.4 

1850 





117 


106-7 

17 6 34.54 

27 23 25,8 

33.05 

+17.8 

17 7 7.59 

27 23 8.0 

1850 





120 


115 

17 12 49.10 

27 31 37.9 

33.04 

+13.8 

17 33 22.14 

27 31 24.1 

1850 





118 

391, 

37 

17 10 37.52 

17 35 50.7 

32.38 

+14.0 

17 11 9.90 

17 35 36.7 

1851 

+3.49 

—4.24 

17 11 13.39 

17 35 40.9 

123 


54 

17 20 42.05 

17 41 22.1 

32.35 

12.2 

17 21 14.40 

17 41 9.9 

1851 

3.49 

3.37 



126 


70 

17 31 25.48 

17 59 58.5 

^2.32 

8.5 

17 31 57,80 

17 59 50.0 

1851 

3.50 

2.44 

17 32 1.30 

17 59 52.4 

127 


81 

17 38 8.64 

18 2 52.5 

^.30 

7.4 

17 38 40.94 

18 2 45.2 

1851 

3.50 

1.86^ 



129 


93 

17 45 46.72 

18 15 33.3 

32.28 

+ 4.8 

17 46 19.00 

18 15 28.5 

1851 

3.51 

—1.19 



141 


136 

18 8.29.80 

18 50 45.9 

^.25 

— 2.6 

18 9 2.05 

18 50 48.4 

1851 

3.53 

+0.80 



148 


172 

18 23 7.12 

—19 4 20^9 

+32.24 

— 6.1 

18 23 39.36 

—19 4 27.0 

1851 

+3.53 

+2.07 




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COMPABlSONrSTAES. Cxi 

The Greenwich Twelve-Year Catalogue gives us eight stars, and its welcome supplement, the 
G-reenwioh Catalogue for 1850.0, thirty-five more. The last mentioned addition was received 
after the preparation of a catalogue for final adoption, but the new material was too important 
to be lost, and the computations were, therefore, recommenced from the point at which these 
places could be incorporated. The comparison-star used at Greenwich on the 8th December, 
1849, 18, however, unfortunately not in this catalogue, and a trustworthy place can nowhere be 
found. I^ive of the stars in the two lists are identical, but the m^teri^ls afforded by each 
catalogue are separately given for the sake of greater convenience. 





c 

omparison-Stars from the Twelve-Year Catalogue. 





Name. 

Mag. 

Mean 
year. 

a 1840.0. 

1 

o 

i 

N. P. p. 1840.0 

1 
d 

i 

"3 

Mean place for jJeginning of year. 

Np. 

«. 

Ann. Pr 

d. 

Ann. Pr. 

478 
515 
587 
698 
709 

745 

775 
789 
795 
809 

1467 

125 Tauri . . 
139 Tauri . • 

€ Geminorum 
82 Geminorum 

1 Cancri . . 

A Cancri . . 
43y Cancri . . 


6 

5.6 

3.4 

7 
6 

6 
4.5 

1845 

1841,4 

1841,3 

1841 

1845 

1838,5 

1843 

1838 

1838 

1838 

1846 

h. m. s. 
5 29 <J9.53 

5 48 4.12 

6 34 5.14 

7 38 ^9.03 

7 47 ^4.05 

8 11 0.68 
8 34 0.99 
8 48 12.76 

8 49 43.95 

9 3 35.27 

17 10 34.69 

4 
3 
22 
3 
6 

12 

9 
5 
5 

5 

5 

1 II 

64 11 59.14 
64 4 22.82 

64 43 2.52 

66 28 9.73 
73 47 17.71 

65 28 45.97 

67 57 39.70 

68 2 20.92 
68 13 3.33 
68 40 14.22 

107 34 58.66 

7 

19 

7 
5 

17 
8 
6 
6 
6 

4 

1849 
1849 
1849 
1852 
1852 

1852 
1852 
1852 
1852 
1852 

1851 

h. m. s. 
5 30 22.94 

5 48 37.60 

6 34 38.40 

7 39^12.21 

7 48 35.04 

8 11 43.68 
8 34 42.91 
8 48 54.40 

8 50 25.52 

9 4 16.47 

17 11 13.03 

s. 
+13.712 
3.720 
3.6R5 
3.598 
8.416 

3.582 
3.493 
3.469 
3.463 
3.432 

+3.485 

° 1 II 
+ 25 48 24.21 
25 55 46.09 
25 16 30.48 

23 30 9.18 
16 10 52.80 

24 29 3.58 
21 59 50.10 
21 54 57.68 
21 44 14.07 

+ 21 16 52.62 

- 17 35 44.55 

II 
+ 2.58 
+ 0.99 

- 3.03 
8.44 
9.14 

10.89 
12.53 
13.47 
13.57 
—14.44 

— 4.24 

e 
12 
35 

i 
51 

64 

93 
94 
101 

118 

Lal^nde 17690 . 

8 

Piazzi XVII 43 . 

6^ 


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CXll 


COMPARISON-STARS 


Gomparison-8tars from the Greenwich Catalogue for 1850.0. 


i 

Name. 

Mag. 

Mean 
year. 

a. 

m 
O 

o 
6 

N. P. D. 

1 
6 

S 
o 
o 

Mean place for beginning of year. 

No. 

a. Ann. Pr. 

d. Ann. Pr. 

335 
350 
361 
363 
376 

381 
383 
395 
401 
402 

406 
422 
426 
433 

438 

439 
440 
451 
452 
453 

457 
458 
459 
467 
, 470 

473 
479 

485 
487 
488 

490 
491 
495 
496 
505 

573 
578 
589 
593 
608 

613 
617 
619 
623 
631 

640 
641 
645 
659 
661 

Piazzi IV 287 . 

. 7 

1851.2 
1852.7 
1852.8 
1852.7 
1850.5 

1852.1 
1852.6 
1853.1 
1852.1 
1851.1 

1852.9 
1851,2 
1852.3 
1852.8 
1852.1 

1851.4 
1851.1 
1852.1 
1851.1 
1852.1 

1852.8 
1853.2 
1852.7 
1852.2 
1853.2 

1851.6 
1851.2 
1852.7 
1852.1 
1853.0 

1851.2 
1851.2 
1852.0 
1852.0 
1852.1 

1852.2 
1852.2 
1852.2 
1852.8 
1852.2 

1852.2 
1852.2 
1852.2 
1852.2 
1852.1 

1852.9 
1853.2 
1852.2 
1852.2 
1852.2 

h. m. s. 

4 56 36.. 57 

5 3 4.66 
5 10 29.36 
5 11 34.43 
5 17 47.94 

5 20 2.54 
5 21 43.28 
5 27 46.91 
5 29 36.64 
5 30 26.55 

5 32 16.17 
5 44 38.56 
5 46 18.57 
5 48 41.30 
5 54 7.62 

5 54 32.20 

5 54 55.74 

6 1 34.30 
6 2 20.35 
6 2 26.04 

6 6 8.93 
6 7 38.84 
6 9 29.88 
6 11 35.54 
6 15 29.36 

6 16 50.62 
6 19 27.55 
6 21 5.98 
6 21 14.41 
6 21 39.95 

6 25 47.97 
6 25 50.33 
6 27 24.78 
6 27 56.36 

6 34 42.11 

7 39 35.18 
7 44 6.09 
7 55 8.26 

7 57 42.73 

8 11 36.67 

8 17 43.98 
8 19 42.67 
8 22 37.83 
8 24 7.58 
8 34 35.89 

8 45 20.93 
8 45 37.92 

8 48 46.55 

9 3 12.64 
9 4 9.58 

2 
5 
3 
3 

4 

1 
2 

2 
3 

7 

6 
1 
5 
3 
6 

2 
2 
6 
4 
3 

5 
4 
2 

4 
2 

4 
1 
2 
1 
2 

1 

1 
1 
1 

8 

8 
4 
3 
6 

7 

4 
4 
3 
6 
23 

6 
4 
4 
3 
5 

/ // 

63 46 53.37 
63 43 41.37 
63 54 11.81 

62 12 1.30 

63 33 4.66 

64 58 37.10 
63 32 14.31 
63 10 29.27 

63 28 30.22 

64 11 32.83 

63 28 5.60 
63 36 57.33 

63 33 13.07 

64 4 12.63 
63 43 31.39 

63 39 1.83 

64 33 22.34 
63 57 44.01 

65 33 8.48 

63 59 18.68 

64 37 37.57 
64 27 38.08 
64 24 58.45 
64 14 15.44 
64 52 40.58 

64 24 37.41 
64 17 31.33 
64 45 35.04 
64 13 21.66 
64 28 45.58 

64 58 6.48 

65 15 18.07 
65 27 13.30 

65 28 57.74 

64 43 32.11 

66 29 33.60 

67 17 5.44 

65 4 30.02 
67 7 0.70 
65 30 34.61 

64 58 37.71 

65 21 41.55 
65 25 2.12 
65 24 32.14 
67 59 45.94 

67 7 55.17 

67 12 58.12 

68 4 34.63 
68 57 44.97 
68 42 40.21 

1 

5 
3 
3 

4 

1 
2 
2 
4 
3 

6 
1 
5 
3 
6 

3 
2 
6 
3 

4 

5 
4 
2 
3 
2 

2 
1 
2 
2 
2 

1 
1 
1 

1 
7 

7 
4 
3 
5 

7 

4 
4 
2 
8 
23 

6 
3 
4 
3 
5 

1850 
1850 
1850 
1850 
1850 

1850 
1850 
1850 
1849 
1849 

1849 
1849 
1849 
1849 
1849 

1849 
1850 
1849 
1849 
1849 

1849 
1849 
1849 
1849 
1849 

1849 
1849 
1849 
1849 
1849 

1849 
1849 
1849 
1849 
1849 

1852 
1852 
1852 
1852 
1852 

1852 
1852 
1852 
1852 
1852 

1852 
1852 
1852 
1852 
1852 

h. m, s. 

4 56 36.56 

5 3 4.64 
5 10 29.37 
5 11 34.43 
5 17 47.93 

5.20 2.54 
5 21 43.27 
5 27 46.91 
5 29 32.90 
5 30 22.84 

5 32 12.53 
5 44 34.81 
5 46 14.82 
5 48 37.56 
5 54 3.94 

5 54 28.46 

5 54 55.74 

6 1 30.57 
6 2 16.67 
6 2 22.31 

6 6 5.22 
6 7 35.12 
6 9 26.16 
6 11 31.81 
6 15 25.65 

6 16 46.90 
6 19 23.83 
6 21 2.27 
6 21 10.68 
6 21 36.24 

6 25 44.27 
6 25 46.64 
6 27 21.09 
6 27 52.67 

6 34 38.37 

7 39 42.38 
7 44 13.24 
7 55 15.48 

7 57 49.85 

8 11 43.82 

8 17 51.15 
8 19 49.82 
8 22 44.97 
8 24 14.71 
8 34 42.88 

8 45 27.95 
8 45 44.90 

8 48 54.48 

9 3 19.49 
9 4 16.43 

s. 
f3.704 
3.711 
3.711 
3.760 
3.725 

3.685 
3.728 
3.740 
3.733 
3.712 

3.734 
3.733 
3.735 
3.720 
3.731 

3.733 
3.707 
3.724 
3.678 
3.724 

3.705 
3.709 
3.711 
3.716 
3.696 

3.709 
3.712 
3.699 
3.714 
3.706 

3.692 
3.684 
3.677 
3.676 
3.695 

3.598 
3.574 
3.615 
3.562 
3.582 

3.585 
3.573 
3.568 
3.565 
3.493 

3.494 
3.492 
3.469 
3.429 
+3.432 

o / // 

+26 13 6.8 
26 16 19.8 

26 5 49.1 

27 47 58.7 
26 26 55.4 

25 1 22.9 

26 27 45.9 
26 49 30.7 
26 31 27.3 

25 48 24.6 

26 31 51.5 
26 23 1.5 
26 26 45.9 

25 55 46.6 

26 16 30.6 

26 20 57.9 

25 26 37.7 

26 2 16.1 

24 26 51.7 
26 41.7 

25 22 23.1 
25 32 22.8 
25 35 2.6 
25 45 45.7 
25 7 20.9 

25 35 24.2 
25 42 30.6 
25 14 27.0 
25 46 40.8 
•' 25 31 16.5 

25 156.0 
24 44 44.4 
24 32 49.3 

24 31 4.9 

25 16 32.0 

23 30 9.5 
22 42 37.0 

24 55 10.8 
22 52 39.6 

24 29 3.7 

25 59.6 
24 37 55.5 
24 34 34.5 
24 35 4.3 

21 59 49". 

22 51 37.6 
22 46 35.3 
21 54 58.2 
21 1 48.4 

+21 16 51.1 

'/ 
+ 5.48 
4.93 
-4.30 
4.21 
3.67 

3.48 
3.33 
2.81 
2.65 
2.58 

2.42 
1.34 
1.20 
0.99 
0.51 

0.48 

+ 0.44 

— 0.14 

0.21 

0.21 

0.54 
0.67 
0.83 
1.01 
1.35 

1.47 
1.70 
1.84 
1.86 
1.89 

2.25 
2.26 
2.39 
2.44 
3.03 

8.44 
8.80 
9.66 
9.85 
10.89 

11.34 
11.48 
11.69 
11.80 
12.53 

13.25 
13.27 
13.47 
14.38 
—14.44 

1 
2 
3 

a 
4 

c 
5 
d 
8 
e 

9 
10 
11 
12 
13 

14 

/ 
15 

S 
16 

17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
25 
26 
27 
28 

30 
31 
32 
33 
35 

i 
k 

58 
I 

64 

m 
n 



V 
9 
89 
s 
93 
100 
101 



Piazzi V 41 

. 6.7 

llSTauri . . . 

. 6 

Piazzi V 145 . 

. 7 

125Tauri . . . 

Lalande 10669 . 
Lalande 11108 . 

. 6 
. 9 

. 8^ 

139Tauri . . . 
Rilmkerl673 . 

Rumker 1680 . 
Piazzi V 306 . 
Lalande 11684 . 
5 Geminorum 
Lalande 11714 . 

Lalande 11854 . 
Lalande 11946 . 
Lalande . -j \\q. 

. 5.6 

. 8 
. 7 
. 8 
. 6 
. 9 

. 8 

1: |« 

Piazzi Yl 78 , 

Lalande 12237 
Lalande 12336 

. 7 
. 9 
. 8i 

Lalande 12395 

. 9 

Lalande 12554 
Lalande 12567 

. 8 
. 9 

» 

^ 

27 Geminorum 

82 Geminorum 
84 Geminorum 
Lalande 15707 
Bradley 1158 
A Oancri . . 

24 v^ €ancri, pr. . 
281)° Cancri . . 
3Qv^ Cancri . . 
32v* Cancri . , 
43y Cancri . . 

Lalande 17513 
Lalande 17528 

. . 3.4 

. . 7 
. . 6.7 
. . 9 
. . 7 
. . 6 

. . 7 
. . 6.7 
, . 6 
. . 6 
. . 4.5 

. . 9 

. . 7.8 

Lalande 18105 

. . 9 




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COMPAEISON-STAES. 


CXUl 


For the stars from the Histoire Celeste of Lalande, the British reductions made and published 
under the superintendence of Mr. Baily have been employed, but with some endeavor towards 
critical scrutiny. The numbers of this catalogue are also here employed for reference. One 
zone, however, that of 1796, March 4, seemed to give places differing so much and so uniformly 
from other determinations of the same stars, as to render it advisable to reduce this anew, which 
was accordingly done. The tables of Hansen and Nissen were found to be computed with 
entire correctness, and the only possible source of discordance to be in the declinations of the 
fundamental stars selected from Piazzi, as the basis of the reduction. The stars chosen for 
determining the constants anew were these : 

From Kiimker's Catalogue, N»- 2353, 2383, [2404,] 2m, 2503, 2504, 2533, 2558, 2785 
2799, 2840, 2896, 2920, 2955, 2972, 3004, 3012, [3013,] 3016, 3023, 3047, 3097. 

From the Twelve-Year Catalogue, N°«- 769, 770, [775,] 802, 804, 809. 

From Argelander's Catalogue, N°- 207. 

Those of the above mentioned stars whose numbers are inclosed in brackets proved to have 
been ill observed by Lalande, and were, consequently, excluded. The result indicates the need 
of a correction of - 2". 3 to the values given by the tables published by Prof Schumacher, in 
his Hulfstafeln, and used for the preparation of Baily's edition of the Histoire Celeste. The 
average correction to Lalande's declinations for other zones at the same altitude is— 3".l if 
Bessel be the standard. ' 


Comparison-Stars from Lalande. 




Mean place 1800.0. 


Red. to year of comp. 

Mean place for 

beginning of year. 


Page H. C. 

No. Catalogue. 



Year of 
comparison. 





No. 


d. 


in^. 





a 


in a. 

a- 

8. 


204 

9531 

h. m. s. 
4 53 31.37 

o / // 

+26 8 28.2 

1850 

m. s. 
+3 5.13 

/ // 
+ 4 40.4 

h. m. s. 
4 56 36.50 

° 1 II 
+26 13 8.6 

1 

139,143 

9944,5 

5 8 26.50 

27 44 27.3 

1850 

3 7.98 

3 37.1 

5 11 34.48 

27 48 4.4 


145,204 

10231-3 

5 16 58.16 

24 58 19.7 

1850 

3 4.23 

3 0.6 

5 20 2.39 

25 1 20.2 

c 

143 

10510 

5 24 40.02 

26 47 7.1 

1850 

3 7.02 

2 27.3 

5 27 47.04 

26 49 34.4 

d 

145 

10605 

5 27 20.65 

25 46 16.6 

1849 

3 1.79 

2 13.1 

5 30 23.42 

25 48 29.7 

e 

145 

10669 

5 29 9.19 

26 29 46.4 

1849 

3 2.92 

2 5.4 

5 32 12.11 

26 31 51.8 

9 

310 

11108 

5 41 32.85 

26 21 49.1 

1849 

3 2.91 

1 12.5 

5 44 35.76 

26 23 1.6 

10 

145 

11220 

5 45 35.32 

25 54 49.0 

1849 

3 2.29 

55.3 

5 48 37.61 

25 55 44.3 

12 

310 

11441 

5 51 49.97 

25 26 14.3 

1850 

3 5.38 

+0 29.0 

5 54 55 35 

25 26 43.3 

/ 
15 

310 

11684 

5 58 28.22 

26 2 16 8 

1849 

3 2.50 

0.0 

6 1 30.72 

26 2 16.8 

310 

11714 

5 59 19.70 

26 45.7 

1849 

3 2.40 

~0 3.6 

6 2 22.10 

26 42.1 

16 

310 

11854 

6 3 3.56 

25 22 46.3 

1849 

3 1.47 

19.6 

6 6 5.03 

25 22 26.7 

17 

145 

11946 

6 5 33.34 

25 33 47.1 

1849 

3 1.72 

26.0 

6 7 35.06 

25 32 21 . 1 

18 

145,310 

11976,8 

6 6 23 32 

25 35 36.9 

1849 

* 3 1.78 

33 9 

6 9 25.10 

25 35 3.0 

19 

145,310 

12197,9 

6 12 24.25 

25 8 19.15 

1849 

3 1.10 

59 6 

6 15 25.35 

25 7 19.5 

21 

145 

12237 

6 13 45.58 

25 36 36.7 

1849 

3 1.75 

1 5.4 

6 16 47.33 

25 35 31.2 

22 

145,310 

12336,7 

6 16 22.34 

25 43 51.6 

1849 

3 1,82 

1 16.6 

6 19 24.16 

25 42 35 

25 

145 

12395 

6 18 7.65 

25 48 5.0 

1849 

3 1.96 

1 24.1 

6 21 9.61 

25 46 40.9 

27 

145 

12554 

6 22 43.27 

25 3 44.3 

1849 

3 0.87 

1 43.7 

6 25 44.14 

25 2 0.6 

30 

145 

12557 

6 22 46.62 

24 46 32.1 

1849 

3 0.47 

1 43.9 

6 25 47.09 

24 44 48.2 

31 

145 

12666 

6 25 44.71 

24 59 28.0 

1849 

3 0.73 

1 56.6 

6 28 45.41 

24 57 31.4 

34 

316,145 

12880,2 

6 3L 37.36 

25 18 50.1 

1849 

3 1.07 

2 21.6 

6 34 38.43 

25 16 28.5 

35 

51 

51 

14961 

' 7 30 45.88 

14 39 52.3 

1852 

2 56.38 

6 48.5 

7 33 42.26 

14 33 3.8 

42 

15125 

7 36 01 

16 14.4 

1852 

2 57.80 

7 10.4 

7 38 57.81 

15 53 4.0 

44 

214 

15146 

7 36 34.97 

23 37 24.4 

1852 

3 7.30 

7 13.2 

7 39 42.27 

23 30 11.3 

i 

214 

15221 

7 38 43 35 

24 16 38.2 

1852 

3 8.04 

7 22.0 

7 41 51.39 

24 9 16.2 

45 

211,214,273 
51 
214 

15312-4 

7 41 7.29 

22 50 8.8 

18.52 

3 6.02 

7 31.8 

7 44 13.31 

22 42 37.0 

k 

15338 

7 41 55.12 

13 6 18.7 

• 1852 

2 57.71 

7 34.8 

7 44 53 83 

15 58 43.9 

46 

15)01 

7 43 27.81 

24 52 33.4 

1852 

3 8.53 

7 41.5 

7 46 36.. 34 

24 44 50 9 

47 

214 

15412 

7 43 44.64 

+24 44 27.1 

1852 

+3 8.34 

—7 42.6 

7 46 52.98 

+24 36 44.5 

48 


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CXIV 


COMPARISON-STARS. 

Comparison- Stars from Lalande — Continued. 




Mean place 1800.0. 


Red. to year of comp. 

Mean place for beginning of year. 


Page H. C. 

Vo. Catalogue. 



Year of 
comparison 





No. 

a- 

8. 

in «. 

in d. 

a. 

(?. 



h. m. s. 

° 1 II 


m. s. 

1 II 

h. m. s. 

/ // 


51 

15468 

7 45 37.49 

-f 16 18 50.2 

1852 

+2 57.80 

—7 49.9 

■7 48 35.29 

+16 11 0.3 

51 

214 

15548 

7 47 46.51 

23 42 52.0 

1852 

3 6.76 

7 58.9 

7 50 53.27 

23 34 53.1 

53 

214 

15608 

7 49 30.66 

24 27 6.2 

1852 

3 7.60 

8 6.0 

7 52 38.26 

24 19 0.2 

55 

146 

15707 

7 52 7.22 

25 3 26.2 

1852 

3 8.21 

8 16.5 

7 55 15.43 

24 55 9.7 

58 

214 

15795 

7 54 45.07 

23 1 9.2 

1852 

3 5.44 

8 26.8 

7 57 50.51 

22 52 42.4 

I 

52 

16068 

8 2 30.03 

16 13 21.3 

1852 

2 56.97 

8 57.1 

8 5 27.00 

16 4 24.2 

61 

211 

16236 

8 7 11.06 

22 6 19.1 

1852 

3 3.47 

9 15.4 

8 10 14.53 

21 57 3.7 

63 

214,279,286 

16288-90,91 

8 8 37.28 

24 38 24.2 

1852 

3 6.50 

9 21.1 

8 11 43.78 

24 29 3.1 

64 

214 

16447 

8 13 2.11 

24 34 48.5 

1552 

3 3.71 

9 37.9 

8 16 5.82 

24 25 10.6 

68 

214 

16464 

« 13 30.16 

24 11 12.9 

1852 

3 5.58 

9 39.7 

8 16 35.74 

24 1 33.2 

69 

214,286 

16517-9 

8 14 44.55 

25 10 53.2 

1852 

3 6.69 

9 44.4 

8 17 51.24 

25 1 8.8 

m 

211 

16582 

8 16 26.80 

21 48 13.1 

1852 

3 2.54 

9 50.6 

8 19 29.34 

21 38 22,5 

70 

214,279,286 

16597-9 

8 16 43.47 

24 47 52.6 

1852 

3 6,06 

9 51.8 

8 19 49.53 

24 38 0.8 

n 

211 

16659 

8 18 41.68 

21 30 56.2 

1852 

3 2.05 

9 59.0 

8 21 43.73 

21 20 57.2 

74 

214,286 

16685,7 

8 19 39.66 

24 44 41.5 

1852 

3 5.74 

10 2.8 

8 22 45.41 

24 34 38.6 



286 

16763 

8 21 9.56 

24 45 17.9 

1852 

3 5.65 

10 8.3 

8 24 15.21 

24 35 9.6 

P 

211 

17013 

8 28 10.98 

20 46 48.8 

1852 

3 0.57 

10 19.3 

8 31 11.55 

20 36 14.5 

81 

148,212,214,286 

17143-6 

8 31 42.25 

22 10 43.0 

1852 

3 1.85 

10 46.5 

8 34 43.10 

21 59 56 5 

9 

212 

17513 

8 42 26.06 

23 3 5.5 

1852 

3 1.94 

11 24.1 

8 45 28.00 

22 51 41.4 

89 

219,254 

17514,5 

8 42 27.50 

20 42 48.8 

1852 

2 59.46 

11 24.1 

8 45 26.96 

20 31 24.7 

r 

212,214 

17598,9 

8 42 43.55 

22 58 14.6 

1852 

3 1.83 

11 25.1 

8 45 45.38 

22 46 49.5 

s 

212 

17690 

8 47 25.60 

21 56 1.9 

1852 

3 0.34 

11 41.1 

8 50 25.94 

21 44 20.8 

94 

212 

17937 

8 55 17.38 

21 18 46.5 

1852 

2 59.06 

12 7.1 

8 58 16.44 

21 6 24.4 

97 

212 

18105 

9 20.78 

21 14 15.1 

1852 

2 58.56 

12 23.4 

9 3 19.34 

21 1 51.7 

100 

212 

18132 

9 1 7.87 

+21 29 26.3 

1852 

2 58.74 

12 25.9 

9 4 16.61 

21 17 0.4 

101 

567 

30556 

16 37 50.45 

-26 22 44.7 

1850 

3 4.76 

5 45.6 

16 40 55.21 

26 28 30.2 

110 

567 

30874 

16 48 53.77 

26 56 14.1 

1850 

3 6.05 

4 59.7 

16 51 59.82 

+27 1 13.8 

114 

343 

31543 

17 10 57.74 

17 29 35.4 

1851 

2 57.71 

3 30.8 

17 13 55.45 

—17 33 6.2 

122 

170,343 

31791,2 

17 18 19.76 

17 38 14.2 

1851 

2 58.02 

2 58.5 

17 21 17.78 

17 41 12.7 

123 

170,343 

31931,2 

17 22 20.04 

17 40 52.8 

1851 

2 58.13 

2 40.8 

17 25 18.17 

17 43 33.6 

124 

170 

32426 

17 35 45.58 

18 1 4.6 

1851 

2 58.73 

1 41.4 

17 38 44.31 

18 2 46.0 

127 

170 

32706 

17 43 23.78 

18 14 20.0 

1851 

2 59.08 

1 3.0 

17 46 22.86 

18 15 23.0 

129 

568 

32727 

17 44 4.68 

28 1 2.9 

1850 

3 9.09 

1 2.7 

17 47 13.77 

28 2 5.6 

130 

568 

32974 

17 50 19 04 

27 48 36.8 

1850 

3 8.82 

35.5 

17 53 27.86 

27 49 12.3 

132 

568 

33214 

17 56 41.42 

27 44 48.0 

1850 

3 8.74 

—0 7.6 

17 59 50.16 

27 44 55.6 

135 

566 

33394 

18 1 2.34 

25 10 55.9 

1850 

3 5.00 

+0 11.3 

18 4 7.34 

25 10 44.6 

136 

567,568 

33427-8 

18 1 37.29 

27 32 21.1 

1850 

3 8.42 

14.0 

18 4 45.71 

27 32 7 1 

137 

171 

33598 

18 6 5.94 

18 51 20.1 

1851 

2 59.91 

33.9 

18 9 5.85 

18 50 46.2 

141 

171 

33748 

18 9 37.56 

18 56 3.2 

1851 

2 59.99 

49.6 

18 12 37.55 

18 55 13.6 

144 

567 

33855 

18 12 12.64 

26 34 51.6 

1850 

3 6.95 

1 0.2 

18 15 19.59 

26 33 51.4 

146 

567 

33989 

18 15 15.78 

—26 44 13.9 

1850 

% 

+3 7.14 

+1 13.5 

18 18 22.92 

—26 43 0.4 

147 


For N°* 11946 the a is assumed to be Im. less than recorded. This error was transferred to the Nautical Almanac, and to both series of the Cape 
Observations . 

For N°' 18132 the a is assumed to be 10s. greater than recorded. 
For N"' 17013 an error of 15" in S is assumed. 
For N*' 17937 an error of 15" in 6 is assumed. 

Other observations still may be found in the catalogues of Eumker, Piazzi and Taylor, the 
zones of Lament and the observations of Mr. Maclear at the Cape of Good Hope. These are 
appended, as well as the manuscript observations of Professor Brtinnow at Ann Arbor, already 
mentioned, and a small table containing such other observations as have. been found of the 
comparison-stars which are identified and employed in these computations. 


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COMPARISON-STARS. 
Comparison-Stars from Rumher, 


cxv 


No. Catalogue. 

Mag. 

a 1836.0. 

No. of 
obs. 

Ann. 
Prec. 

d 1836.0. 

No. of 
obs. 

Ann. 
Prec. 

i 
1 

Reduction. 

Mean place for beginning of year. 

No. 












ft 


in a- 

in d. 

1 II 

a. 

d. 




h. m. s. 


s. 

/ // 



s. 

h. m. s. 



1499 

6 

5 29 34.37 

2 

-f-3.708 

+25 47 50.38 

2 

+2.44 

1849 

+48.24 

+0 34. J 

5 30 22.61 

+ 25 48 24.5 

e 

1673 

• • 

5 53 15.21 

1 

3,727 

26 16 24.24 

1 

0.59 

1849 

48.. 50 

7.2 

5 54 3.71 

26 16 31.5. 

13 

1680 

8 

5 53 39.52 

2 

3.728 

26 20 53.52 

1 

0.55 

1849 

48.57 

6.8 

5 54 28.09 

26 21 0.3 

14 

1685 


5 54 3.59 

16 

3.704 

25 26 36.23 

10 

+0.49 

1850 

51.89 

+ 6.8 

5 54 55.48 

25 26 43.0 

f 

1737 

6 

6 42.10 

5 

3.722 

26 2 16.88 

5 

—0.10 

1849 

48.42 

- 1.2 

6 41 30.52 

26 2 15.7 

15 

1744 

7 

6 1 28.33 

1 

3.675 

24 27 2.01 

1 

0.15 

1849 

47.82 

2.1 

6 2 16.15 

24 26 59.9 

g 

1783 


6 6 47.04 

1 

3.701 

25 22 23.99 

1 

0.59 

1849 

48.23 

8.1 

6 7 35.27 

25 32 15.8 

18 

1979 

3 

6 33 50.37 

16 

3.691 

25 17 9.11 

13 

2.95 

1849 

47.95 

38.8 

6 34 38.31 

25 16 30.3 

35 

2335 

6 

7 47 40.39 

3 

3.414 

16 13 19.63 

2 

9.07 

1852 

54.69 

2 25.8 

7 48 35.08 

16 10 53.8 

51 

2372 


7 52 37.01 

1 

3.406 

16 34.13 

1 

9.46 

1852 

54.54 

2 32.0 

7 53 31.56 

15 58 2.1 

56 

2476 

6 

8 10 46.32 

3 

3.581 

24 31 56.65 

3 

10.82 

1852 

57.34 

2 53.9 

8 11 43.66 

24 29 2.7 

64 

2516 

7.8 

8 16 54.07 

2 

3.585 

25 4 4.29 

2 

11.31 

1852 

57.36 

3 1,0 

8 17 51.43 

25 1 3.3 

m 

2545 


8 21 47.79 

1 

3.566 

24 37 43.39 

1 

11.67 

1852 

57.06 

3 6.7 

8 22 44.85 

24 34 36.7 



N«chtr.VIlI,13 


8 23 30.76 

1 

3.374 

15 49 30.15 

1 

11.75 

1852 

54.05 

3 8.e> 

8 24 24.81 

15 46 21.6 

75 

Nachtr.VIll,19 

8 

8 30 16.00 

1 

3.467 

20 39 28.60 

1 

12.22 

1852 

55.52 

3 16.2 

8 31 11.52 

20 36 12.4 

81 

2613 


8 31 30.14 

1 

3.427 

18 49 33.. 55 

1 

12.30 

1852 

54.88 

3 17.5 

8 32 25.02 

18 46 16.0 

83 

2624 

4.5 

8 33 46.88 

6 

3.492 

22 3 9.20 

5 

12.47 

1852 

55.87 

3 19.6 

8 34 42.75 

21 59 49.6 

g 

2799 

• • 

9 6 45.58 

1 

3.415 

20 45 2.14 

1 

14.58 

1851 

51 27 

3 39.3 

9 7 36.85 

20 41 23.8 

104 

2800 


9 6 48.13 

1 

3.411 

20 31 41.58 

1 

14.58 

1851 

51.16 

3 39.4 

9 7 39 29 

20 28 2.2 

105 

2830 

7 

9 11 23.40 

3 

-1-3.391 

+19 46 47.71 

3 

—14.86 

1851 

+50.90 

-3 43.4 

9 12 14.30 

+ 19 43 4.3 

109 


In N°- 1783 the S is assumed to be 25° 32', instead of 25' S 




Comparison- Stars from 

Piazzi, 




No. Catalogue. 

Mean place, 1800.0. 

Year of 
comparison. 

Red. to year < 

3f comparison. 

Mean place for beginning of year. 

No. 


d. 






a. 


in a. 

in d. 

a. 

d. 



h. m. s. 

o / // 


m. s. 

1 II 

h. m. s. 



IV, 287 

4 53 31.70 

+ 26 8 28.2 

1850 

+ 3 5.13 

+ 4 40.4 

4 56 36.83 

+ 26 13 8.6 

1 

V, 41 

5 8 26.56 

27 44 25.5 

3850 

3 7.98 

3 37.1 

5 11 34.54 

27 48 2.6 

a 

98 

5 16 58.36 

24 58 25.0 

1850 

3 4.23 

3 0.6 

5 20 2 59 

25 1 25.6 

c 

145 

5 24 39.67 

26 47 4,9 

1850 

3 7.02 

2 27.3 

5 27 46.69 

26 49 30.2 

d 

165 

5 27 20.50 

25 46 14.8 

1849 

3 1.79 

2 13.1 

5 30 22.29 

25 48 27.9 

e 

273 

5 45 35.16 

25 54 51.5 

1849 

3 2.29 

55.3 

5 48 37.45 

25 55 46.8 

12 

306 

5 51 50.07 

25 26 12.8 

1850 

3 5.38 

+ 29.0 

5 54 55.45 

25 26 41.8 

J 

350 

5 59 16.24 

24 26 59.5 

1849 

3 0.21 

— 3.3 

6 2 16.45 

24 26 56.2 

g 

VII, 207 

7 36 34.78 

23 37 23.6 

1852 

3 7.30 

7 13.2 

7 39 42.08 

23 30 10.5 

i 

232 

7 41 7.40 

22 50 14.3 

1852 

3 6.02 

7 31.8 

7 44 13.42 

22 42 42.5 

k 

299 

7 54 45.00 

23 1 10.0 

1852 

3 5.44 

8 26.8 

7 57 50.44 

22 52 43.2 

I 

VIII, 41 

8 8 37.18 

24 38 26.7 

1852 

3 6.50 

9 21.1 

8 11 43.68 

24 29 5.6 

64 

65 

8 14 44.80 

25 10 49.0 

1852 

3 6 69 

9 44 4 

8 17 51.49 

25 1 4 6 

TO 

76 

8 16 43 67 

24 47 51.4 

1852 

3 6.06 

9 51.8 

8 19 49.73 

24 37 59 6 

n 

84 

8 19 39.50 

24 44 42.0 

1852 

3 5.74 

10 2.8 

8 22 45.25 

24 34 39.2 



89 

8 21 9.34 

24 45 14.5 

1852 

3 5.65 

10 8.3 

8 21 J4.99 

21 35 6.2 

P 

121 

8 28 10.52 

20 46 49.5 

1852 

3 0.57 

10 33.8 

8 31 11.09 

20 36 15.7 

81 

142 

8 31 41 30 

22 10 39.0 

1852 

3 1.85 

10 46.5 

8 34 43.15 

21 .^9 52.5 

q 

195 

8 42 27.90 

20 42 49,2 

1852 

2 59.46 

11 24.1 

8 45 27.36 

20 31 25.1 

r 

IX, 50 

9 9 21.00 

+ 19 55 43.3 

1851 

2 53 18 

12 36.6 

9 12 14.18 

+ 19 4J 6.7 

109 

XVII, 43 

17 8 15.47 

— 17 31 58.5 

1851 

2 57.71 

3 42.5 

17 11 1.3.18 

— 17 35 41,0 

118 

63 

17 10 57.47 

17 29 37.7 

1851 

2 57.71 

3 30.8 

17 13 55.18 

17 33 8.5 

123 

221 

17 35 45.50 

18 1 1.5 

1851 

2 58.73 

— 1 41.4 

17 38 44.23 

18 2 42.9 

127 

XVIII, 24 

18 5 32.10 

27 5 58.0 

1850 

3 7 76 

+ 31.1 

18 8 39.86 

27 5 26.9 

140 

41 

18 9 53.82 

26 29 38.0 

1850 . 

3 6.84 

50.1 

18 13 0.66 

26 28 47.9 

145 

95 

18 20 42.87 

— 19 6 2.2 

1851 

+ 3 0.12 

+ 1 39.0 

18 23 42.99 

— 19 4 23.2 

148 


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CXVl 


COMPARISON-STARS, 

Comparison-Stars from Taylor, 


No. Catalogue. 

Mean place, k35. 

Year of 
CO 111 pari son. 

Red. to year of compal•i^on 

]Vlean place for beginning of yt^ar. 

No. 

a. 

d. 

in a. 

in d. 

a. 

d. 


h. m s. 

o , n 


m.. s. 

1 n 

h. m. s. 

/ // 


1808 

4 55 41.12 

-f 26 11 44.4 

1850 

+ 55.57 

+ 1 22.6 

4 56 36.69 

+ 26 13 7.0 

1 

1912 

5 10 38.11 

27 46 55.3 

1850 

56.39 

1 3.7 

5 11 34.50 

27 4,' 59.0 

a 

1988 

5 19 7.20 

25 32.6 

1850 

55.27 

52.8 

5 20 2.47 

25 1 25.4 

c 

2045 

5 26 50 77 

26 48 47.6 

1850 

56.09 

42.8 

5 27 46.86 

26 49 30.4 

d 

2071 

5 29 30.83 

25 47 46.5 

1849 

51.96 

36.7 

5 30 22.79 

25 48 23.2 

e 

2220 

5 47 45.58 

25 55 3i.O 

1849 

52 09 

14.4 

5 48 37.67 

25 55 45.5 

12 

2266 

5 54 0,29 

25 26 31.6 

1850 

55.60 

-j- 7.3 

5 54 55.89 

25 26 38.9 

/ 

2335 

6 1 25.01 

24 26 55.7 

1849 

51.50 

— 2.3 

6 2 16.51 

24 26 53.4 

g 

2456 

6 14 33.87 

25 7 39.6 

1849 

51.77 

18.3 

6 15 25.64 

25 7 21.2 

21 

2632 

6 33 46.70 

25 17 12.0 

1849 

51.76 

41.7 

6 34 38.46 

25 16 30.3 

35 

3222 

7 38 41 .28 

23 32 35.3 

1852 

1 1.22 

2 23.0 

7 39 42.50 

23 30 12.3 

i 

3272 

7 43 12.73 

22 45 13.0 

1852 

1 0.79 

2 29.1 

7 44 13.52 

22 42 43.9 

k 

3306 

7 47 37.08 

16 13 28.4 

1852 

58.11 

2 34.8 

7 48 35.19 

16 10 53.6 

51 

3402 

7 56 48.99 

22 5t 27 

1852 

1 0.60 

2 47.0 

7 57 49.59 

22 52 40.0 

I 

3519 

8 10 42.92 

24 32 11.5 

1852 

1 0.93 

3 4.7 

8 11 43.85 

24 29 6.8 

64 

3575 

8 16 50.33 

25 4 13.2 

1852 

1 1 00 

3 12.4 

8 17 51.33 

25 1 0.8 

m 

3594 

8 18 49.30 

24 41 14.0 

1852 

1 0.79 

3 14.8 

8 19 50.09 

24 37 59.2 

n 

3617 

8 21 44.61 

24 37 53.7 

1852 

1 0.71 

3 18.4 

8 22 45.32 

24 34 35.3 



3635 

8 23 14.19 

24 38 25.7 

1852 

1 0.66 

3 20.1 

8 24 14.85 

24 35 5.6 

P 

3739 

8 33 43.65 

22 3 22.4 

1852 

59.41 

3 32.6 

8 34 43.06 

31 59 49.8 

Q 

3861 

8 44 28.47 

20 35 9.2 

1852 

58.63 

3 44.8 

8 45 27.10 

20 31 24.4 

r 

4088 

9 11 20.31 

-f 39 47 4.7 

1851 

54.30 

3 58.2 

9 12 14.61 

+ 19 43 6.5 

109 

8004 

17 10 17.56 

— 17 34 33.5 

1851 

55.78 

1 8.5 

17 11 13.34 

— 17 35 42.0 

118 

8219 

17 37 48.29 

• 18 2 14.7 

1851 

56.08 

— 30.4 

17 38 44.37 

18 2 45.1 

127 

8437 

18 7 43.67 

27 5 39.7 

1850 

56.33 

+ 10.7 

18 8 40.00 

27 5 29.0 

140 

8458 

18 12 4.92 

26 29 6.9 

1850 

56.06 

16.5 

18 13 0.98 

26 28 50.4 

145 

8533 

18 22 46.65 

— 19 4 57.2 

1851 

56.51 

-f- 32.5 

18 23 43.16 

— 19 4 24.6 

148 


Comparison-Stars from Lamont, 


Page Catalogue. 

Vol. VII. 

I 

Mean place, 1830.0 

Year of 
comparison. 

Red. to year of comparison. 

Mean place for beginning of year. 

No. 

a. 

d. 

in a- 

in^. 

a. 

d. 

125 
128 
127 
127 
127 
198 

h. m. s. 
17 27 29.92 

17 52 11.94 

18 3 30.24 
18 10 39 09 
18 11 22.64 
18 17 7.91 

o / // 

— 27 56 2.9 
27 49 

27 32 

26 9 2 5 

18 55 40.5 

— 23 24 31.1 

1850 
1850 
1850 
18.50 
1851 
18.50 

m. s. 

+ 1 15.48 
1 15.54 
1 15 70 
1 14.55 
1 14.12 

+ 1 14.84 

// 
— 55.61 

+ 19.27 

22.10 

-f- 31.05 

h. m. s. 
17 28 45.40 

17 53 27.48 

18 4 45 94 
18 11 53.64 
18 12 36.76 
18 18 22.75 

o / // 

— 27 56 58.5 
27 49 

27 32 

26 8 43.2 

18 55 18.4 

— 26 43 0.0 

125 
132 
137 
143 

144 
147 


The declination of the last of these stars is given in the Munich Zon's as —26° 24 ; but the agreement of the place with that of our star, 
N°. 147, is so complete in all other re^pecls, that I have had no hesitation in as>uming the minutes as 43, instead of 24, as priiittd. The decli- 
nation will then accord with Argelander's to l'/.2, and with the mean between Argelander and Washington to 0'/.8, although differing from that 
of the B. A. Catalogue by 9". 5. The right-ascensions agree. 


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COMPARISON-STAES. CXvii 

Oomparisori^Stars determined at Cape of Good Hope during the first series of Mars-observations. 


No. 

Date. 

Observed 

Red. to 1849.0. 

_ Reduced d. 

Reduced 0. 

Mean places, 1849.0. 



a. 

d. 

in a. 

in d. 



«, 

d. 

35 

1849. Nov. 18 

h. m, s. 
6 34 42.03 

/ // 

+ 25 16 16.71 

s. 
— 3 58 

II 
+11.49 

h. m. s. 
6 34 38.45 

° 1 II 
+25 16 28.20 

h. m. s. 

/ // 


19 

42.02 

18.25 

3.61 

11.51 

38.41 

29.76 




21 

. . . . 

16.94 


11.56 


28.50 




24 

42.17 


3.67 

... 

38.50 


6 34 38.45 

+25 16 28.82 

21 

Nov. 2] 
24 

6 15 29.47 
29.42 

25 7 10.27 

-• 3.75 
3.83 

+ 9.86 

6 15 25.72 
25.59 

25 7 20.13 




30 

29.65 

9.13 

3.96 

9.95 

25.69 

19.08 




Dec. 1 

.... 

9.83 


9.96 

.... 

19.79 




2 

29.51 

12.09 

4.01 

9.96 

25.50 

22.05 




3 


11.93 


9.97 

.... 

21.90 

6 15 25.62 

25 7 20.59 

25 

Nov, 27 

6 19 28.16 

25 42 23.61 

- 3.90 

+10.40 

6 19 24.26 

25 42 34.01 




28 

28.43 

23.62 

3.92 

10.41 

24.51 

34.03 




29 

. . . . 

24.92 


10.41 


35.33 




30 

28.80 


3.97 


24.83 


6 19 24.53 

25 42 34.46 

27 

Dec. 2 

6 21 14.50 

25 47 19.15 

— 4.00 

+ 10.61 

6 21 10.50 

25 47 29.76 




1850. Jan. 8 

15.07 


4.55 


10.52 


6 21 10.51 


15 

1849. Dec. 4 
6 


26 2 10.01 

8.47 


+ 8.72 
8.71 


26 2 18.73 
17.18 




9 


9.12 


8.67 

. . . . 

17.79 

• . . . 

26 2 17,90 

12 

Dec. 9 
10 

• • . . 

25 55 40.61 
37.44 

. 

+ 7,33 
7.32 

.... 

25 55 47.94 
44.76 




11 

5 48 42.81 

38.57 

— 4.28 

7.31 

5 48 38.53 

45.88 




1850. Jan. 10 

42.28 


4.62 


37.66 




10 







5 48 38.09 

25 55 46.19 

1849. Dec. 11 

. . . . 

26 22 53.36 


+ 6.87 


26 23 0.23 




14 

5 44 40.26 

55.53 

— 4.34 

6.80 

5 44 35.92 

2.33 




15 

39.93 

55.39 

4.35 

6.78 

35.58 

2.17 




16 

.... 

57.18 

. . . 

6.76 

.... 

3.94 




18 

.... 

55.12 

. . . 

6.73 


1.85 

5 44 35.75 

26 23 2.10 

9 

Dec. 20 

.... 

26 31 47.55 


+ 5.29 


26 31 52.84 




21 

5 32 16.83 

48.82 

— 4.44 

5.26 

5 32 12.39 

54.08 




22 

.... 

47.66 

. 

5.23 


52.89 




23 

16.98 

• • . . . 

4.45 

. 

12.53 





26 

16.61 

46.93 

4.49 

5.10 

12.12 

52.03 




27 

16.95 

47.80 

4.49 

5.07 

12.46 

52.87 




29 

16.85 

47.41 

4.51 

5.00 

12.34 

52.41 




31 

16.94 

45.59 

4.52 

4.94 

12.42 

50.53 




1850. Jan. 3 

16.94 

48.85 

4.54 

4.82 

12.40 

53.67 

5 32 12.38 

26 31 52.66 

8 

J 849. Dec, 22 

. . . 


26 31 22.95 


+ 4.95 


26 31 27.90 




23 



22.71 


4.91 



27.62 




24 

. . . 


23.27 

. 

4.87 



28.14 




27 



23.44 


4.77 



28.21 




29 

. . . 


22.10 


4.64 



26.74 




31 



21.28 


4.51 



25.79 




1850. Jan. 3 



23.38 


4.42 



27.80 

.... 

26 31 27.46 

1 

1850. Jan. 7 

4 56 37.34 

26 12 58.60 

— 4.44 

+ 0.54 

4 56 32.90 

26 12 59.14 


•" 


8 

37 31 

13 0.24 

4.44 

0.51 

32.87 

13 0.75 




9 

37 47 

0.61 

4.43 

0.48 

33.04 

1.09 




10 

37.38 

1.67 

4.43 

0.45 

32.95 

2.12 




12 

37.45 

1.44 

4.42 

0.39 

33.03 

1 83 




14 

37.51 

1.09 

4.41 

0.34 

33.10 

1.43 




15 

37.59 

1.21 

4.41 

0.33 

33.18 

1.53 




16 

37.36 

0.77 

4.40 

0.29 

32.96 

1.06 

4 56 33.00 

26 13 1.12 

17 

1849. Dec. 21 

6 6 9.71 


— 4.38 

« . . 

6 6 5.33 


6 6 5.33 


18 

1850. Jan. 7 

6 8 39.55 


-4.54 

. 

6 7 35.01 





8 

39.68 

• • • . . 

4.55 

. 

35.13 


6 7 35.07 



l^:^lmZ:^^:ZZT:iZ mZf '° "' '"""''' ""' """"'^ '^ ''"'■ ^'' ""'^ "> ^^"^ "" """" Co™pariso„-Sta« ftom Lalande. 


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CXVlll 


COMPARISON-STARS. 


Oomparison-Stars determined at Gape of Good Hope during the second series of Mars observations. 


No. 

Date. 

Observed^. 

Red. to 1852.0. 

Mean § 1852.0. 

No. 

Date. 

Observed (5. 

Red. to 1852.0. 

Mean (J 1852.0. 


1852. 

<» / // 

// 

o / // 


1852. 

/ // 

II 

/ // 

101 

Jan. 3 

+21 16 49.48 

+3.53 

+21 16 53.01 

64 

Feb. 13 

+24 29 1.13 

+4.35 

+24 29^ 5.48 

64 

Jan. 19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 

24 29 1.46 
29 1.03 

28 58.73 

29 0.86 
0.80 
1.48 

+3.92 
3.94 
4.00 
4.04 
4.07 
4.10 

24 29 5.38 
4.97 

4.90 

4.87 
5.58 


14 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 

1.45 
2.92 
2.36 
0.93 
3.41 
3.20 

4.35 
4.33 
4.32 
4.31 
4.30 
4.29 
4.24 
4.22 

5,80 
7.25 
6.68 
5.24 


26 
27 
29 

0.92 
1.54 
0.67 

4.16 
4.19 
4.25 

5.08 
5.73 
4.92 


23 

24 

4.22 

+24 29 5.75 


Feb, 2 

1.85 

4.30 

6.15 

58 

Feb. 11 

24 55 10.01 

+2.94 



3 

1.53 

4.32 

5.85 


12 

8.83 

2.89 

24 55 11.72 


9 

2.09 

4.36 

6.45 


13 

8.39 

2.84 

11.23 


10 

2.30 

4.36 

6.66 


14 

8.38 

2.78 

11.16 


12 

2.11 

4.36 

6.47 


16 

9.71 

2.67 

+24 55 11.37 


Gomparison-Stars from Ann Arbor observations. 


No. 

Mean place 1856.0. 

Year of comp. 

Red. to year of comparison. 

Mean place for beginning of year. 

a- 

d. 

in a- 

in d. 

«. 

d. 

112 
113 
119 
120 
121 
122 
125 
128 
132 
134 
139 
143 

h. m. s. 
16 49 37 

16 50 30 

17 13 17 
17 13 48 
17 14 17 
17 14 15 
17 29 11 
17 44 19 
17 53 53 

17 59 25 

18 7 24 
18 12 15 

/ // 

—26 53 0.78 

26 57 12.84 

27 51 20.28 
27 31 52.40 
27 49 30.38 
17 33 30.92 

27 57 16.54 

28 1 5.63 
27 49 17.89 
27 39 29-28 
27 27 20.40 

—26 8 41.39 

1850 
1850 
1850 
1850 
1850 
1851 
1850 
1850 
1850 
1850 
1850 
1850 

s. 

—22.306 
22.322 
22.581 
22.526 
22.580 
17.437 
22.649 
22.685 
22.663 
22.635 
22.597 

-22.367 

II 

+36.468 

36.030 

24.456 

24.186 

23.940 

19.965 

16.230 

8.322 

3.306 

+ 0.402 

— 3.786 

— 5.808 

h. m. s. 
16 49 15 

16 50 8 

17 12 54 
17 13 25 
17 13 54 
17 13 58 
17 28 48 
17 43 56 
17 53 30 

17 59 2 

18 7 1 
18 11 53 

o / // 

—26 52 24.31 

26 56 36.81 

27 50 55.82 
27 31 28.21 
27 49 6.44 
17 33 10.96 

27 57 0.31 

28 57.31 
27 49 14.58 
27 39 28 88 
27 27 24.19 

— 26 8 47.20 


Gomparison- Stars from various sources. 




Epoch. 

Obs'd a. 

i 

o 

Obs'd <?. 

X! 

o 

a 

Red. to yeai 

of comp. 

Mean place for beg. of year. 

No. 

Authority. 

o 

o 

o 




d. 





o 


o 


in a. 

in dm 

a. 




h. m. s. 


o / // 



m. s. 

1 II 

h. m. s. 

1 II 

.35 

Brisbane ........ 

1825.0 

6 33 8.25 

3 

+25 17 41.6 

2 

1849 

+1 28.60 

—1 10.9 

6 34 36.85 

+25 16 30.7 

49 

Struve Cat. Gen., 931 .... 

1830.0 

7 45 45.86 

4 

+25 6 20.4 

4 

1852 

+1 19.88 

-3 17.7 

7 47 5.74 

+25 3 2.7 

51 

Wrottesley, Mem. R. A.S. XXIIT, 27 

1850,0 

7 48 28,17 

5 

. 


1852 

+ 6.83 

. . , 

7 48 35.00 

.... 

m 

Struve Cat. Gen., 994 .... 

1830.0 

8 16 32.45 

6 

+25 5 10.7 

6 

1852 

+1 18.91 

—4 10.0 

. 8 17 51.36 

+35 1 0.7 

83 

Hamburg, A.N. XLTII,113 . , 

1856.0 

8 32 39.23 

3 

+ 18 45 25,3 

3 

1852 

— 13.72 

+ 49.5 

8 32 25.51 

+18 4.6 14.8 

91 

Konigsberg,A. N.,XIII,83 , . 

1833.0 

8 46 19.89 

13 

+22 19 30.5 

13 

1852 

+1 6.15 

-4 13.6 

8 47 26.04 

+22 15 16.9 

91 

Dorpat, A.N. XIII, 213 . . . 

1833.0 

8 46 19.91 

6 

+22 19 34.1 

5 

1852 

+ 1 6.15 

—4 13.6 

8 47 26.08 

+22 15 20.5 

92 

Dorpat, A. N. XIII, 243 . . . 

183 ?.0 

8 46 26.32 

2 

+22 13 1.1 

2 

1852 

+ 1 6.09 

—4 13.4 

8 47 32.41 

+22 8 47.7 

141 

Aliona, A. N. Vn, 81 .... 

1828.0 

18 7 44.40 

2 

—18 51 10.3 

1 

1851 

+1 21.14 

+0 17.1 

18 9 5.54 

—18 50 53.2 

143 

Wrottesley, Mem. R.A.S. XXIII, 39 1850 

18 11 53 .36 

5 

. . . . 


1850 

0.0 


18 11 53.36 

.... 

144 

Altona, A. N. VII, 8L .... 1828.0 

18 11 16.00 

3 

—18 55 43.04 

2 

1851 

+1 21.16 

+0 24.1 

18 12 37.16 

—18 55 19.0 

147 

Wrottesley, Mem. R AS. XXIII, 39| 1850.0 

18 18 22.50 

5 



1850 

0.0 


18 18 22. .'SO 



For the Dorpat observation of N°. 91 and the Altona observation of N». 141, the declinations are so discrepant that they have not been incorporated 
into the final means. The latt(>r, as published, gives the apparent place ; which has been transformed in this table into the mean place for the beginnmg 
of the year. 


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COMPARISON-STARS. Cxix 

^ The fewness of the observations from most of the individual sources renders the determina- 
tion of the constant differences for the results of the respective observers a matter of much 
difficulty. And it was soon palpable that no trustworthy equation could be obtained for any 
observer, which would hold even approximately both for the southern stars of the first Fenus- 
series and the northern stars of the- three other series of observations. Nor did the^several 
equations to be found in the books appear altogether satisfactory, or accordant. 

The catalogue of Comparison-stars contains 148 stars, arranged and numbered in the order of 
their right-ascensions. Of these, N-- 1-35, inclusive, belong to the first Mars-series, and are 
all situated between 241° and 261° of north declination. 

Twenty-three stars, between N°«- 47-86, inclusive, as well as N°^' 87-109, making 46 in all, 
belong to the second Mars-series, and are between the declinations 191° and 25° north. 

N^^' 36-46, as well as seventeen stars between N«- 47-86, making thirty-nine in all, belong 
to the second Venus-series, and are situated between 141° and 25° north declination. So that of 
all these 109 stars, none are farther north than +26°. 5, and none farther south than -f 14°.5. 

The first Venus-series, on the other hand, contains thirty-nine stars, N««- 110-148 all'of 
which are between 171° and 28° of south declination, and comprised' therefore within the 
limits of Argelander's southern zones. 

Of the special lists, the Santiago determinations comprise the whole list of stars compared 
with Mars during the second series of observations. 

The Washington determinations comprise the whole list of southern stars, with one exception 
{Venus, I,) and 25 northern ones— 8 for Mars I, 17 for Mars II. ' 

The Cape determinations are for 12 stars observed with 3Iars I, and 3 observed with Mars II 

The places from BesseF s zones are, of course, exclusively for northern, and those from Ar^e- 
lander's exclusively for southern stars. 

The twenty stars from Etimker's catalogue are all northern. Those from the third Greenwich 
catalogue, and all but one from the Twelve- Year, are northern. 

The stars from Lament and Briinnow are all southern. 

From the positions taken from Lalande, 57 are for northern and 14 for southern stars. 

Of those from Piazzi, 20 are northern and 6 are southern stars. Of those from Taylor 22 
are northern and 5 are southern. ' 

Under these circumstances, it is manifestly most appropriate to refer the northern stars to 
Bessel as the standard observer, and the southern to Argelander ; and this has been done for 
the sake of avoiding as much uncertainty as possible. In order to deduce the corrections neces- 
sary for reducing the declinations to the standard, all those stars which have been determined 
by two different authorities have been made to contribute to the result, and the mean difference 
for each two observers computed when possible. 

Thus, we have for the Santiago (northern) determinations by 31 observations, 

Santiago— Bessel z= -j- 0'^56 zb 0^'.38, 
and by 17 observations, 

Washington — Santiago =z -|- F.06 zb 0'^23 
one observation being rejected in the latter case by Peirce's Criterion. ' 
The Greenwich catalogue of positions for 1850 gives by 23 observations, 

Bessel— Greenwich = -f 0^^562 zb 0^^503, 
and by 8 observations, 

Washington — Greenwich = + 0^'.66 zb 0^^36. 
Furthermore, we have from 20 observations (the same one being rejected as before,) 

Washington — Bessel = -f 0^'.44 zb 0'^59 ; 
and lastly, from 9 observations at the Cape, of which two were manifestly to be excluded but 
by reason of their equality on the two sides of the mean, exerted no essential influence on the 
result, 

Maclear—Greenwich = + 0^'.39 ± 0^^31, 


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Washington— Ann Arbor = + F.58 ± 0^^35, 


CXX COMPARISON-STARS. 

The incompatibility of some of these determinations is apparent, and the first five equations 
require therefore to be combined with one another, according to the method of least squares, 
after giving to each an appropriate weight. The values resulting from this combination have 
been adopted. They are: 

Bessel — Washington zi: — 0''. 76 

Bessel— Santiago :==:— 0''.06 

Bessel — Greenwich z=-f-0".23 
Hence we also have, 

Bessel— Maclear zz: — O^M 6 . 

For southern stars we obtain, by 20 observations, 

Argelander — Washington =z: + ^^74 dz 0'^40, 
and by 12 observations, 

whence, 

Argelander — Ann Arbor zz: + 3'^32. 
These corrections were uniformly applied, as also were the following equations as previously 
determined for the declinations under consideration, excepting for the one zone of Lalande 
already mentioned. 

They are taken from Argelander's Positiones Medice and Southern Zones, Struve's Positiones 
Medice, and Madler's Fixstern-system II, sls cited by Dr. Forster in his excellent paper in N\ 
1026 of the Astronomische Nachrichten, 

Bessel— Taylor zz: — F.32 

Bessel— Twelve- Year zz: — 0^^40 
Bessel— Kiimker :==:,_ 0^ 7 

Bessel — Piazzi zz: Bessel — Lalande 

— _3//.6for^zz + 15^ 

— 3^3 +20° 

— 2^'. 8 +25° 
Argelander— Taylor z= + 0^50-0^0256 (o^° + 19°) 
Argelander — Piazzi zz: Argelander — Lalande 

zz: — F.52 for ^ = — 16° 

— 1.23 18° 

— 0.84 20° 

— 0.25 22° 
+ .54 24° 
+ 1 .30 26° 
+ 1.90 —28° 

Lalande's zone of 1796, March 4, contains the stars N^^- 70, 74, 81, 89, 94, 97, 100, 101. 
To these has been applied the correction — 2^^3 in order to reduce them to positions correspond- 
ing differentially to the places adopted for the fundamental stars in the reduction. Twenty of 
these were from Eumker, five from the Twelve- Year Catalogue, and one from Argelander^s Posi- 
tiones Medice. The mean by weights of the reductions to Bessel for the totality of these stars 
ig^ _0'^60, making the entire correction to Lalande, — 2^^9. 

The observations thus corrected may be advantageously combined by allowing to each deter- 
mination a weight proportionate to the product of the number of observations by a factor 
constant for each authority. This factor should depend not only on the probable error of the 
authority, but also, in some measure, upon the time elapsed since the observation— that the 
influence of undetected proper motions may not be too prejudicial. 

Combining the materials in this way, we may deduce a table of definite places of great pre- 
cision, which may be practically treated like careful determinations by one and the same 
observer. So important is it, however, in the present discussion, that all the comparison-stars 


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COMPAEISON-STARS. CXXi 

and all the meridian observations should be really portions of one system referred to the identical 
co-ordinate plane^ that the labor of an additional approximation for the better determination of 
the personal equations in declination is trivial in comparison with the advantages to accrue 
from a more trustworthy determination of the corrections to the scale of the standard observer. 
These are, of course, accompanied by a slight increase in the precision of the adopted places of 
comparison-stars. 

Accordingly^ the places deduced from all those authorities, for which the personal equation 
has not been implicitly taken from the books, have been carefully compared with the table 
alluded to, in order that the resultant equations, even if not so trustworthy as those deducible 
from more extended comparisons and investigations, may at least possess an accuracy in 
some degree proportionate to the influence which they must exert upon the resulting value of 
the parallax. 

It is not to be expected, indeed, that the observations from Bessel and Argelander themselves 
would indicate an absolute mean accordance with our final table ; but it is certainly to be 
hoped that the positions of that table will be more accordant with the average places of Bessel 
and A rgelander than would be the case for the limited number of stars taken from the zones of 
these astronomers and here employed. 

The discussion of the personal equations soon made it manifest that the results for each planet- 
series ought to be separately examined, the corrections being, at least in some cases, very 
clearly more different than may fairly be attributable to the mere difference of the declinations. 
This was especially evident in the two meridian series at the Cape of Good Hope, but not less 
distinctly in the stars from the Greenwich Catalogue for 1850. 

Thus, after incorporating the values given by some additional stars which, although not 
employed for micrometic comparison, yet required investigation, on account of their import- 
ance in determining the corrections of the meridian series at the Cape and at Athens, we 
have — 

From twenty-three stars observed with the first Mars-series, 

Bessel — Greenwich = + F.09 i 0'\995 ; 
From eight stars observed with the* second Mars-series, 
Bessel — Greenwich = — 0'M4 i 0'^772. 

The table of definite places constructed from the materials already cited need not be given 
here^ as its employment was only provisional. The results of its comparison with the several 
series of declinations afford the corrections to be employed in the new preparation of a table 
precisely similar. These corrections afi*ord a legitimate criterion for judging of the accuracy 
attained and attainable. For they must, of course, be applied to the series of absolute meridian 
determinations of the planet's place, as well as to the star-places derived from the same 
authority, before incorporating them with their appropriate weight in the final list of star- 
places. Only under such conditions would the combination of the absolute positions obtained 
by meridian observation at different observatories be tolerable. And it so happens that neither 
for any one of the four observatories which have furnished meridian observations of the planet, 
nor for either of the other two on which drafts have been made for recent star-determinations, 
is any sufficient determination of the personal equation in declination at hand. 

The places of the table are to be considered as representing the general standard of Bessel 
for the northern, and Argelander for the southern stars. Their comparison with individual 
authorities furnishes the following equations, in which T denotes the tabular declination : 

For stars observed with Mars 1 : 
T — Greenwich = + 0'\099 i 0'M42 from 29 observ'ns, exclud'g three, (N««-25, 35, 14.) 
T — - Bessel = — 0'^287 it 0'^259 from 24 observations, excluding one, (N«- 2.) 

T — Maclear = — 0'^591 ± O'MSB from 14 observations. 

T — Washington = — 0"M1 ± 0'\096 from 14 observations. 

E o 


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CXXil COMPARISON-STARS. 

For stars observed witli Mars II : 
T — Santiago = — 0'M20 db 0'^091 from 41 observations. 
T — Bessel = + 0^^471 =h 0''.293 from 32 observations. 

T — Maclear =: — l'^325 ± 0^^234 from 13 observations, excluding one, {Pollux.) 

T — Greenwich ■==. — 0'^056 dz 0'^206 from 6 observations, excluding one, (N°- 100.) 
T — Washington = — 0^^238 i: 0''.054 from 11 observations, excluding one, (N^- 95.) 

For stars observed with Venus I : 
T _ Washington = + F.696 ± 0^M14 from 38 obs., or excl. 4, (N««- 112, 127, 141, 144,) 

— _|_ 1//.727 ± 0''.064. 
T — Argelander = + 0'^063 zh 0^^276. 
T — Ann Arbor = + 3'^348 ± 0^^261. 

For stars observed with Venus II : 
T — Bessel = + 0'M36 =t 0^^096. 

The large values of the differences for the observations taken from Bessel' s Zones need not be 
considered as implying any deviation from Bessel's standard, but are, in every case, traceable 
to deviations of particular zones made manifest by comparison with at least two independent 
authorities. 

This discordance or deviation is especially evident in zone 275, as will be clearly seen on 
collation of the equations, which are deduced after the omission of comparisons with the stars of 
this zone. Thus, the value of (Santiago — Bessel) which, by the use of all thirty-one differenceSj 
was found to be + 0^^565 zb 0^'.380, was reduced, after exclusion of the four differences dependent 
on zone 275, to + 0^M41 zb 0'^363. So also the value of (Washington— Bessel) which, if the 
places from zone 275 be employed, is ■=. + 0^^44 zb 0''.59, becomes, after rejection of these, 
:::::: — 0'^06 zb 0'^53. And of the three series for Mars I, into which these stars enter appreciably^ 
the equations above given are changed by the omission of this zone to the following : 

T — Santiago = — 0".089^=iz 0^^086. 
T — Washington = + 0'M76^dz 0^'.056. 
T — Bessel = + 0'M63 ± 0'^287. 

The correction apparently due to these stars is, if constant, about 3'^, but the observations are 
much better satisfied if the correction be supposed to change with the time. Since none of the 
places from this zone are absolutely necessary for our purpose, they have been omitted in taking 
the final mean, although given in the list for comparison. A somewhat similar case is that of 
zone 405^ which has^ hov/ever, been retained. 

From examination and combination of these results, the equations have been ultimately 
determined which are to be used in connection with the declinations, as furnished by the 
observatories under consideration. 

They are as follows, and have been uniformly applied to all measured declinations, whether 
of star or of planet. The reductions applied to star-places from other sources are employed as 
cited on page cxx. 

T — Washington = — 0^'.5 for stars observed with Mars I, 


rn u 

-=. 

— 0".2 '' " " '' 31ars II 

rp a 

\ — 

+ 1".7 " " "■ " Venus I. 

T — Santiago 

— ~" 

— 0".l 

T — G-reenwich 

zzr 



T — Maclear 

zzz 

— 0".6 for stars observed with liars I. 

rp a 

• : 

— 1".3 " " " " Mars II 


The declinations from Bessel's Zone 275 are not employed for the mean. 
The annexed Final List of places of comparison-stars gives for each star the several authorities ; 
the number of observations from each, both in right-ascension and declination, these numbers 


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COMPARISON-STARS. 


CXXlll 


being inclosed in a parenthesis and separated by a dot ; the declinations, taken from the special 
lists and reduced by means of the equations just given to the standard of Bessel for northern, 
and of Argelander for southern stars ; the mean of the right-ascensions to the nearest second, and 
for the declinations the rigorous mean h^ weights ; and lastly, inclosed in brackets, the sum of 
the several partial weights for the declinations. The factors for the several authorities, which, 
when combined with the number of observations, constitute the partial weights, are : 

For Piazzi and Lalande 1 

^For Bessel, Taylor, Eiimker, and Lament ... 3 

For Struve's and Argelander' s Catalogues... 10 

For all other sources 5 


FINAL LIST OF STAR-POSITIONS. 


Lalande 9531 
Piazzi IV, 287 
Bessel 396,523 
Taylor 1808 
Maclear 
Greenwich 335 

1.1) 

(8.9) 
(2.1) 
(4.4) 
(8.8) 
(2.1) 

[70] 

1 

h. m. s. 
4 56 36.50 
36.83 
36.70 
36.69 
36.70 
36.56 

1850.0. 

o / // 

-j-26 13 5.8 
5,8 
6.0 
6.0 
6.0 
6.8 

! 

Bessel 405 
Maclear 
Greenwich 401 
Washington 

(1.1) 

0) 

(3.4) 

(3.12) 

[118] 

8 

h. m, s, 
5 29 33.19 

32.90 
32.91 

1849.0. 

+ 26 31 29.6 
26.9 
27.3 
27.7 

5 29 33 

+ 26 31 27.44 

4 56 37 

+ 26 13 6.03 

Lalande 10669 
Maclear 
Greenwich 406 

(1.1) 
(7.8) 
(7.7) 

[76] 

9 

h. m. s. 
5 32 12.11 
12.38 
12.53 

1849.0. 
° / // 
+ 26 31 49.0 
52.1 
51.5 

Bessel 396 
Greenwich 350 
Washington 

(1.1) 
(5.5) 
(3.12) 

[88] 

2 

h. m. s. 
5 3 4.68 
4.64 
4.64 

1850.0. 

o / // 

-j-26 16 16.5 
19.8 
19.3 

5 32 12 

+ 26 31 51.78 

5 3 5 

-f-26 16 19.35 

Lalande 11108 
Maclear 
Greenwich 422 

(1.1) 
(2.5) 
(1.1) 

[31] 

10 

h, m. s. 
5 44 35.76 
35.75 
34.81 

1849.0. 

o / // 

+ 26 22 58.8 
23 1.5 
23 1.5 

Bessel 405 
Greenwich 361 
Washington 

(1.1) 
(3.3) 
(3.10) 

[68] 

3 

h. m. s, 
5 10 29.92 
29.37 
29.37 

1850.0. 

o / // 

-1-26 5 51.3 
49.1 
48.6 

5 44 35 

+ 26 23 1.41 

5 10 29 

-j-26 5 48.82 

Bessel 405 
Greenwich 426 
Washington 

(1.1) 
(5.5) 
(1.10) 

[78] 

11 

h. m. s. 
5 46 14.93 
14.82 
14.96 

1849.0. 

o / // 

+ 26 26 47.9 
45.9 
46.8 

Bessel 523 
Greenwich 376 
Washington 

(l.l) 
(4.4) 
(2.10) 

[73] 

4: 

h. in. s. 

5 17 47.40 
47.93 
47.91 

1850.0. 

-j-26 26 51.7 
55.4 
53.3 

5 45 15 

+ 26 26 46.55 

5 17 48 

+ 26 26 53.81 

Lalande 11220 (1.1) 
Piazzi V, 273 (8.8) 
Taylor 2220 (9.4) 
Twelve-Year 515 (3.5) 
Maclear (2.3) 
Greenwich 433 (3.3) 

[76] 

12 

h. m. s. 
5 48 37.61 
37.45 
37.67 
37.60 
38.09 
37.56 

1849.0. 

+ 25 55 41.5 
44.0 
44.2 
45.7 
45.6 
46.6 

Bessel 405 
Greenwich 383 
Washington 

(1.1) 
(2 2) 
(2.11) 

[68] 

5 

h. m. s. 

5 21 43.09 
43.27 
43.14 

1850.0. 
° / // 
+ 26 27 49.2 
45.9 
46,6 

5 21 43 

+ 26 27 46.61 

Bessel 405 

(1.1) 
[3] 

6 . 

h. m. s. 
5 22 32.26 

1849.0. 
+ 26 34 5.9 

5 48 38 

+ 25 55 45.38 

Rllmker 1673 
Greenwich 438 
Washington 

(1.1) 
(66) 
(1.10) 

[83] 

13 

h. m. s. 
5 54 3.71 
3.94 
3.94 

1849.0. 

1 It 

+ 26 16 30.8 
30.6 
30.1 

5 22 32 

+ 26 34 5.9 

Bessel 405 

(1.1) 
[3] 

7 

k. in, s. 
5 25 40.14 

1849.0. 

o / // 

+ 26 27 2.6 

5 25 40 

+ 26 27 2.6 

5 54 4 

+ 26 16 30.31 


Hosted by 


Google 


CXXIV 


COMPAEISON-STAES. 

Final List of Slav- Positions — Continued. 


Bessel 405 
Rumker 1680 
Greenwich 439 
Washington 

(1.1) 
(1.1) 
(2.3) 
(1.11) 

[76] 

14: 

h. m. s. 

5 54 28.72 
28.09 
28.46 
27.73 

1849.0. 

o / // 

-j-26 21 2.1 
20 59.6 

20 57.9 

21 0.6 

Bessel 523 

(1.1) 
[3] 

33 

fi. m. s. 
6 17 58.70 

1849.0. 

o / // 

+ 25 27 23.6 

6 17 59 

+ 25 27 23.6 

Bessel 348 

(1.1) 
[3] 

34 

h. m. s. 
6 18 45.23 

1849 0. 

o / // 

+ 24 20 31.0 

5 54 28 

-f 26 21 0.09 

Lalande 11684 
Bessel 405 
Rumker 1737 ' 
Maclear 
Greenwich 451 

(11) 
(1.1) 
(5.5) 
(3) 

[64] 

15 

h. m. s. 
6 1 30.72 
30.64 
30.52 

30.57 

1849.0. 

o / // 

+ 26 2 14.0 
16.4 
15.0 
17.3 
16.1 

6 18 45 

+ 24 20 31.0 

Lalande 12336, 1 
Bessel 523 
Maclear 
Greenwich 479 

(2.2) 
(1.1) 
(3.3) 
(1.1) 

[25] 

35 

h. m. s. 

6 19 24.16 
24.62 
24.53 
23.83 

1849.0. 

o / // 

+ 25 42 32.2 
33.4 
33.9 
30.6 

6 1 31 

+ 26 2 16.10 

Lalande 11714 
Bessel 405 
Greenwich 453 

(LI) 
(1.1) 
(6.4) 

[24] 

16 

h. m. s. 

6 2 22.10 
22.20 
22.31 

1849.0. 

/ // 

+ 26 39.3 
43.9 

41.7 

6 19 25 

+ 25 42 33.04 

Bessel 523 
Greenwich 485 

(1.1) 
(2.2) 

[13] 

36 

h. m. s, 
6 21 2.59 
2.27 

1849.0. 

o / // 

+ 25 14 26.6 
27.0 

6 2 22 

+ 26 41.88 

Lalande 11854 
Maclear 
Greenwich 457 

(1.1) 

(1) 
(5.5) 

[26] 

17 

h. m. s. 

6 6 5.03 
5.33 
5.22 

1849.0. 

o / // 

+ 25 22 23.9 
23.1 

6 21 2 

+ 25 14 26.91 

Lalande 12395 
Maclear 
G-reenwich 487 

(1.1) 
(2) 
(1.2) 

[H] 

37 

h. m. s. 

6 21 9.61 
10.51 
10.68 

1849.0. 

o / // 

+ 25 46 38.1 
40.8 

6 6 5 

+ 25 22 23.13 

Lalande 11946 
Rllmker 1783 
Maclear 
Greenwich 458 

(1.1) 
(1.1) 
(2) 
(4.4) 

[24] 

18 

h. m. s. 

6 7 35.06 
35.27 
35.07 
35.12 

18490. 

/ // 

+ 25 32 18.3 
15.8 

22.8 

6 21 11 

+ 25 46 40.55 

Bessel 523 
Greenwich 488 

(1.1) 
(2.2) 

[13] 

38 

h. m, s. 
6 21 36.16 
36.24 

1849.0. 

o / // 

+ 25 31 15.4 
16.5 

6 7 35 

+ 25 32 21.74 

Lalande 11976, 
Greenwich 459 

3 (2.2) 
(2.2) 

[12] 

19 

h. m. s. 
6 9 25.10 
26.16 

1849.0. 

/ // 

+ 25 35 3.2 
2.6 

6 21 36 

+ 25 31 16.25 

Greenwich 

(1.1) 
[5] 

39 

h. m. s. 
6 25 26.67 

1849.0. 

o / // 

+ 26 33 51.6 

6 9 26 

+ 25 35 2.70 

Bessel 405 
Greenwich 467 

(1.1) 
(4.3) 

[18] 

30 

h. m. s. 
6 11 31.75 
31.81 

1849 0. 

o / // 

+ 25 45 49.0 
45.7 

6 25 27 . 

+ 26 33 51.6 

Lalande 12554 
Bessel 405 
Greenwich 490 

(1.1) 
(1.1) 
(1.1) 

[9] 

30 

h. m. s. 

6 25 44.14 
44.74 
44.27 

1849.0. 

o / // 

+ 25 1 57.8 
59.2 
56.0 

6 11 32 

+ 25 45 46.25 

Lalande 12197, 9 (2.2) 
Bessel 405 (1.1) 
Taylor 2456 (6.6) 
Maclear (4.5) 
Greenwich 470 (2.2) 

[58] 

31 

h. m. s. 
6 15 25.35 
25.82 
25.64 
25.62 
25.65 

1849.0. 

/ // 

+ 25 7 16.7 
20.8 
19.9 
20.0 
20.9 

6 25 44 

+ 25 1 57.27 

Lalande 12557 
Greenwich 491 

(1.1) 
(1.1) 

[6] 

31 

h. m. s. 
6 25 47.09 
46.64 

1849.0. 

o / // 

+ 24 44 45.4 
44.4 

6 15 26 

+ 25 7 20.05 

6 25 47 

+ 24 44 44.57 

Lalande 32237 
Bessel 405 
Greenwich 473 

(1.1) 
(1.1) 
(4.2) 

M 

33 

h. m. s. 
6 16 47.33 
46.93 
46.90 

1849.0. 

o / // 

+ 25 35 28.4 
25.8 
24.2 

Bessel 348 
Greenwich 495 

(1.1) 
(1.1) 

[8] 

33 

h. m. s, 
6 27 21.07 
21.09 

1849.0. 

/ // 

+ 24 32 48.7 
49.3 

6 16 47 • 

+ 25-35 24 ..84. 

6 27 21 

+ 24 32 49.08 


Hosted by 


Google 


COMPARISON- STARS. 
Final List of Star-Positions — Continued. 


cxxv 


Bessel 348 (1.1) 
Greenwich 496 (1.1) 

[8] 

33 

h. m. s. 
6 27 52.80 
52.67 

1849.0. 
° / // 
-f24 31 4.5 
4.9 

Lalande 15125 

(1.1) 
[1] 

44 

h. m. s. 

7 38 57.81 

1852.0. 

o / // 

+ 15 53 0.6 

7 38 58 

+ 15 53 0.6 

6 27 53 

+ 24 31 4.75 

Lalande 15221 
Bessel 339 

(LI) 
(1.1) 

[4] 

45 

h. m. s. 
7 41 51.39 
51.67 

1852.0. 

/ // 

+ 24 9 13.3 
12.5 

Lalande 12666 (1.1) 
Bessel 348, 405 (2.2) 

34: 

h. m. s. 
6 28 45.41 
46.37 

1849.0. 

o / // 

+ 24 57 28.6 
23.7 

7 41 52 

+ 24 9 12.70 

6 28 46 

+ 24 57 24.40 

Lalande 15338 

(1.1) 
[1] 

46 

h. m. s. 

7 44 52.83 

1852.0. 

/ // 

+ 15 58 40.4 

Lalande 12880 (1.1) 
Taylor 2632 (17.45) 
Rumker 1979 (16.13) 
Twelve-Year 587 (22.19) 
Maclear (3.3) 
Greenwich 505 (8.7) 

[320) 

35 

h. m. s. 

6 34 38.43 
38.46 
38.31 
38.40 
38.42 
38.37 

1849.0. 
° / // 
+ 25 16 25.7 
29.0 
30.3 
30.1 
28.2 
32.0 

7 44.53 

+ 15 58 40.4 

Lalande 15401 
Santiago 

(LI) 
(3.3) 

[16] 

47 

h. m. s. 
7 46 36.34 
36.58 

1852.0. 

° / // 
+ 24 44.48.1 
50.9 

6 34 38 

+ 25 16 29.76 

7 46 36 

+ 24 44 50.72 

Bessel 276 (1.1) 
[3] 

36 

h. m. s. 
7 26 52.19 

1852.0. 

o / // 

+ 15 15 1.4 

Lalande 15412 
Santiago 

(1.1) 
(3.3) 

[16] 

48 

h, m. s. 
7 46 52.98 
57.25 

1852.0. 

+ 24 36 41.7 
49.0 

7 26 52 

+ 15 15 1.4 

7 46 57 

+ 24 36 48.54 

Bessel 273, 276 (2.2) 
[6J 

3T 

h. m. s. 
7 29 28.30 

1852.0. 

o / // 

+ 15 24 42.2 

Bessel 341 (1.1) 
Struve Cat. Gen. (4.4) 
Santiago (3.3) 

[58] 

49 

h. m. s. 

7 47 5.64 
5.74 
5.71 

1852.0. 
° / // 
+ 25 3 0.0 
2.7 
3.2 

7 29 28 

+ 15 24 42.2 

Bessel 146 (1.1) 
[3] 

38 

h. m. s. 
7 29 28.97 

1852.0. 

o // 

+ 14 40 6.9 

7 47 6 

+ 25 3 2.69 

Bessel 339 

(1.1) 
[3] 

50 

h. m. s. 
7 47 14.74 

1852.0. 

o / // 

+ 24 37.9 

7 29 29 

+ 14 40 6.9 

Bessel 273 (1.1) 
[3] 

39 

h. m. s. 
7 30 38.00 

1852.0. 

/ // 

+ 14 53 36.6 

7 47 15 

+ 24 37.9 

Lalande 15468 
Taylor 3306 
Rlimker 2335 
Twelve- Year 7 
Wrottesley 

(1.1) 
(5.7) 
(3.2) 
09 (6.5) 
(5) 
[53] 

51 

h. m. s. 

7 48 35.29 
35.19 
35.08 
35.04 
35.00 

1852.0. 

/ // 

+ 16 10 56.8 
52.3 
53.8 
52.4 

7 30 38 

+ 14 53 36.6 

Bessel 273 (1.1) 
[3J 

40 

h. m. s, 
7 30 58,15 

1852.0. 

/ // 

+ 14 47 39.1 

7 48 35 

+ 16 10 52.60 

7 30 58 

+ 14 47 39.1 

Bessel 339,341 
Santiago 

(2.2) 
(5.5) 

[31] 

53 

h, m. s. 
7 48 38.35 
38.31 

1852.0. 

/ // 

+ 24 54 9.2 
11.7 

Bessel 273, 276 (2.2) 
[6] 

41 

h. m. s. 
7 32 44.34 

1852.0. 
° / // 
+ 15 40 22.0 

7 32 44 

+ 15 40 22.0 

7 48 38 

+ 24 54 11.22 

Lalande 14961 (1.1) 
Bessel 62, 146 (2.2) 

[7] 

43 

h. m. s. 
7 33 42.26 
42.38 

1852.0. 

o / // 

+ 14 33 0.2 
0.9 

Lalande 15548 

(1.1) 
[1] 

53 

h. m. s. 
7 50 53.27 

1852.0. 

o / // 

+ 23 34 50.1 

7 50 53 

+ 23 34 50.1 

7 33 42 

+ 14 33 0.80 

Bessel 339 

Santiago 

(1.1) 
(3.3) 
[18] 

54 

h. m, s, 
7 50 59.17 
59.58 

1852.0. 

/ // 

+ 24 28 27.8 
27.0 

Bessel 273 (1.1) 

43 

h. m. s. 
7 33 49.55 

1852.0. 
+ 15 49 51.1 

7 33 50 

+ 15 49 51.1 

7 50 59 

+ 24 28 27. 


Hosted by 


Google 


CXXVl 


COMPARISON-STARS. 
Final List of Star-Positions — Continued. 


Lalande 15608 
Bessel 339 
Santiago 

(1.1) 

ri.i) 

(3.3) 
[19] 

55 

h. TO. s. 

7 52 38.26 
38.37 
38.37 

1852.0. 

o / // 

4-24 18 57.3 
59.0 

58.7 

Lalande 16288, 90, 91 (3.3) 
Piazzi VIII, 41 (12.8) 
Bessel 344 (1.1) 
Taylor 3519 (6.5) 
RUmker 2476 (3.3) 
Twelve-Year 745 (12.17) 
Santiago (32.33) 
Greenwich 608 (7.7) 
Maclear (1.8) 

[413] 

64r 

h. TO. S. 

8 11 42.78 
43.68 
43.39 
43.85 
43.66 
43.68 
43.69 
43.82 

1852.0. 

o 1 II 

4- 24 29 0.2 
2.7 
1.4 
5.4 
2.0 
3.1 
2.7 
3.7 
4 4 

7 52 38 

4-24 18 58.67 

Bessel 273 
RUmker 

(1.1) 
(1.1) 

[6] 

56 

h. m. s. 
7 53 31.44 
31.56 

1852.0. 

o / // 

4- 15 58 1.3 

1.4 

8 11 44 

4- 24 29 3.29 

7 53 31 

4- 15 58 ] .35 

Bessel 273 

(1.1) 
[3] 

65 

h. TO. s. 

8 11 51.45 
8 11 51 

1852.0. 
° / // 
4- 15 55 48.5 

-f i5 55 48.5 

Bessel 341 
Santiago 

(1.1) 
(15.15) 

[78] 

5T 

h. m. s. 
7 55 2.91 
3.29 

1852.0. 

o 1 II 

4-25 23.2 
20.8 

Santiago 
Washington 

(2.2) 
(2) 
[20] 

66 

h. in, s. 
8 13 9.72 

1852.0. 

o / // 

4-24 29 21.3 
23.7 

7 55 3 

4-25 20.89 

Lalande 1.5707 
Bessel 339, 341 
Greenwich 589 
Santiago 
Maclear 

(1.1) 
(2.2) 
(3.3) 
(6.6) 
(3) 
[67] 

58 

1 

h. m, s. 

7 55 15.43 
15.60 
15.48 
15.59 

1852.0. 

/ // 

4-24 55 6.9 
9,0 
10.8 
10.2 
10.1 

8 13 10 

4- 24 29 22.50 

Bessel 273 

(1.1) 
[3] 

67 

h. TO. s. 

8 14 58.99 

1852.0. 

/ // 

4- 15 44 33.5 

8 14 59 . 

4- 15 44 33.5 

7 55 15 

4-24 55 10.16 

Lalande 16477 
Begsel 344 
Santiago 
Washington 

(1.1) 
(1.1) 
(3.8) 
(2) 
[29] 

6S 

h. TO. s. 

8 16 5.82 
8.46 
8.37 

1852.0. 

/ // 

4- 24 25 7.7 
1.7 
5.9 
5.3 

Bessel 278,279 

(2.2) 
[6] 

59 

h. m. s. 
7 59 15.42 

7 59 15 

1852.0. 

o / // 

4-22 50 45.4 
4-22 50 45.4 

8 16 8 

4-24 25 5.32 

Bessel 341 
Santiago 

(1.1) 
(3.3) 

[18] 

60 

h. m. s. 
7 59 24.42 
24.13 

1852.0. 
° / // 
4-24 52 39.4 
42 3 

Lalande 16464 
Bessel 344 
Santiago 
Washington 

(1.1) 
(1.1) 
(2.2) 
(1) 
[19] 

69 

h. m. s. 

8 16 35.74 
35.65 
35.76 

1852.0. 

o / // 

4-24 1 30.3 
32.7 
31.9 
32.1 

7 59 24 

4-24 52 41.83 

Lalande 16068 

(1.1) 
[1] 

61 

h. TO. s. 

8 5 27.00 

1852.0. 
4-16 4 20.7 

8 16 38 

4-24 1 31.99 

Lalande 16582 
Bessel 278 

(1.1) 
(1.1) 

[4] 

70 

h. TO. s, 

8 19 29.34 
29.49 

1852.0. 

4-21 38 19.6 
14.7 

8 5 27 

4-16 4 20.7 

Bessel 341 
Santiago 

(l.l) 
(6.6) 

[33] 

6i 

h. m. s, 
8 6 15.64 
16.01 

1852.0. 

/ // 

4-24 47 1.2 
0.1 

8 19 26 

4-21 38 15.92 

Santiago 

(4.4) 
[20] 

71 

h. m. s. 
8 19 47.03 

1852.0. 
4- 24 9 40.5 

8 6 16 

4-24 47 0.20 

Lalande 16236 
Bessel 278 

(1.1) 
(1.1) 

[4] 

63 

h. TO. s. 

8 10 14.53 
14.30 

1852.0. 

o / // 

4-21 57 0.6 
57 3.8 

8 19 47 

4- 24 9 40.5 

Santiago 

(3.3) 
[15] 

73 

h. TO. s. 
8 19 49.74 

1852.0. 
4-24 19 43.1 

8 10 14 

4-21 57 3.00 

8 19 50 

4-24 19 43.1 


Hosted by 


Google 


COMPARISON-STARS. 
Final List of Star-Positions — Continued. 


CXXVll 


73 


Santiago (2.2) 

[10] 


1852.0. 
h, m. s. o / // 

8 20 54.98 4-24 5 30.9 


8 20 55 -f 24 5 30.9 


Lalande 166 (1.1) 

[1] 


'J'* 1852.0. 

h. m. s. o / /, 

8 21 43.73 +21 20 54.3 


8 21 44 -j-21 20 54.3 


Bessel 273 (1.1) 

RUmker A. N. VIII, 13 (1.1) 

[6] 


75 1852.0. 

h. m. s. o I II 

8 24 24.81 4- 15 46 19.4 
24.81 20.9 


i 25 +15 46 20.15 


76 


Bessel 273 (1.1) 

[3] 


1852.0. 

h. m. s. o / // 

8 26 58.52 + 16 14 7.8 


8 26 59 + 16 14 7.8 


Santiago 


(3.3) 


77 1852.0. 

h. m. s. o / // 

8 27 31.61 +23 58 5.5 


[15] 


8 27 32 +23 58 5.5 


Santiago 


78 1852.0. 

h. m. s. ' I n 

8 28 2.93 +23 34 17.2 


(3.3) 


[15] 


1 28 3 +23 34 17.2 


Bessel 344 (1.1) 

Santiago (3.3) 

Washington (1) 

[23] 


79 1852.0. 

k. m. s. o / // 

8 28 14.72 +23 45 40.6 
14.64 37.9 

36.6 


8 28 15 +23 45 37.97 


Santiago (3.3) 

Washington (1) 

[20] 


80 1852.0. 

k. m, s. Of // 

8 30 11.69 +23 24 21.1 
22.5 
8 30 12 +23 24 21.45 


Lalande 17013 (1.1) 

Piazzi VIII, 121 (4.4) 

RiimkerA N. VIII, 19 (1.1) 

[8] 


81 1852.0. 

h. m. s. o / // 

8 31 11.55 +20 36 11.6 

11.09 12.8 

11.49 11.7 

8 31 11 + 20 36 12.24 


Santiago 


83 h. 


1852.0. 


(3.3) 


[15] 


8 31 40.84 +23 16 11.8 
8 31 41 + 23 16 11~ 


Bessel 274 (1.1) 

RUmker 2613 (1.1) 

Hamburg A. N. 1016 (3.3) 

[21] 


83 1852.0. 

h. m. s. o / / 

8 32 25.23 + 18 46 12.9 
25.02 15.3 

25.51 14.8 

8 32 25 + 18 46 14.60 


Bessel 274 


[3] 

1,1) 

84 

h. m. s. 
8 32 35.87 

1852.0. 

o / // 

+ 19 43.0 


8 32 36 

+ 19 43.0 

Bessel 278, 

Santiago 

Washingto 

344 
n 

[26. 

(2.2) 
(2.2) 
(2) 

85 

h. m. s. 
8 35 6.84 
6.61 

1852.0. 

1 II 

+ 23 14 31.6 
31.3 
32.0 


8 35 7 

+ 23 14 31.64 

Bessel 274 


[3] 

(1.1) 

8 

h. m. s. 
8 39 24.80 

1852.0. 
+ 18 35 42.7 


8 39 25 

+ 18 35 42.7 

Bessel 344 
Santiago 

• 

[13] 

(1.1) 
(2.2) 

87 

h. m. s. 
8 40 18.10 
17.65 

1852.0. 

+ 22 44 41.3 
42.3 


8 40 18 

+ 22 44 42.07 

Bessel 278 
Santiago 


i 

[23] 

(1.1) 
(4.4) 

88 

h. m. s. 

8 44 14.84 
15.23 

1852.0. 
° / // 
+ 22 33 34.7 
33.6 


8 44 15 

+ 22 33 33.74 

Lalande 17^ 
Bessel 278, 
Greenwich 
Santiago 

)13 
345 
340 

[52] 

(1.1) 
(2.2) 
(6.6) 
(3.3) 

89 

h. m. s. 

8 45 28.00 
28.02 
27.95 
27.91 

1852.0. 

o / ,/ 

+ 22 51 38.5 
38.0 
37.6 

38.7 


8 45 28 

+ 22 51 37.98 





90 

h. m. s. 

1852.0. 

° 1 II 


Bessel 278 (1.1) 

Santiago (3.3) 

Washington (2) 

[28] 


Bessel 278 (1.1) 

Santiago (4.4) 

Washington (1) 

Konigsberg A. N. 294 (13.13) 
Dorpat A. N. 303 (6.5) 

[95] 


8 45 57.84 +22 22 45.2 
58.07 44.3 

45.7 


i 45 58 +22 22 44.90 


^1 1852.0. 

h. m, s. o I II 

8 47 28.12 +22 15 15.0 

26.09 15.3 

16.1 

26.04 16.9 

26.06 (20.5) 


8 47 26 +22 15 16.45 


Bessel 278 (1.1) 

Santiago (3.3) 

Dorpat A. N. 303 (2.2) 

[28] 


1852.0. 
h. m. s. o ; // 

8 47 32.84 + 22 8 46.3 

32.71 46.8 

32.41 47.7 


8 47 33 +22 8 47.07 


Bessel 278 (l.l) 

Twelve-Year 789 (5.6) 

Greenwich 645 (4 4) 

Santiago (2.2) 

[63] 


93 1852.0. 

h. m. s. o / // 

8 48 54.49 + 21 54 57.4 

54.40 57.3 

54.48 58.2 

54.43 58.7 


8 48 54 +2154 57.81 


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CXXVlll 


COMPARISON-STARS. 
Final List of Star-Positions — Continued. 


Lalande 17690 (1.1) 
Bessel 278 (1.1) 
Twelve-Year 795 (5.6) 
Santiago (6.6) 
Washington (1) 
[69] 

94 

h. m. s. 

8 50 25.94 
25.60 
25.52 
25.60 

1852.0. 

o 1 II 

-f- 21 44 17.9 
15.4 
13.7 
12.8 
13.8 

Bessel 275 
Santiago 

(1.1) 
(2.2) 

[10] 

103 

h, m. s. 
9 7 22.07 
22.38 

1851.0. 

o / // 

+ 19 51(42.8) 
45.7 

9 7 22 

+ 19 51 45.7 

RUmker 2799 
Santiago 

(1.1) 
(2.2) 

[13] 

104r 

h. m. s. 

9 7 36.85 
37.01 

1851.0. 

o / // 

+ 20 41 22.1 
24.2 

8 50 26 

4-21 44 13.45 

Bessel 278 (1.1) 
Santiago (3.3) 
Washington (1) 
[23] 

95 

h. m. s. 
8 52 12.29 
13.18 

1852.0. 

/ // 

+ 22 2 30.6 
29.7 
27.1 

9 7 37 

+ 20 41 23.72 

RUmker 2800 
Santiago 

(1.1) 
(3.3) 

[18] 

105 

h. m. s. 
9 7 39.29 
39.52 

1851.0. 

o / // 

+ ^0 28 1.5 
27 59.6 

8 52 13 

-j- 22 2 29.25 

Bessel 278 (1.1) 
Santiago (3.3) 
Washington (2) 

[28] 

96 

h. m. s. 
8 53 47.48 
.47.20 
. . . .♦ 

1852.0. 

o / // 

+ 21 34 9.5 
8.1 
8.9 

9 7 39 

+ 20 27 59.92 

Bessel 275 
Santiago 

(1.1) 
(2.2) 

[10] 

106 

h. m. s. 
9 8 10.57 
10.96 

1851.0. 

/ // 

+ 19 52(22.3) 
26.2 

8 53 47 

+ 21 34 8.54 

Lalande 17937 (1.1) 
Bessel (275), 278 (2.1) 
Santiago (5.5) 
Washington (2) 
[36] 

97 

h. m. s. 

8 58 16.44 
16.32 
16.46 

1852.0. 

o / // 

+ 21 6 21.5 

(24.4) 
22.7 
23 4 

9 8 11 

+ 19 52 26.2 

Santiago 
Washington 

(4.4) 
(1) 
[25] 

107 

h. m. s. 
9 8 11.21 

1851.0. 

o / // 

+ 20 15 48.4 
49.6 

8 58 16 

+ 21 6 22.86 

9 8 11 

+ 20 15 48.64 

Bessel 278 (1.1) 
Santiago (3.3) 
Washington (2) 
[28] 

98 

h. m. s. 

8 59 27.25 
27.31 

1852.0. 

o / // 

+ 21 29 20.6 
20.7 
23.4 

Bessel 275 

Santiago 

Washington 

(1.1) 
(3.3) 
(2) 
[25] 

108 

h. m. s. 
9 10 18.62 
18.37 

1851.0. 

o / // 

+ 20 2(35.1) 
39.2 
40.5 

8 59 27 

+ 21 29 21.65 

9 10 18 

+ 20 2 39.72 

Bessel 277,278 (2.2) 
Santiago (2.2) 
[16] 

99 

h. m. s. 
9 3 20.29 
20.26 

1852.0. 

/ // 

+ 20 57 20.4 
22.0 

Piazzi IX, 50 
Taylor 4088 
RUmker 2830 
Santiago 
Washington 

(5.5) 
(4.4) 
(3.3) 
(2.2) 
(1) 
[41] 

109 

h. m. s. 

9 12 14.18 
14.61 
14.30 
14.29 

1851.0. 

/ // 

+ 19 43 3.4 
5.2 
3.6 
4.9 
6.8 

9 3 20 

+ 20 57 21.40 

Lalande 18105 (1.1) 
Bessel (275), 277, 278 (3.2) 
Greenwich 659 (3.3) 
Santiago (2.2) 
[32] 

100 

h. m. s. 

9 3 19.34 
19.67 
19.49 
19.79 

1852.0. 

o / // 

+ 21 148.8 
(45.6) 
48.4 
44.9 

9 12 14 

+ 19 43 4.75 

Lalande 30556 
Washington 

(1.1) 
(7) 
[36] 

110 

h. m. s. 
16 40 55.21 

1850.0. 

o / // 

— 26 28 28.8 
27.9 

9 3 20 

+ 21 146.79 

Lalande 18132 (1 .1) 
Bessel 278 (1.1) 
Twelve-Year 809 (5.6) 
Greenwich 661 (5.5) 
Santiago (3.3) 
Maclear (1.1) 
[79] 

101 

h. m. s. 

9 4 16.61 
16.49 
16.47 
16.43 
16.55 

1852.0. 

/ // 

+ 21 16 57.5 
53.3 
52.2 
51.1 
51.3 
51.7 

16 40 55 

— 26 28 27.92 

Argelander 
Washington 

(1,1) 
(4) 
[25] 

111 

h. m. s. 
16 42 56.13 

1850.0. 

o / // 

— 26 39 29.5 
30.9 

16 42 56 

— 26 39 30.62 

9 4 16 

+ 21 16 51.76 

Argelandci 
Washington 
Ann Arbor 

(3.3) 
(3) 
(1) 
[35] 

113 

h. m. s. 
16 49 11.81 

15 

1850.0. 

o / // 

— 21 52 19.3 
22.1 
21.0 

Bessel 275 (1-1) 
Santiago (3.3) 
Washington (1) 
[20] 

103 

h. m. s. 
9 4 23.04 
23.45 

1851.0. 

/ // 

+ 20 37(50.2) 
52.7 
53.7 

9 4 23 

+ 20 37 52.95 

16 49 12 

— 26 52 20.74 


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COMPARISON-STAES. 

Final List of Star- Positions — Continued. 


CXXIX 


Argelander (3.3) 

Washington (3) 

Ann Arbor (1) 

[35] 


113 1850.0. 

h. in. s. o I II 

16 50 4.99 —26 56 35.3 
35.7 
8 33.5 


16 50 5 


-26 56 35.21 


Lalande 30874 

Argelander 

Washington 


(1.1) 
(1.1) 
(4) 
[26] 


1850.0. 
h. in, s. o / // 

16 51 59.6 —27 1 12.1 

59.11 17.2 

18.1 


16 51 . 


-27 1 17.70 


Argelander (3.3) 

Washington (4) 

[35] 


115 1850.0. 

h. m. s. ° I n 

16 54 41.98 —26 59 41.4 
41.4 


16 54 42 


-26 59.41.4 


Argelaader (1.1) 

Washington (4) 

[25] 


116 1850.0. 

h. m. s. o I II 

16 59 44.18 —27 1148.4 

47.0 


16 59 44 


-27 11 47.28 


Argelander (3.3) 

Washington (4) 

[35] 


11*2' 1850.0. 

h. m, s. o / // 

17 7 7.73 —27 23 9.6 
8.1 


17 7 


-27 23 8.74 


PiazziXVII, 43 (14.15) 

Taylor 8004 (4.3) 

Argelander (1.1) 

Twelve-Year 1467 (5.4) 

Washington (4) 

[69] 


1851.0. 
h. m. s. oil, 

17 1113.18 —17 35 42.3 

13.34 41.5 

13.39 40.9 

13.03 44.6 

42.3 

17 11 13 _ 17 35 42/76" 


Washington 
Ann Arbor 


(5) 
(1) 


17 12 50 —27 50 53.0 

54 52.5 


[30] 


17 12 50 —27 50 52.92 


1^0 1850.0. 

h. m. s. o / I, 

Argelander (2.2) 17 13 22.27 -27 31 24.2 

Washington (4) 24 g 

Ann Arbor (1) 25 24.9 


[35] 


17 13 22 —27 31 24.64 


Washington 
Ann Arbor 


(1) 
(1) 


1850.0. 
h. m. s. o / // 

17 13 51 —27 49 2.2 

54 3.1 


1 10] 


17 13 51 


-27 49 2.65 


Lalande 31543 (1.1) 

PiazziXVII, 63 (13.8) 
Washington (4) 

Ann Arbor (1) 

[34] 


133 1851.0. 

A. m. s. o I II 

17 13 55.45 —17 33 7.5 

55.18 9.8 


17 13 55 


■17 33 8.88 


Lalande 31791, 2 (2.2) 
Argelander (2.2) 

[12] 


133 1851.0. 

h. m. s. o / // 

17 21 17.78 —17 41 14.0 
17.73 12.1 


17 21 18 


•17 41 12.42 


134: 


Lalande 31931, 2 (2.2) 
Washington (5) 

[27] 


1851.0. 
h. m. s. o , II 

17 25 18.17 — 17 43 34.9 

32.5 


17 25 18 


- 17 43 32.68 


Lamont (2.1) 

Washington (4) 

Ann Arbor (1) 

[28] 


1850.0. 
h. m. s. Of II 

17 28 45.40 —27 56 58.5 
57.3 
48 57.0 


-27 56 57.38 


Argelander (1.1) 

Washington (3) 

[20] 


1851.0. 
h. m, s. o f II 

17 32 1.30 —17 59 52.4 

52.0 


17 32 1 —17 59 52.10 


127 


Lalande 32426 (1.1) 

PlazziXVII, 221 (8.9) 
Taylor 8219 


Argelander 
Washington 


(3.3) 
(2.2) 
(6) 


h. m. s. 

17 38 44.31 

44.23 

44.37 

44.48 


1851.0. 
° I n 
-18 2 47.2 
44.1 
44.6 
45.2 
42.2 


[59] 


17 38 44 — 18 2 43.45 


Washington (4) 

Ann Arbor (1) 

[ 


138 • 1850.0. 

h. m. s, 
17 43 52 
56 


/ // 

54.6 

54.0 


17 43 52 —28 54.48 


Lalande 32706 (1.1) 

Argelander (2.2) 

Washington (4) 

[31] 


139 1851.0. 

h. m. s. o / // 

17 46 22.86 —18 15 24.1 

22.57 29.1 

27.8 


17 46 23 


-18 15 28.10 


1850.0. 


Lalande 32727 
Washington 

(1.1) 
(4) 
[21] 


h. m. s. 
17 47 13.77 

1 II 

— 28 2 3.7 
5.5 


17 47 14 

— 28 2 5.41 

Washington 

(4) 
[20] 

131 

h. m. s. 

17 52 24 

1850.0. 

o / // 

— 27 51 58.2 


17 53 24 

— 27 51 58.2 

Lalande 32974 
Lamont 
Washington 
Ann Arbor 

(1.1) 
(1) 
(4) 
(1) 
[26] 

133 

h, m. s. 
17 53 27.86 

27.48 

30 

1850.0. 

° 1 II 
— 27 49 10.4 

10.4 
11.3 


17 53 28 

— 27 49 10.57 


SO 


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cxxx 


COMPARISON-STARS. 
Final List of Star- Positions — Continued. 


Argelander 
Washington 

(1.1) 

(4) 
[25] 

133 

li. 7)1. S. 

17 55 54.16 

1850.0, 

o / // 

— 27 50 11.9 

8.8 

Lalande 33598 (1.1) 
Mtona, .^i^r. 149 (2.1) 
Argelander (4.4) 
Washington C3) 

[36] 

14^1 

h. m. s. 
18 9 5.85 

5.54 
5.49 

1851.0. 

— 18 50 47.3 
(53.2) 
49.6 

47.4 

17 55 54 

— 27 50 9.42 

18 9 5 

— 18 50 48.62 

Washington 
Ann Arbor 

(4) 
(1) 
[25] 

134: 

h. m, s. 
17 59 6 
2 

1850.0. 

o / // 

— 27 39 25.4 
25.6 

Washington 

(3) 
[15] 

14:3 

h. m. s. 
18 9 30 

1850.0. 

o / // 

— 25 59 9.6 

18 9 30 

— 25 59 9.6 

17 59 6 

— 27 39 25.44 

Lamont 

Wrottesley 
Wasiiington 
Ann Arbor 

(4.1) 
(5) 
(3) 
(1) 
[23] 

14^3 

h. tn. s. 
18 11 53.64 
53.36 

53 

1850.0. 
° 1 II 
— 26 8 43.2 

42.4 
43.9 

Lalande 33214 

Argelander 

Washington 

(1.1) 
(1.1) 
(4) 
[25] 

135 

h. m. s. 
17 59 50.16 
50.52 

1850.0. 

o / // 

— 27 44(53.7) 

45 1.7 

1.5 

18 11 53 

— 26 8 42.83 

1/ 59 50 

— 27 45 1.54 

Lalande 33748 (1.1) 
Altona.SiV^., 149 (3.2) 
Lamont (2.1) 
Washington (3) 

[29] 

14:4: 

h. m. s. 
18 12 37.55 
37.16 
36.76 

1851.0. 

/ // 

— 18 55 14.7 
19.0 
18.4 
14.1 

Lalande 33394 

Argelander 

Washington 

(1.1) 
(3.3) 
(4) 
[36] 

136 

h. TO. s. 

18 4 7.34 
7.37 

1850.0. 

o 1 II 

— 25 10 43,6 
54.0 
53.0 

18 12 37 

— 18 55 16.26 

18 4 7 

— 25 10 53.16 

Piazzi XVIII, 41 (4.4) 
Taylor 8458 (3.4) 
Washington (4) 

[36] 

14^5 

h. ?n. s. 
18 13 0.66 
0.98 

1850.0. 

o / // 

— 26 28 46.4 
49.8 

48.7 

Lalande 33427, 

Lamont 

Washington 

8 (2.2) 

(4) 

[22] 

13T 

h. m. s. 
18 4 45.71 
45.94 

1850.0. 

/ // 

— 27 32 5.3 
8.9 

18 13 1 

— 26 28 48.81 

18 4 46 

— 27 32 8.57 

Lalande 33855 

Argelander 

Washington 

(1.1) 
(1.1) 
(5) 

[31] 

146 

h. m. s. 
18 15 19.59 
19.17 

1850.0. 

o / // 

— 26 33 49.9 
51.2 
54.1 

Argelander 
Washington 

(2.2) 
(3) 
[25] 

138 

h, m. s. 
18 6 40.46 

1850.0. 

o / // 

— 25 45 4.0 
6.5 

18 15 19 

— 26 33 53.50 

18 6 40 

— 25 45 5.50 

Lalande 33989 

Lamont 

Argelander 

Wrottesley 

Washington 

(1.1) 
(4.2) 

(1.1) 
(5) 
(6) 
[42] 

14:9^ 

h. m. s. 

18 18 22.92 

22.75 

22.86 

22.50 

1850.0. 

o / // 

— 26 42 58.8 
43 0.0 

42 58.8 

43 1.0 

Washington 
Ann Arbor 

(3) 
(1) 
[20] 

139 

h. TO. S. 

18 7 

1 

1850.0. 

o / // 

— 27 27 19.0 
20.9 

18 7 1 

— 27 27 19.48 

18 18 23 

— 26 43 0.54 

Piazzi XVin, 
Taylor 8533 
Argelander 
Washington 

95 (14.10) 
(3.4) 
(3.3) 
(4) 
[57] 

14:8 

h. TO. s, 
18 23 42.99 
43.16 
42.99 

1851.0. 

o / // 

— 19 4 24.2 
24.1 
24.0 
23.8 

Piazzi XVIII, 

Taylor 8347 
Washington 

24 (44.31) 
(5.4) 
(4) 
[63] 

140 

h. m. s. 
18 8 39.86 
40.00 

1850.0. 

o / // 

— 27 5 25.2 
28.2 
26.8 

18 8 40 

— 27 5 26.28 

18 23 43 

— 19 4 23.99 


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COMPAKISON-STARS. 


CXXXl 


A few of these stars exhibit indications of a proper motion, which, although hardly marked 
enough to warrant the adoption of any theory upon the subject, yet render it proper to intro- 
duce into the ultimate determination from the data at command a term dependent upon the 
time. This has been done for four stars, viz: N^^- 12, 94, 101, and 1 i9 ; and the redetermi- 
nation of these upon the hypothesis of a proper motion gives the following results. The second 
column shows the place as given by the observer, after reduction to the mean equinox of the 
epoch; and the third contains this observed place as reduced to the scale of the standard 
observer. The remaining two give the assumed place and the residual discordance, upon the 
supposition of a proper motion : 


Lalande 
Piazzi . 
Taylor . . 
Twelve- Year 
Maclear 
Greenwieii . 


12. 


Observed. 


-f25 55 44.3 
46.8 
45.5 
46.1 
46.2 
46.6 


Reduced. 


41.5 
44.0 
44.2 
45.7 
45.6 
46.6 


Computed, 


42.6 
43.2 
45.1 
45.5 
45.9 
46.1 


C— O. 


+1.1 
-0.8 
+0.9 
—0.2 
+0.3 
—0.5 


The mean by weights is +25° 55' 45'/.38 ; but the assumption of a 
proper motion of +0//.055 gives +25° 55' 45'/. 84, which has been 
adopted. 


Lalande 
Bessel . . 
Twelve- Year 
Maclear 


Greenwich , 


101. 


Observed. 


+21 16 60.4 
53.3 
52.7 
53.0 
51.3 
51.1 


Reduced. Computed. 


57.5 
53.3 
52.2 
51.7 
51.3 
51.1 


56.9 
53.7 
52.5 
51.2 
51.2 
51.2 


C-O. 


—0.6 
+0.4 
+0.3 
-0.5 
—0.1 
+0.1 


The mean by weights is +21° 16' 51". 76; but the assumption of- a 
proper motion of — 0//.092 gives +21° 16' 51". 22, which has been 
adopted. 


Lalande 
Bessel . . 
Twelve- Year 
Santiago 
Washington 


94. 


Observed. 


+21 44 20.8 
15.4 
14.1 
12.8 
14.0 


Reduced. iComputed, 


17.9 
15.4 
13.7 
12.8 
13.8 


18.1 
15.3 
14.3 
13.1 
12.8 


+0.2 
—0.1 
+0.6 
+0.3 
— LO 


The mean by weights is +21° AV 13". 45; but the assumption of a 
proper motion of — 0".080 gives +21° 44' 13". 14, which has been 
adopted. 


Piazzi . . 
Taylor . . 
Riimker 
Santiago 
Washington 


109. 


Observed. Reduced. Computed C— O 


+19 43 6.7 
6.5 
4.3 
5.0 
7.0 


3.4 
5.2 
3.6 
4.9 


3.1 

4.8 
4.8 
5.5 
5.7 


—0.3 
-0.4 
+1.2 
+0.6 
—1.1 


The mean by weights is +19° 43' 4". 75; but the assumption of a 
proper motion of +0".037 gives +19° 43' 5". 50, which has been 
adopted. 


Fourteen of our 148 stars are to be found in the Catalogue of the British Association, viz : 


No. 

No. B.A.C. 

No. 

No. B.A.C. 

No. 

NO. B.A.C. 

1 

1562 

64 

2729 

140 

6194 

12 

1896 

109 

3181 

143 

6214 

21 

205$ 

118 

6839 

147 

6261 

35 

2194 

125 

5946 

148 

6301 

61 

2639 

130 

6063 




To eight of these stars a proper motion is assigned in the British Association Catalogue. It 
seems probable, however, only for two of these eight, and has in each case the contrary sign 
to those deduced above. For N^- 12, it is given as certainly not existing. 

The discrepance is generally great, amounting in one case to 2'- in right-ascension, and 
20'^7 in declination. The average of the discordances in declination is 5.^^58, and the square 
root of the mean of the squares is 8. '"I. 


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CXXXll 


COMPARISON-STARS. 


If we include in this examination tliose stars hereafter cited, which were observed with 3Iar8 
on the meridian, although not strictly comparison-stars, we find that all but one of these 
eighteen are also in ^he Catalogue of the British Association. The catalogue places of these 
thirty-one stars are here annexed. 

Comparison- Stars from British Association Catalogue. 






Mean place for beginning of year. 





Mean place for beginning of year. 

N". 

N°.B.A.C. 

Mag, 

Year. 



N°. 

N°.B.A.C. 

Mag. 

Year. 



' ■ 








a. 

d. 





a. 

d. 





h. m. s. 

/ // 





h. m. s. 

o / // 

1 

1562 

7 

1850 

4 56 36.56 

4-26 13 12.1 

64 

2789 

6 

1852 

8 11 43.71 

4-24 29 4.1 

a 

1648 

H 

1850 

5 11 34.46 

27 47 58.4 

m 

2818 

7 

1852 

8 17 51.24 

25 54.8 

b 

1681 

2 

1850 

5 16 48.79 

28 28 32.6 

n 

2833 

6i 

1852 

8 19 49.89 

24 37 55.1 

c 

1707 

7 

1850 

5 20 2.62 

25 1 20.7 



2850 

6 

1852 

8 22 45.07 

24 34 31.8 

d 

1754 

7 

1850 

5 27 47.03 

26 49 34.4 

P 

2864 

7 

1852 

8 24 14.72 

24 35 2.6 

e 

1778 

6 

1849 

5 30 22.91 

25 48 22.9 

<! 

2937 

^ 

1852 

8 34 42.94 

21 59 52.6 

12 

1896 

5i 

1849 

5 48 37.63 

25 55 46.9 

r 

3017 

^ 

1852 

8 45 27.01 

20 31 24.1 

f 

1937 

7 

1850 

5 54 56.05 

25 26 36.0 

109 

3181 

^ 

1851 

9 12 14.52 

4-19 43 1.8 

g 

1981 

6 

1949 

6 2 16.64 

24 26 50.8 

118 

5839 

6i 

1851 

17 11 13.11 

—17 35 42.5 

21 

2058 

7 

1849 

6 15 25.51 

25 7 16.5 

125 

5946 

7 

1850 

17 28 47.02 

27 57 18.1 

35 

2194 

3 

1849 

6 34 38.46 

25 16 30.2 

130 

6063 

6i 

1850 

17 47 14.76 

28 2 13.6 

A 

2555 

2 

1852 

7 36 15.34 

28 22 45.1 

140 

6194 

5^ 

1850 

18 8 39.99 

27 5 29.8 

i 

2578 

7 

1852 

7 39 42.35 

23 30 14.8 

143 

6214 

7 

1850 

18 11 54.29 

26 8 28.0 

k 

2613 

H 

1852 

7 44 13.53 

22 42 45.5 

147 

6261 

7 

1850 

18 18 22.77 

26 42 50.5 

51 
I 

2639 
2703 

6 

7 

1852 
1852 

7 48 35.12 
7 57 49.33 

16 10 57.4 
4-22 52 39.9 

148 

6301 

7 

1851 

18 23 42.96 

—19 4 24.2 


Comparing these thirty-one declinations with the values here determined, and assuming the 
latter to be correct, we find — 

The average discordance, d = 4'^06, 
The mean error, e =z: zb 6^M5 ; 
or, excluding those stars whose places depend upon Lacaille, 

e = ± 3^\50. 
Lacaille's positions have not been employed, inasmuch as, after careful examination, they 
seemed unlikely to add to the precision of the results. 

The following General Catalogue of Comparison-Stars presents the adopted mean places for 
the beginning of the year of observation, together with the annual precessions and the constants 
for reduction to apparent places. 


Hosted by 


Google 


GENERAL CATALOGUE 


OF 


COMPARISON STARS. 


Hosted by 


Google 


CXXXIV 


COMPARISON-STARS. 


General Catalogue of Comparison- Stars , 


No. 

Mag. 

Year. 

«. 

Ann. Prec. 

a. 

6. 

C. 

d. 




h. m. s. 

s. 





1 

7.8 

1850 

4 56 37 

+3.706 

9.4834 

0.0303 

1,7449 

9.1286 

2 

8 

1850 

5 3 5 

3.712 

9.4379 

0,0338 

1.7458 

9.0840 

3 

9 

1850 

5 10 29 

3.712 

9.3779 

0.0365 

1.7456 

9.0212 

4 

8.9 

1850 

5 17 48 

3.725 

9.3107 

0.0406 

1.7473 

8.9593 

5 

9 

1850 

5 21 43 

3.728 

9.2689 

0.0419 

1.7476 

8.9178 

6 

8 

1849 

5 22 32 

3.731 

9.2600 

0.0426 

1.7480 

8.9106 

7 

9 

1849 

5 25 40 

3.730 

9.2219 

0.0431 

1,7478 

8.8707 

8 

7 

1849 

5 29 33 

3.733 

9.1704 

0.0444 

1.7482 

8.8203 

9 

9 

1849 

5 32 12 

3.734 

9.1311 

0.0451 

1.7482 

8.7811 

10 

8| 

1849 

5 44 35 

3.734 

8.8752 

0,0465 

1.7482 

8.5230 

11 

9 

1849 

5 46 15 

3,736 

8.8259 

0.0472 

1.7485 

8,4746 

12 

5i 

1849 

5 48 38 

3.721 

8.7414 

0.0456 

1.7467 

8.3821 

13 


1849 

5 54 4 

3.732 

8.4604 

0.0472 

1.7480 

8.1065 

14 

8.9 

1849 

5 54 28 

3.734 

8.4304 

0.0475 

1.7482 

8.0776 

15 

8 

1849 

6 1 31 

3.725 

w7.867] 

0.0465 

1.7472 

7x7.5095 

16 

9 

1849 

6 2 22 

3.724 

718.0603 

0.0464 

1.7471 

7x7.7023 

17 

8 

1849 

6 6 5 

3.706 

718.4680 

0.0439 

1.7450 

7x8.1008 

18 

9^ 

1849 

6 7 35 

3.710 

n8.5642 

0.0444 

1,7455 

7x8.1988 

19 

9 

1849 

6 9 26 

3.711 

7x8.6592 

0.0444 

1.7456 

7x8.2945 

20 

9 

1849 

6 11 32 

3.716 

7Z8.7470 

0,0449 

1.7462 

7x8.3852 

21 

7 

1849 

6 15 26 

3.697 

7x8.8711 

0.0422 

1.7440 

7x8,4990 

22 

9 

1849 

6 16 47 

3.710 

7x8.9092 

0.0437 

1.7455 

7x8 5446 

23 

9 

1849 

6 17 59 

3.710 

718.9386 

0.0430 

1.7454 

7x8.5719 

24 

9 

1849 

6 18 45 

3.675 

7x8.9528 

0.0390 

1.7413 

7x8.5679 

25 

8i 

1849 

6 19 25 

3.713 

7x8.9724 

0.0437 

1.7458 

7x8.6096 

26 

9 

1849 

6 21 2 

3.700 

7i9.0057 

0.0417 

1.7442 

7x8.6355 

27 

9 

1849 

6 21 11 

3.715 

7^9.0104 

0.0437 

1.7460 

7x8.6487 

28 

% 

1849 

6 21 36 

3.707 

7x9.0182 

0,0428 

1.7452 

7x8.6525 

29 


1849 

6 25 27 

3.707 

7x9.0893 

0,0420 

1,7451 

73 8.7242 

30 

8.9 

1849 

6 25 44 

3.692 

7x9.0922 

0.0401 

1,7434 

718.7187 

31 

9 

1849 

6 25 47 

3.684 

7x9.0921 

0.0391 

1.7424 

7x8.7138 

32 

9 

1849 

6 27 21 

3.678 

7x9,1171 

0.0380 

1,7417 

7x8.7356 

33 

9 

1849 

6 27 53 

3.677 

7x9.1251 

0.0378 

1.7416 

7x8.7431 

34 

9 

1849 

6 28 46 

3.689 

7x9.1401 

0.0391 

1.7430 

7x8.7654 

35 

3i 

1849 

6 34 38 

3.696 

7x9.2214 

0.0387 

1.7438 

7x8.8517 

36 

9 

1852 

7 26 52 

3.410 

719.5838 

9.9836 

1.7089 

7x9.0038 

37 

8.9 

1852 

7 29 28 

3.413 

7x9.5963 

9.9819 

1.7092 

7x9.0208 

38 


1852 

7 29 29 

3.395 

7x9.5948 

9.9804 

1.7070 

7x8.9984 

39 

9.10 

1852 

7 30 38 

3.400 

7x9.6006 

9.9800 

1.7076 

7x9.0105 

40 

8 

1852 

7 30 58 

3.397 

7x9.6019 

9.9795 

1.7072 

7x9.0090 

41 

8 

1852 

7 32 44 

3.417 

7x9.6116 

9.9799 

1.7097 

7x9.0432 

42 


1852 

7 33 42 

3.391 

7x9.6138 

9.9768 

1.7064 

7x9.0139 

43 

9 

1852 

7 33 49 

3.419 

7x9.6167 

9.9793 

1.7100 

7x9.0524 

44 


1852 

7 38 58 

3.464 

7x9.6432 

9.9797 

1.7156 

7x9.1305 

45 

8 

1852 

7 41 52 

3.613 

719.6732 

9.9954 

1.7340 

7x9.2852 

46 


1852 

7 44 53 

3.415 

7x9.6624 

9.9700 

1.7095 

7x9.1020 

47 


1852 

7 46 36 

3.623 

7x9.6936 

9.9931 

1.7351 

7x9.3154 

48 


1852 

7 46 57 

3.619 

7x9.6944 

9.9923 

1.7347 

7x9.3140 

49 

8 

1852 

7 47 6 

3.630 

7x9.6966 

9.9936 

1.7360 

7x9.3233 

50 

7.8 

1852 

7 47 15 

3.603 

7x9.6936 

9.9899 

1.7328 

7x9.3030 

51 

6 

1852 

7 48 35 

3.417 

7x9.6768 

9.9669 

1.7097 

7x9.1219 

52 

9 

1852 

7 48 38 

3.464 

7x9.7018 

9.9916 

1.7353 

7x9.3261 

53 


1852 

7 50 53 

3.588 

7x9.7055 

9.9849 

1.7310 

7x9.3076 

54 

9 

1852 

7 50 59 

3.610 

7x9.7089 

9,9878 

1.7336 

7x9.3262 

55 

8 

1852 

7 52 38 

3.605 

7x9.7143 

9.9856 

1.7329 

719.3289 

56 

9 

1852 

7 53 31 

3.408 

7x9.6941 

9.9615 

1.7086 

7x9.1336 

57 

9 

1852 

7 55 3 

3.619 

7x9.7251 

9.9856 

1.7346 

7x9.3511 

58 

8.9 

1852 

7 55 15 

3.616 

7x9,7255 

9.9850 

1.7343 

7x9.3501 

59 

9 

1852 

7 59 15 

3.561 

7x9.7320 

9.9738 

1.7276 

7x9.3211 

60 

9 

1852 

7 59 24 

3.610 

7x9.7393 

9.9805 

1.7335 

7x9.3632 

61 


1852 

8 5 27 

3.401 

7x9.7337 

9.9487 

1.7076 

7x9.1759 

62 

9 

1852 

8 6 16 

4-3.598 

7x9.7609 

9,9724 

1.7321 

7x9.3833 


Hosted by 


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COMPARISON-STARS. 


CXKXV 


General Catalogue of Comparison- Stars. 



No. 

d. 

Ann. Pi'ec. 

a^ 

V, 

c^ 

d'. 

Weight. 


1 

1 II 

+96 13 6.03 

// 
+5.48 

n8.5527 

9.0815 

0.7385 

7x9.9832 

70 


2 

26 16 19.35 

4.93 

n8.6014 

9.0366 

0.6928 

7x9.9865 

88 


3 

26 5 48.82 

4.30 

718.6111 

8.9745 

0.6334 

7x9.9898 

68 


4 

26 26 53.81 

3.67 

W8.6921 

8.9113 

0.5649 

7x9.9926 

73 


5 

26 27 46.61 

3.34 

n8.7067 

8.8698 

0.5231 

7x9.9939 

68 


6 

26 34 5.9 

3.26 

?i8.7256 

8.8621 

0.5138 

7x9.9942 

3 


7 

26 27 2.6 

2.99 

n8.7153 

8.8227 

0.4762 

7x9.9951 

3 


8 

26 31 27.44 

2.66 

n8.7353 

8.7720 

0.4244 

7x9.9962 

118 


9 

26 31 51.78 

2.43 

n8.7414 

8.7328 

0.3850 

7x9.9968 

76 


10 

26 23 1.41 

1.35 

n8.7371 

8. 4752 

0.1297 

7x9.9990 

31 


11 

26 26 46.55 

1.20 

W8.7485 

8.4266 

0.0801 

7x9.9992 

78 


12 

25 55 45.84 

0.99 

n8.6672 

8.3360 

9.9975 

7x9.9995 

76 


13 

26 16 30.31 

0.51 

7i8.7190 

8.0522 

9.7158 

7x9.9998 

83 


14 

26 21 0.09 

+0.48 

«8.7392 

8.0300 

9.6850 

7x9.9999 

76 


15 

26 2 16.10 

—0.13 

7i8.6905 

7x7.4630 

7x9. 1229 

7x0.0000 

64 


16 

26 41.88 

0.21 

7x8.6860 

7x7.6559 

7x9.3162 

7x0.0000 

24 


17 

25 22 23.13 

0.53 

718.5594 

7x8.0559 

7x9.7262 

7x9.9998 

26 


18 

25 32 21.74 

0.66 

7x8.5948 

7x8.1542 

7x9.8218 

7x9. 9998 

24 


19 

25 35 2.20 

0.82 

7x8.6027 

7x8.2497 

7x9.9166 

7x9.9996 

12 


20 

25 45 46.25 

1.03 

7x8.6361 

7x8.3397 

7x0.0038 

7x9.9994 

18 


21 

25 7 20.05 

1.35 

7x8.4869 

7J8.4559 

7x0.1302 

7x9.9990 

58 


22 

25 35 24.84 

1.47 

7x8.5953 

7x8.4997 

7x0.1666 

7x9.9988 

14 


23 

25 27 23.6 

1.57 

7x8.5644 

7x8.5275 

7x0.1965 

7x9.9987 

3 


24 

24 20 31.0 

1.64 

7x8.1885 

7x8.5274 

7x0.2146 

7x9.9986 

3 


25 

25 42 33.04 

1.70 

7x8.6153 

7x8.5644 

7x0.2294 

7x9.9984 

25 


26 

25 14 26.91 

1.84 

7x8.5063 

7x8.5919 

7x0.2644 

7x9.9982 

13 


27 

25 ,46 40.55 

1.85 

7x8.6256 

7x8.6032 

7x0.2671 

7x9.9981 

11 


28 

26 31 16.25 

1.89 

W8.5719 

7x8.6079 

7x0,2759 

7x9.9981 

13 


29 

26 33 51.6 

2.22 

7x8.5714 

7x8.6795 

7x0.3469 

7x9.9973 

5 


30 

25 1 57.27 

2.25 

7x8.4360 

7x8.6759 

7x0.3516 

«9.9973 

9 


31 

24 44 44.57 

2.25 

7x8.3384 

7x8.6720 

7x0.3525 

7x9.9972 

6 


32 

24 32 49.08 

2.39 

7x8.2493 

7x8.6945 

. 7x0.3782 

7x9.9969 

8 


33 

24 31 4.75 

2.43 

7x8.2327 

7x8. 7021 

7x0.3863 

7x9.9968 

8 


34 

24 57 24.40 

2.51 

7x8.4010 

7x8.7228 

7x0.3998 

77,9.9966 

7 


35 

25 16 29.76 

3.02 

7x8.4725 

7x8.8080 

7x0.4799 

7x9. 9950 

320 


36 

15 15 1.4 

7.42 

9.2413 

7x8.9882 

7x0.8705 

7x9.9680 

3 


37 

15 24 42.2 

7.63 

9.2370 

7x9.0049 

7x0.8826 

7x9.9660 

6 


38 

14 40 6.9 

7.63 

9.2687 

7x8.9840 

7x0.8827 

7x9.9660 

3 


39 

14 53 36.6 

7.73 

9.2605 

7x8.9957 

7x0.8880 

7x9.9651 

3 


40 

14 47 39.1 

7.75 

9.2650 

7x8.9944 

7x0.8895 

7x9.9648 

3 


41 

15 40 22.0 

7.90 

9.2292 

7x9.0267 

7x0.8974 

7x9.9634 

6 


42 

14 33 0.80 

7.98 

9.2777 

7x8.9998 

7x0.9019 

7x9.9626 

7 


43 

15 49 51.1 

7.98 

9.2236 

7x9.0356 

7x0.9022 

7x9. 9626 

3 


44 

15 53 0.6 

8.39 

9.1274 

7x9.1090 

7x0.9240 

7x9.9582 

1 


45 

24 9 12.70 

8.62 

8.4238 

7x9.2454 

7x0.9357 

7x9.9556 

4 


^ 

15 58 40.4 

8.86 

9.2311 

7x9.0850 

7x0.9475 

7x9.9528 

1 


47 

24 44 50.72 

9.00 

8.3001 

7x9.2736 

7x0.9540 

7x9.9512 

16 


48 

24 36 48.54 

9.02 

8.3528 

7x9.2726 

7x0. 9552 

7x9.9509 

16 


49 

25 3 2.69 

9.04 

8.1795 

7x9.2804 

7x0.9.559 

7x9.9508 

58 


50 

24 37.9 

9.05 

8.5219 

7x9.2637 

7x0.9565 

7x9.9506 

3 


51 

16 10 52.60 

9.15 

9.2273 

7x9.1043 

7x0.9615 

7x9.9493 

53 


52 

24 54 11.22 

9.16 

8.2780 

7x9.2838 

7x0,9616 

7x9.9493 

31 


53 

23 34 50.1 

9.33 

8.6395 

7x9.2697 

7x0.9699 

7x9.9470 

1 


54 

24 28 27.13 

9.34 

8.4518 

7x9.2853 

7x0.9702 

7x9.9470 

18 


55 

24 18 58.67 

9.47 

8.5108 

7x9.2886 

7x0. 9762 

7x9.9453 

19 


56 

15 58 1.35 

9.53 

9.2435 

7x9.1165 

7x0.9793 

7x9.9444 

6 


57 

25 20.89 

9.65 

8.3565 

7x9.3084 

7x0.9845 

7X.9.9428 

78 


58 

24 55 10.16 

9.67 

8.3871 

7x9.3077 

nO.9853 

7x9.9426 

67 


59 

22 50 45.4 

9.97 

8.7996 

7x9.2856 

7x0,9987 

7x9.9384 

6 


60 

24 52 41.83 

9.98 

8.4594 

7x9.3210 

7x0.9992 

7x9.9382 

18 


61 

16 4 20.7 

10.44 

9,2567 

7x9.1586 

7x1.0186 

7x9,9314 

1 

. 

62 

+24 47 0.20 

—10.50 

8.5661 

7x9.3413 

7x1.0212 

7x9.9305 

33 


Hosted by 


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CXXXVl 


COMPARISON-STAES. 

General Catalogue of Comparison- Stars — Continued. 


No. 

Mag. 

Year. 

a. 

Ann. Prec. 

a. 

b. 

C. 

d. 




h. m, s. 

s. 





63 

8 

1852 

8 10 14 

^-3.534 

n9.7636 

9.9584 

1.7234 

719.3362 

64 

6.7 

1852 

8 11 44 

3.583 

n9.7762 

9.9648 

1.7303 

719.3937 

65 

9 

1852 

8 11 51 

3.392 

719.7527 

9.9408 

1.7065 

719.1912 

66 


1852 

8 13 10 

3.581 

7Z9.7804 

9.9631 

1.7301 

719.3980 

67 

8 

1852 

8 14 59 

3.375 

«9.7602 

9.9354 

1.7043 

719.1800 

68 

8 

1852 

8 16 8 

3.575 

719.7886 

9.9591 

1.7294 

719.4050 

69 

8.9 

1852 

8 16 36 

3.565 

719.7886 

9.9572 

1.7282 

7^9.3983 

70 

7 

1852 

8 19 29 

3.507 

n9.7889 

9.9458 

1.7210 

719.3556 

71 


1852 

8 19 47 

3.564 

719.7978 

9.9535 

1.7280 

719.4099 

72 


1852 

8 19 50 

3.. 567 

719.7986 

9.9540 

1.7284 

719.4134 

73 


18,52 

8 20 55 

3.560 

n9.8006 

9.9517 

1.7276 

719.4115 

74 


1852 

8 21 44 

3.498 

719.7941 

9.9419 

1.7199 

719.3552 

75 

7.8 

1852 

8 24 25 

3.377 

7i9.7870 

9.9241 

1.7046 

719.2212 

76 

8.9 

1852 

8 26 59 

3.381 

719.7943 

9.9212 

1.7052 

719.2378 

77 


1852 

8 27 32 

3.547 

719.8175 

9.9422 

1.7260 

719.4262 

78 


1852 

8 28 3 

3.538 

719.8174 

9.9401 

1.7248 

719.4194 

79 

9 

1852 

8 28 15 

3.541 

719.8186 

9.9404 

1.7253 

719.4238 

80 


1852 

8 30 12 

3.530 

719.8224 

9.9364 

1.7239 

719.4214 

81 

8 

1852 

8 31 11 

3.469 

7i9.8161 

9.9264 

1.7163 

719.3625 

82 


1852 

8 31 41 

3.525 

719.8255 

9.9338 

1.7233 

719.4222 

83 

9 

1853 

8 32 25 

3.429 

719.8141 

9.9196 

1.7113 

729.3216 

84 

9 

1852 

8 32 36 

3.434 

719.8152 

9.9200 

1.7119 

719.3280 

85 

8.9 

1852 

8 35 7 

3.519 

719.8336 

9.9286 

1.7226 

719.4297 

86 

9 

1852 

8 39 25 

3.417 

719.8300 

9.9085 

1.7098 

719.3336 

87 

9 

1852 

8 40 18 

3.493 

719.8439 

9.9189 

1.7192 

719.4312 

88 

9 

1852 

8 44 15 

3.491 

719.8520 

9.9119 

1.7190 

719.4360 

89 

8.9 

1852 

8 45 28 

3.495 

719.8556 

9.9109 

1.7195 

719.4450 

90 

8 

1852 

8 45 58 

3.484 

719.8552 

9.9085 

1.7182 

719.4358 

91 

8 

1852 

8 47 26 

3.479 

719.8579 

9.9057 

1.7176 

719.4362 

92 

9 

1852 

8 47 33 

3.477 

719.8579 

9.9051 

1.7173 

719.4342 

93 

8 

1852 

8 48 54 

3.470 

719.8600 

9 9020 

1.7164 

719.4316 

94 

7.8 

1852 

8 50 26 

3.464 

719.8626 

9.8989 

1.7157 

719.4312 

95 

8 

1852 

8 52 13 

3.467 

719.8672 

9.8967 

1.7161 

719.4415 

96 

9 

1852 

8 53 47 

3.456 

719.8689 

9.8925 

1.7146 

719.4343 

97 

7.8 

1852 

8 58 16 

3.439 

719.8763 

9.8829 

1.7126 

719.4328 

98 

9 

1852 

8 59 27 

3.445 

719.8797 

9.8818 

1.7133 

719.4436 

99 

8.9 

1852 

9 3 20 

3.429 

719.8854 

9.8728 

1.7112 

719.4389 

100 

8.9 

1852 

9 3 20 

3.430 

719.8856 

9.8730 

1.7114 

719.4405 

101 

8.9 

1852 

9 4 16 

3.433 

719.8881 

9.8719 

1.7118 

719.4480 

102 

9 

1851 

9 4 23 

3.421 

719.8864 

9.8698 

1.7102 

719.4332 

103 

9 

1851 

9 7 22 

3.402 

719.8896 

9.8617 

1.7078 

719.4208 

104 


1851 

9 7 37 

3.417 

719.8924 

9.8635 

1.7097 

719.4406 

105 


1851 

9 7 39 

3.413 

719.8918 

9.8628 

1,7092 

719.4355 

106 

9 

1851 

9 8 11 

3.401 

719.8911 

9.8601 

1.7077 

719.4225 

107 


1851 

9 8 11 

3.408 

719.8922 

9.8612 

1.7086 

719.4317 

108 

9 

1851 

9 10 18 

3.401 

719.8953 

9.8562 

1.7077 

n9.4303 

109 

7 

1851 

9 12 14 

3.392 

n9.8977 

9.8513 

1.7066 

n9.4258 

110 


1850 

16 40 55 

3.699 

719.5774 

710.0217 

1.7441 

9.2265 

111 


1850 

16 42 .56 

3.706 

719.5673 

710.0238 

1.7449 

9.2192 

112 


1850 

16 49 12 

3.717 

n9.5326 

710.0286 

1.7463 

9.1877 

113 


1850 

16 50 5 

3.720 

719.5275 

710.0294 

1.7466 

9.1837 

114 


1850 

16 51 59 

3.724 

7i9.5161 

7i0.0308 

1.7471 

9.1735 

115 


1850 

16 54 42 

3.725 

719.4989 

710.0322 

1.7473 

9.1559 

116 


1850 

16 59 44 

3.735 

719.4658 

710.0357 

1.7484 

9.1257 

117 


1850 

17 7 8 

3.746 

719.4108 

710.0400 

1.7497 

9.0735 

118 

6^ 

1851 

17 11 13 

3.486 

719.3456 

710.0109 

1.7184 

8.8259 

119 


1850 

17 12 50 

3.763 

719.3638 

710.0442 

1.7517 

9.0333 

120 


1850 

17 13 22 

3.756 

719.3577 

710.0431 

1.7508 

9.0224 

121 


1850 

17 13 51 

3.764 

719.3544 

710.0445 

1.7517 

9.0237 

122 


1851 

17 13 55 

3.486 

719.3211 

710.0118 

1.7184 

8.8006 

123 


1851 

17 21 18 

3.492 

719.2465 

710.0148 

1.7192 

8.7291 

124 


1851 

17 25 18 

3.494 

719.1996 

710.0161 

1.7194 

8.6832 

125 

7 

1850 

17 28 45 

+3.775 

719.1869 

n0.0498 

1.7530 

8.8578 


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COMPARISON-STARS. 


cxxxvu 




General Ga 

ialogue of Gor 

nparison-Star 

s — Continued 



No. 

d. 

Ann. Free. 

a^ 

V, 

c/. 

d'. 

Weight. 

63 

° 1 II 
+21 57 3.00 

—10.79 

8.9417 

n9.3036 

711.0332 

719.9258 

4 

64 

24 29 3.29 

10.90 

8.6729 

n9.3528 

711.0376 

7i9. 92.39 

413 

65 

15 55 48.5 

10.91 

9.2719 

n9.1742 

711.0380 

7J.9.9238 

3 

66 

24 29 22.50 

11.01 

8.6849 

719.3570 

Til 0417 

719,9222 

20 

67 

15 44 33.5 

11.14 

9.3012 

719.1645 

711,0469 

719,9199 

3 

68 

24 25 5.32 

11.22 

8.7207 

n9. 3643 

711.0502 

719.9184 

29 

69 

24 1 31.99 

11.26 

8.7740 

719.3590 

711.0515 

719.9178 

19 

70 

21 38 15.92 

11.47 

9.0037 

7i9,3239 

711.0594 

7i9,9140 

4 

71 

24 9 40.5 

14.49 

8.7813 

719.3700 

711.0603 

719.9136 

20 

72 

24 19 43.1 

11.49 

8.7617 

719.3730 

711.0604 

719.9136 

15 

73 

24 5 30.9 

11.57 

8.7973 

719.3719 

nl.0633 

719.9122 

10 

74 

21 20 54.3 

11.63 

9.0316 

729.3244 

711.0655 

719.9110 

1 

75 

15 46 20.15 

11.82 

9.2966 

719.2046 

711.0726 

719.9074 

6 

76 

16 14 7.8 

12.00 

9.2888 

719.2204 

nl.0792 

ri9.9038 

3 

77 

23 58 5.5 

12.04 

8.8549 

719.3871 

711.0805 

719.9030 

15 

78 

23 34 17.2 

12.07 

8.8944 

719.3815 

711.0818 

719.9023 

15 

79 

23 45 37.97 

12.09 

8.8789 

719.3853 

711.0823 

719.9020 

23 

80 

23 24 21.45 

12,23 

8.9210 

719.3842 

711.0874 

719.8991 

20 

81 

20 36 12.24 

12.29 

9.1076 

719.3338 

711.0896 

719.8977 

8 

82 

23 16 11.8 

11.33 

8.9397 

719.3853 

711.0909 

719.8970 

15 

83 

18 46 14.60 

11.38 

9.1977 

719.2979 

711.0926 

719.8959 

21 

84 

19 43.0 

12.39 

9.1878 

719.3037 

711.0930 

729.8956 

3 

85 

23 14 31.64 

12.56 

8.9596 

n9.3930 

711.0990 

719.8919 

26 

86 

18 35 42.7 

12.85 

9.2214 

n9.3104 

711.1090 

ri9.8852 

3 

87 

22 44 42.07 

12.91 

9.0185 

719.3960 

711.1110 

719.8838 

13 

88 

22 33 33.74 

13.17 

9.0472 

719.4014 

711.1197 

719.8774 

23 

89 

22 51 37.98 

13.26 

9.0347 

719.4095 

711.1224 

7i9.8754 

52 

90 

22 22 44.90 

13.29 

9.0648 

7J9.4018 

nl.l234 

719.8745 

28 

91 

22 15 16.45 

13.38 

9.0776 

719.4026 

nl.l266 

719.8720 

95 

92 

22 8 47.07 

13.39 

9.0838 

719.4009 

711.1268 

719.8718 

28 

93 

21 .54 57.81 

13.48 

9.1012 

7i9.o994 

711.1297 

719.8695 

63 

94 

21 44 13.14 

13.61 

9.1157 

n9.3992 

nl.l328 

719.8669 

69 

95 

22 2 29.25 

13.69 

9.1073 

719.4086 

711.1365 

719.8637 

23 

96 

21 34 8 54 

13.79 

9.1357 

719.4028 

nl.l396 

719.8610 

28 

97 

21 6 22.86 

14.08 

9.1711 

719.4026 

711.1484 

719.8527 

36 

98 

21 29 21.65 

14.15 

9.1588 

719.4123 

711.1507 

719.8505 

28 

99 

20 57 21.40 

14.39 

9.1934 

719.4092 

711.1580 

719.8431. 

16 

100 

21 1 46.79 

14.39 

9.1904 

719.4106 

711.1580 

719.8431 

32 

101 

21 16 51.22 

14.44 

9.1834 

719.4173, 

711.1597 

719.8412 

79 

102 

20 37 52.95 

14.45 

9.2092 

719.4045 

711.1599 

729.8410 

20 

103 

19 51 45.7 

14.63 

9.2449 

719.3942 

711.1652 

729.8351 

10 

104 

20 41 23.72 

14.64 

9.2164 

7i9.4116 

711.1657 

729.8346 

13 

105 

20 27 .59.92 

14.66 

9.2243 

n9.4072 

711.1658 

729.8345 

18 

106 

19 52 26.2 

14.68 

9.2467 

719.3958 

711.1667 

719.8334 

10 

107 

20 15 48.64 

14.68 

9.2332 

n9.4040 

nl.l667 

729.8334 ^ 

25 

108 

20 2 39.72 

14.81 

9.2466 

n9.4032 

711.1704 

729.8290 

25 

109 

-f 19 43 5 50 

14.92 

9.2624 

ri9.3996 

Til . 1737 

729.8250 

41 

110 

—26 28 27.92 

6.78 

n8.4925 

9.1784 

710.8315 

9.9736 

36 

111 

26 39 30.62 

6.62 

n8.5530 

9.1704 

710.8207 

9.9750 

25 

112 

26 52 20.74 

6.10 

n8.6388 

9.1381 

710.7852 

9.9789 

35 

113 

26 .56 35.21 

6.02 

n8.6564 

9.1338 

710.7799 

9.9795 

35 

114 

27 1 17.70 

5.86 

W8.6803 

9.1233 

710.7682 

9.9806 

26 

115 

26 59 41.4 

5.64 

W8.6883 

9.1058 

710.7511 

9.9821 

35 

116 

27 11 47.28 

5.21 

718.7432 

9.0748 

nO.7171 

9.9848 

25 

117 

27 23 8.74 

4.. 58 

W8.7956 

9.0219 

nO.6614 

9 9883 

35 

118 

17 35 42.76 

4.24 

9.0728 

8.8051 

710.6270 

9.9901 

69 

119 

27 50 52.92 

4.10 

n8.8668 

8.9798 

710.6126 

9.9907 

30 

120 

27 31 24.64 

4.05 

n8.8310 

8.9703 

710.6078 

9.9910 

35 

121 

27 49 2.65 

4.01 

n8.8676 

8.9703 

710.6033 

9.9911 

10 

122 

17 33 8.88 

4.01 

9.0728 

8.7798 

rjO.6027 

9.9912 

34 

123 

17 41 12.42 

3.37 

9.0567 

8.7081 

710..5277 

9.9938 

12 

124 

17 43 32.68 

3.02 

9.0506 

8.6620 

710.4807 

9.9950 

27 

125 

—27 56 57.38 

-2.72 

rj.8.9086 

8.8040 

710.4353 

9.9960 

28 


TO 


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CXXXVlll 


COMPARISON-STARS. 
General Catalogue of Comparison- Stars — Continued. 


No. 

Mag. 

Year. 

«. 

Ann. Prec. 

a. 

6. 

C. 

d. 




k. m. s. 

s. 





126 


1851 

17 32 1 

-f-3.503 

W9.1074 

wO.0185 

1.7205 

8.5974 

127 

"'h 

1851 

17 38 44 

3.505 

n8.9888 

nO 0200 

1.7208 

8.4798 

128 


1850 

17 43 52 

3.781 

n8.9013 

n0.0530 

1.7537 

8.5731 

129 


1851 

17 46 23 

3.512 

n8.7961 

n0.0217 

1.7217 

8.2920 

130 

H 

1850 

17 47 14 

3.783 

n8.7999 

n0.0535 

1.7539 

8.4720 

131 


1850 

17 52 24 

3.778 

n8.5741 

iiO.0533 

1.7534 

8.2438 

132 


1850 

17 53 28 

3.777 

«8.5082 

n0.0532 

1.7532 

8.1773 

133 


1850 

17 55 54 

3.778 

n8,3060 

wO.0533 

1.7533 

7.9752 

134 


1850 

17 59 6 

3.773 

n7.6925 

n0.0527 

1.7527 

7.3592 

135 


1850 

17 59 50 

3.776 

n6.9059 

7x0.0531 

1.7531 

6.5739 

136 


1850 

18 4 7 

3.786 

8.2977 

n0.0433 

1.7443 

717.9266 

137 


1850 

18 4 46 

3.683 

8.3702 

riO.0521 

1.7523 

7i8.035i 

138 


1850 

18 6 40 

3.717 

8.5102 

«0.0452 

1.7462 

718.1481 

139 


1850 

18 7 1 

3.766 

8.. 5847 

n0.0526 

1.7520 

n8.2475 

140 

5 

1850 

18 8 40 

3,755 

8,6280 

n0.0502 

1.7507 

718.2864 

141 


1851 

18 9 5 

3.528 

8.6259 

710.0236 

1.7236 

718.1351 

142 


1850 

18 9 30 

3.723 

8.6637 

710.0459 

1.7470 

718.3053 

143 

7 

1850 

18 11 53 

3.727 

8.7620 

710.0463 

1.7475 

718.4060 

144 


1851 

18 12 37 

3.528 

8.7647 

710.0235 

1.7237 

718.2746 

145 

8i 

1850 

18 13 1 

3.737 

8.8022 

710.0474 

1.7486 

7?.8.4514 

146 


1850 

18 15 19 

3.739 

8.8731 

710.0475 

1.7488 

718.5236 

147 

7 

1850 

18 18 23 

3.743 

8.9528 

710.0476 

1.7493 

718.6056 

148 

7 

1851 

18 23 43 

+3.532 

9.0386 

720.0222 

1.7241 

718.5529 


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COMPARISON-STARS. 


CXXXIX 



( 

jreneral Cat 

alogue of Cori 

Yiparison-Star, 

? — Continued. 



No. 

8. 

Ann. Prec. 

a'. 

V. 

d. 

d'. 

Weight. 

J 26 

o / // 

— 17 59 52.10 

// 
—2.44 

9.0254 

8.5756 

nO.3879 

9.9968 

20 

127 

18 2 43.45 

1.86 

9.0177 

8.4579 

n0.2691 

9.9981 

59 

128 

28 54.48 

1.41 

n8.9314 

8.5190 

n0.1494 

9.9989 

25 

129 

18 15 28.10 

1.19 

8.9972 

8.2696 

nO 0759 

9.9992 

31 

130 

28 2 5.41 

1.12 

W8.9357 

8.4178 

n0.0479 

9.9993 

21 

131 

27 5] 58.2 

0.66 

n8.9218 

8.1902 

n9.8228 

9.9998 

20 

132 

27 49 10.57 

0.57 

n8.9176 

8.1239 

n9.7571 

9.9998 

26 

133 

27 50 9.42 

0.36 

W8.9198 

7.9218 

n9.5548 

9.9999 

25 

134 

27 39 25.44 

0.09 

n8.9021 

7.3065 

n8.9421 

0.0000 

25 

135 

27 45 1.54 

—0.01 

n8.9116 

6.5208 

rj8.]551 

0.0000 

25 

136 

25 ]0 53.16 

+0,37 

n8.5147 

n7.8832 

9.5-66 

9.&S99 

36 

137 

27 32 8.57 

0.59 

n8.8888 

n7.9829 

9.6202 

9.9999 

22 

138 

25 45 5.50 

0.59 

n8.6378 

n8.1027 

9.7671 

9.9998 

25 

139 

27 27 19.48 

0.68 

?i8.8792 

ri8.1956 

9.8341 

9.9998 

20 

140 

27 5 26.28 

0,76 

»i8.8373 

?i8.2360 

9.8798 

9 9997 

63 

141 

18 50 48.62 

0.80 

8.9439 

718.1112 

9.9042 

9.9997 

36 

142 

25 59 9.6 

0.83 

n8.6783 

n8.2590 

9.9197 

9.9996 

15 

143 

26 8 42.83 

1.04 

n8.7033 

n8.3593 

0.0174 

9.9994 

23 

144 

18 55 16.26 

1.10 

8.9381 

n8. 2.514 

0.0428 

9.9993 

29 

145 

26 28 48.81 

1.14 

n8.7540 

n8.4033 

0.0563 

9.9993 

36 

146 

26 33 53.50 

1.34 

n8.7641 

n8.4752 

0.1269 

9.9990 

31 

147 

26 43 0.54 

1.61 

W8.7819 

n8.5566 

0.2060 

9.9986 

42 

148 

—19 4 23.99 

+2.07 

8.9299 

Ji8.5284 

0.3164 

9.9977 

57 


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cxl 


COMPARISON-STARS. 


Lastly, there is another class of stars to be examined ; namely, those observed in connection 
with Mars upon the meridian at different places, and although not near enough to the planet 
to be treated as comparison stars, yet forming in fact the basis upon which the respective series 
of meridian observations must rest. The places of these stars have been reduced from the 
several authorities, together with those which were required for our General Catalogue, and the 
stars are referred to in the preceding special tables by index-letters instead of numbers. 

The data employed for the determination of their adopted places are given below, and followed 
by the resultant list ; the method of reduction and form of presentation being the same with 
that for the 148 stars of the catalogue proper. 

To this class belong also /3 Tauri and /? Geminorum, which being fundamental stars have 
been so thoroughly and frequently observed at Grreenwich during the period of the Mars 
observations, that the places taken direct from the Greenwich Catalogue for 1850 seem more 
trustworthy than those derived from any combination of observations made at different epochs. 


Places of Stars not used for comparison, but observed ivitli the Cape Mural Circle, in connection with 

Mars I. 




Observed. 




Name. 

Date. 



Epoch. 

Reduced to 

Mean at epoch. 



«. 

d. 

epoch in 0. 



h. m. s. 

/ // 


// 

/ // 

B.A.C. 1648 

1849.— Dec. 30 

5 11 35.48 


1850.0 




31 


4-27 47 51.68 


4-6.65 

4-27 47 58.33 


1850.— Jan. 3 

35.25 

54.83 


6.50 

48 1.33 


4 


53.92 


4-6.45 

48 0.37 

27 48 0.01 

118 Tauri 

1849.— Dec. 24 

5 20 3.51 

25 1 16.18 

1850.0 

4-7.40 

4-25 1 23.58 


26 


15.86 


7.35 

23.21 


29 


17.96 


7.27 

25.23 


1850.— Jan. 10 

3.52 

19.46 


6.95 

26.41 


11 


18.47 


6.93 

25.40 


12 

3.66 

18.44 


6.91 

25.35 


14 


18.18 


6.86 

25.04 


15 


18.12 


6.83 

24.95 


16 


18 00 


6.80 

24.80 


17 


19.07 


4-6.77 

25.84 

25 1 24.98 

B.A.C. 1754 

1850.— Jan. 7 

5 27 47.73 

26 49 22.90 

1850.0 

4-6.95 

26 49 29.85 


8 

47.85 

23.07 


6.92 

29.99 


9 

47.78 

24.36 


4-6 88 

31.24 

26 49 30.36 

125 Tauri 

1849.— Dec. 18 

5 30 27.26 

25 48 20.39 

1849.0 

4-5.17 

25 48 25.56 


20 

27.25 

19.22 


5.12 

24.34 


21 


20.28 


4-5.09 

25,37 

25 48 25.09 

5 Geminorum 

1849.— Nov. 25 
26 

6 2 20.69 

4-24 26 41.98 

1849.0 

4-8.60 

24 26 50.58 


27 

20.40 

43.92 


4-8.60 

52.52 


1850.— Jan. 7 

20.21 





24 26 51.55 


These determinations are given by Mr. Maclear in the Memoirs of the Eoyal Astronomical 
Society of London, volume XX, pp. 104, 5. They have been used with the regular micrometric 
comparison-stars, determined during the same period at the Cape, for obtaining the constant 
quantity which is to be subtracted from all the circle-measurements, both of planets and stars, 
at the Cape, in order to reduce the declinations to our adopted standard. 


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COMPARISON-STARS. 


cxli 


Dedinaiions of Stars observed ivitli the Cape Mural Circle, in connection with Mars II. 


Name. 

Date. 

Observed 0. 

Red to 
18.52.0. 

Mean 8 

1852.0. 

Name. 

Date. 

Observed 0, 

Red. to 
1852.0 

Mea-n 8 

1852.0. 

/?^ Geminor. 

1851.— Dec.22 
26 

° ! II 

-f-28 22 41.05 
41.89 

II 

+4.08 

4.07 

o 1 II 

+28 22 45.13 
45.96 

Lai. 17528 

1852.— Jan 16 

° 1 II 
+22 46 33.34 

II 
+4.21 

/ // 

+22 46 37.55 


29 

42.44 

4.05 

46.49 

30 v^ Cancri 

Jan. 12 

-f-24 34 32.32 

+4.12 

+24 34 36.44 


30 

42.06 

4.04 

46.10 


13 

30.55 

4.13 

34.68 


] 852.— Jan. 1 

42.47 

4.02 

46.49 


14 

32.70 

4.13 

36.83 


2 

41.52 

4.00 

45.52 


15 

32.35 

4.14 

36.49 


3 

42.70 

3.98 

46.68 


16 

31.93 

4.14 

36.07 


5 

42.31 

3.94 

46.25 


19 

33.14 

4.12 

37.23 


9 

44.02 

3.84 

47.86 


20 

33.07 

4.10 

37.17 


10 

43.05 

3.80 

46.85 


21 

31.23 

4.09 

35.32 


12 

43.84 

3.73 

47.57 


22 

33.45 

4.07 

37.52 


13 

42.08 

3.70 

45.78 


23 

32.90 

4.06 

36.96 


14 

43.70 

3.66 



Feb. 5 

32.91 

3.65 

36.56 


15 
19 

44.11 
43.43 

3.63 
3.46 

47.74 
47 89 


7 

32.83 

+3.57 

36.40 

+24 34 36 48 


20 

43.70 

3.41 

47.11 







21 

42.85 

3.36 

46.21 

28 v"^ Cancri 

Feb. 3 

+24 37 53.16 

+3.69 

+24 37 56.85 


22 

42.45 

3.30 

45.75 


4 

53.31 

3.66 

56.97 


23 

43.80 

3.25 

47.05 


5 

53.36 

3.62 

56.98 


24 

43.46 

3.20 



6 

53.64 

3.58 

57.22 


27 
29 

44.35 
43.05 

3.03 
2.91 

47.38 
45.96 


7 

53.54 

+3.53 

57.07 

+24 37 57.02 


Feb. 2 

44.34 

2.66 

47.00 

24 t)" Cancri 

Jan. 24 

+25 57.62 

+3.97 

+25 1 1.59 


3 

44.16 

2.60 

46.76 


26 

57.44 

3.91 

1.35 


4 

43.24 

2.54 

45.78 


Feb.l8 

56.49 

2.84 



5 

44.14 

2.47 

46.61 


20 

1 0.32 

+2.71 



6 

43.45 
43.65 

2.40 
2.34 

45.85 
45.99 







7 





+25 1 1.47 


10 

45.23 

2.12 

47.35 

B.A.C. 2703 

Jan. 27 

+22 52 37.12 

+3.79 

+22 52 40.91 


11 

45.19 

2.05 

47.24 


29 

36.70 

3.74 

40.44 


12 

44.91 

1.98 

46.89 


Feb. 2 

37.87 

3.62 

41.49 


13 

43.63 

1.91 

45.54 


9 

37.48 

3.50 

40.98 


14 

43.67 

1.84 

45.51 


25 

38.59 

2.61 

.41.20 


16 
17 

45.12 
44.61 

1.70 
1.63 

46.82 
46.24 


28 

38.59 

+ 2.46 

41.05 

+22 52 41.01 


18 
19 

44.21 
45.39 

1.56 
1.49 

45.77 
46.88 

y Cancri 

Jan. 2 
3 

+21 59 46.77 
47.23 

+3.64 
3.68 

+21 59 50.41 
50.91 


25 

45.63 

1.04 

46.67 







Feb. 28 

45.99 

■fO.81 

46.80 


5 
9 
10 

47.51 
47.66 
46.08 

3.76 
3.92 
3.95 

51.27 
51.58 
50.03 

f28 22 46.53 

B.A.C. 3017 

Jan. 5 

-f20 31 21.59 

+3.57 

f20 31 25.16 


12 
13 

47.08 
45.72 

3.98 
3.99 

51.06 
49.71 

32 Tj* C ncri 

Jan. 12 

-j-24 35 1.64 

+4.14 

f24 35 5.78 


14 

48.04 

4.00 

52.04 


13 

34 59 67 

4.14 

3.81 


15 

47.58 

+4.01 

51.59 


14 

35 1 39 

4.15 
4.15 

5.54 
5.19 







15 

1.04 





+21 59 50.96 


16 

0.66 

4.14 

4.80 

82 Greminor. 

Feb.21 

f23 30 8.09 

+2.47 

f23 30 10.56 


19 

1.90 

4.13 

6.03 


23 

9.50 

2.40 



20 

1.87 

4.12 

5.99 


24 

10.95 

2.35 



21 

0.04 

4.10 

4.14 


25 

9.32 

2.29 

11.61 


22 
23 

2.66 
1.71 

4.09 
+4.08 

6.75 
5.79 

84 Geminor. 

28 
Feb.lO - 

8.71 
f-22 42 38.06 

+2.11 
+3.20 - 

10.82 

f23 30 11.00 
f-22 42 41.26 

' 

-24 35 5.38 


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COMPARISON- STAKS. 
Stars observed ivith Mars on the Meridian, 


Lalande 9944,5 (2.2) 

Piazzi V, 41 (6.7) 

Taylor 1912 (4.4) 

Greenwich 363 (3.5) 


Lalande 10510 (1.1) 

Bessel 405 (1.1) 

Piazzi V, 145 (6.6) 

Taylor 2045 (6.5) 

Greenwich 395 (2.2) 

[35] 


Lalande 10605 (1.1) 

Piazzi V, 165 (7.8) 

Taylor 2071 (5.5) 

Bessel 405 (1.1) 

Twelve-Year 478 (4.7) 

Riimker 1499 (2.2) 

Greenwich 402 (7.3) 

[83] 


Lalande 11441 (1.1) 

Piazzi V, 306 (5.6) 

Rumker 1685 (16.10) 

Taylor 2266 (4.5) 

Greenwich 440 (2.2) 

. [62] 


1850.0. 

h. m. s. o / // 

5 11 34.48 +27 48 1.9 

34.54 0.1 

34.50 57.7 

34.43 58.7 


[46] 


5 11 34 

+ 27 

47 58.78 

Greenwich 374 (97.78) 

b 

h.m. s. 

5 16 18.82 

1850.0. 

o / // 

+ 28 28 30.77 

[390] 

5 16 19 

+ 28 

28 30.77 

Lalande 10231-3 (3.3) 
Piazzi V, 98 (15.16) 
Taylor 1988 (6.5) 
Bessel 405 (1.1) 
Greenwich 381 (1.1) 

C 

h. m. s. 

5 20 2.39 
2.59 
2.47 
2.57 
2.54 

1850.0. 

/ // 

+ 25 117 4 
22.8 
24.1 
24.8 
22.9 

[42] 

5 20 3 

+ 25 

1 23.03 


1850.0. 

h. in. s. o I II 

5 27 47.04 +26 49 31.8 

46.85 34.6 
46.69 29.6 

46.86 29.1 
46.91 30.7 


5 27 47 


+ 26 49 30.18 


e 1849.0. 

h. m. s. o / // 
5 30 22.42 +25 48 27.0 

22.29 25.2 

22.79 21.9 

22.89 27.3 

22.94 23.8 

22.61 23.8 

22.84 24.6 


5 30 23 


+ 25 48 23.90 


/ 


1850.0, 

h. m. s. o / // 

5 54 55.35 +25 26 40.4 

55.45 39.0 

55.48 42.3 

55.89 37.6 

55.74 37.7 


5 54 55 


+ 25 26 40.06 


Piazzi V, 350 (9.9) 

Taylor 2335 (10.9) 

Bessel 348 (1.1) 

Rumker 1744 (1.1) 

Greenwich 452 (4.3) 

[54] 


1849.0. 

h. m. s. • I ti 

6 2 16.45 +24 26 53.3 

16.51 52.1 

16.67 49.6 

16.15 (59.2) 

16.67 51.7 


6 2 16 


+ 24 26 52.06 


Greenwich 571 (1.53,9 


Lalande 15312-4 (3.3) 

Piazzi VI ',232 (4.4) 

Bessel 339 (1.1) 

Taylor 3272 (3.4) 

Greenwich 578 (4.4) 

[30] 


Lalande 15795 (1.1) 

Piazzi VII, 299 (9.9) 

Bessel 339 (1.1) 

Taylor 3402 (4.4) 

Greenwich 593 (6.5) 

[50] 


Lalande 16517-9 (3.3) 

Piazzi VIII, 65 |)r. (6.7) 

Bessel 341,344 (2.2) 

Struve 994 (6.6) 

Taylor 3575 (6.7) 

Rumker 2516 (2.2) 

Greenwich 613 pr. (4.4) 


h. m. s. o I II 

7 36 15.31 +28 22 45.43 



[490] 


7 36 15 

+ 28 22 45.43 



i 

h. TO. s. 

1852.0. 

Lalande 15146 

(1.1) 


7 39 42.27 

+ 23 30 8.6 

Piazzi Vlf, 207 

(6.7) 


42.08 

7.8 

Bessel 339 

(1.1) 


42.24 

9.4 

Taylor 3222 

(8.6) 


42.50 

10.9 

Twelve-Year 698 (3.7) 


42.21 

8.8 

Greenwich 573 

(8.7) 
[99] 


42.38 

9.5 


7 39 42 

+ 23 30 9.38 


1852.0. 

h. m. s. o / // 

7 44 13.31 +22 42 34.0 

13.42 39,5 

13.27 35.6 

13.52 (42.5) 

13.24 37.0 


7 44 13 


+ 22 42 36.87 


1852.0. 

h. m. s. o I II 

7 57 50.51 +22 52 39.4 

50.44 40.2 

49.92 39.7 

49.59 38.7 

49.85 39.6 


7 57 50 


+ 22 52 39.48 


m 1852.0. 

h. m. s. o / // 

8 17 51.24 + 25 1 6.0 

51.49 1.8 

51.31 59.6 

51.36 0.7 

51.33 59.5 

1 2.5 

51.15 59.6 


[123] 

8 17 51 

+ 25 1 0.54 


h. m. s. 

1852.0. 

Lalande 16597-9 (3.3) 

8 19 49.53 

+ 24 37 58.0 

Piazzi VIII, 76 (15.14) 

49.73 

56.8 

Taylor 3594 (9.5) 

50.09 

57.9 

Greenwich 617 (4.4) 

49.82 

55.5 

[52] 

8 19 50 

+ 24 37 56.69 




n. m. 5. 

1852.0. 

o 1 II 

Lalande 16685-7 (2.2) 

8 22 45.41 

+ 24 34 35.8 

Piazzi VIII, 84 (24.22) 
Bessel 344 (1.1) 

45.25 
44.90 

36.4 
34.9 

Taylor 3617 (4.4) 

45.32 

34.0 

Riimker 2545 (1.1) 


36.0 

Greenwich 619 (3.2) 

44.97 

34.5 


[52] 


8 22 45 + 24 34 35.35 


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COJMPARISON-STAKS. 
Stars observed tvith 31ars on the Meridian— Goni\vLViedi, 


cxlni 


Lalande 16763 
Piazzi VIII, 89 
'Bessel 344 
laylor 3635 
Greenwich 623 

(1.1) 
(5.6) 
(1.1) 
(3.4) 
(6.8) 

[62] 

P 

h. m. s. 

8 24 15.21 
14.99 
14.94 
14.85 
14.71 

1852.0. 

/ // 

-i- 24 35 6.8 
3.4 
4.7 
4.2 
4.3 

1 

Lalande 17514,5 
Piazzi VIII, 195 
Taylor 3861 

Lalande 17528,9 
Bessel 278,344,5 
Maclear 
Greenwich 641 

(2.2) 
(6.6) 
(3.4) 

[20] 

^ A.m. s. 
8 45 26.96 
27.36 
27.10 

1852.0. 

+ 20 31 21.5 
21.3 
23.1 

8 24 15 

+ 24 35 4.24 

8 45 27 

+ 20 31 22.55 

Lalande 17143-6 (4.4) 
Piazzi VIII, 142 (32.15) 
Taylor 3739 (21.13) 
Rumker 2624 (6.5) 
Twelve-Year 775 (9.8) 
Greenwich 637 (23.23) 

[228] 

g. 

h. m. s. 

8 34 44.10 
43.15 
43.06 

42.91 

42.88 

1852.0. 

+ 21 .59 53.4 
49.4 

48.5 
48.9 
49.7 
49.0 

(2.2) 
(3.3) 

( .1) 
(4.3) 

[29] 

« h.m. s. 
8 45 45.38 
4 . 7 

44.90 

1852.0. 

+ 26 46(46.5) 
40.7 
36.2 
";.3 

3 34 43 

+ 21 59 49.13 1 

j 

8 45 45 

+ 23 46 37.11 


The star s presents indications of a decided proper-motion, affecting the determination of the 
declination. We find — 



Observed. 

Reduced. 

1 Computed. ^ 

C — 0. 

Lalande 
Bessel . 
Maclear 
Grreenwich 

O ' " 

+ 22 46 49.5 
40.20 
37.55 
35. 34 

46.50 
40.67 
36.22 

35. 28 

• 

46.46 

40. 70 : 

i 35. 82 
34. 40 

! 

— 0.04 
+ 0.03 

— 0.40 
+ 0.12 

i 


So that, although the mean by weights is 22° 46' 37^11, if we reject Lalande, as is then 
Ttio' .., ^,r "^^^ ^^^ ''^^^''' accordant and satisfactory results by adopting the declination 
+ 22 46 35 .63, with a proper-motion of — 0M94. This has been done." 

Adopted Declinations of Mars-Culminating Stars. 


Name. 


B.A.C. 1648 
/?Tauri . 
118 Tauri* 
B.A.C. 1754 
125 Tauri . 
B.A.C. 1937 
5 Geminorurn 

Geminorurn 

82 Geminorurn 

84Geminorum 

B.A.C. 2703 . 

24 1; I Cancri . 

28tj» Cancri . 

'SOv'^ Caricri . 

32?;+ Cancri . 

y Cancri . . 

B A.C. 3107 . 

H. C. 17528.9 


Mag. 

Year. 

6^ 

1850.0 

2 

1850.0 

7 

1850.0 

7 

1850.0 

6 

1849.0 

7 

1850.0 

6 

1849.0 

H 

1852.0 

7 

1852.0 

6i 

1852.0 

7 

1852.0 

7 

1852.0 

H 

1852.0 

6 

1852.0 

7 

1852.0 

4^ 

1852.0 

n 

1852.0 

n 

1852.0 


Approx. (/.. 


h. m. s. 
5 11 34 
5 16 19 
5 20 3 
5 27 47 
5 30 23 

5 54 55 

6 2 16 

7 36 15 
7 39 42 
7 44 13 

7 57 50 

8 17 51 
8 19 50 
8 22 45 
8 24 15 
8 34 43 
8 45 27 
8 45 45 


Ann. 
Prec. 


3.76 
3.78 
3.69 
3.74 
3.71 
3.71 
3.68 
3.73 
3.60 
3.57 
3.56 
3.58 
3.57 
3.57 
3.56 
3.49 
3.45 
3.49 


+ 27 47 58.78 
28 28 30.77 

25 1 22.96 

26 49 30.18 
25 48 23.90 
25 26 40.06 

24 26 52.06 
28 22 45.43 

23 30 9.38 
22 42 36.87 
22 52 39.48 

25 1 0.54 

24 37 56.69 
24 34 35.77 
24 35 4.24 

21 59 49.13 
20 31 22.55 

22 46 35.63 


Ann. 
Prec. 


+4.21 

+3.76 

+3.48 

+2.81 

+2.58 

+0.44 

—0.20 

—8.18 

—8.45 

—8.81 

—9.86 

—11.35 

—11.49 

—11.70 

—11.81 

—12.53 

—13.25 

—13.27 


n8.8584 

n8.9385 

n8.3678 

718.7752 

n8.6132 

«8.5763 

n8.2739 

n8.7176 

8.5597 

8.7278 

8.7874 

8.6493 

8.7232 

8.7546 

8.7657 

9.0412 

9.1562 

9.0407 


6^ 


8.9904 

8.9509 

8.8655 

8.8010 

8.7490 

7.9784 

n7.6139 

n9.2874 

n9.2255 

719.2294 

719.2814 

719.3789 

719.3781 

7i9.3849 

719.3890 

729.3694 

719.3649 

719.4086 


0.6239 

0.5748 

0.5414 

0.4488 

0.4124 

9.6476 

719.2993 

710.9126 

710.9270 

710.9450 

710.9940 

Til 0550 

7J1.0604 

711.0682 

711.0721 

711.0981 

711.1223 

711.1230 


d\ 


719.9902 
719.9922 
719.9934 
719.9957 
7i9.9964 
719.9999 
710.0000 
719.9605 
7i9.9575 
719.9534 
719.9399 
719.9162 
719.9136 
M9.9097 
7i9.9076 
719.8925 
719.8754 
719.8749 


Weight. 


46 

390 

42 

35 

83 

62 

54 

490 

101 

32 

52 

121 

52 

54 

64 

228 

20 

29 


* c, 118 Tauri, as one mass. 


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OBSERVATIONS. 


§ 6. OBSERVATIONS. 

The observations have, in almost every case, been reduced anew, as far as the data permitted, 
and the results are given in detail. The right-ascensions are given where space conveniently 
allows : both the observed and, in a subsequent section, the computed values. Although only 
approximately required for our purpose, it seems well to append them to the other results when 
no obstacle exists, both on account of completeness and for convenience of use. The observa- 
tions for each planet and each series are naturally grouped together, and the results of each 
group considered by themselves. 

The positions of the comparison-stars constitute a first requisite, and the observations for 
each series are preceded by a table of apparent places, containing for every star employed the 
dates on which it was used, the reductions from mean to apparent places, and the resulting 
apparent declinations. 

I. FIRST SERIES OF OBSERVATIONS OF MARS. 

Apparent Places of Stars compared ivith Mars during the first Series of Observations. 




Reduction in 

Apparent 



Reduction in 

Apparent 

No. 

Date. 





No. 

Date. 





a. 

8. 

«. 

5» 

0. 



a. 

8. 

a. 

8. 



s. 

II 

h. m. s. 

* , /, 



s. 

II 

h, in. s. 

o 1 II 

1 

1850.— Jan 7 

-fO.74 

-6.17 

4 56 38 

+26 12 59.9 

13 

1849.— Dec. 9 

+4.25 

—7.92 

5 54 8 

+26 16 22.4 


12 

0.72 

6.02 

56 38 

13 0.0 


11 

4.28 

7.89 

54 8 

22.4 


17 

0.69 

5.89 

56 38 

0.1 

14 

Dec. 11 

+4.28 

7.94 

5 54 32 

+26 20 52.2 

2 

Jan. 10 

+0.75 

—6.26 

5 3 5 

+26 16 13.1 


13 

4.32 

7.90 

54 32 

52.2 


14 

0.73 

6.13 

3 5 

13.2 

15 

Dec. 3 

+4.12 

—8.73 

6 1 35 

+26 2 7.4 


18 

0.71 

6.02 

3 5 

13.3 


6 

4.17 

8.71 

1 35 

7.4 

3 

Jan. 19 

+0.64 

—6.23 

5 10 30 

+26 5 42.6 


9 

4.22 

8.67 

1 35 

7.4 


2.5 

0.57 

6.06 

10 30 

42.8 

16 

Dec. 4 

+4.13 

—8.81 

6 2 26 

+26 33.1 

i 

31 

0.43 

5.88 

10 29 

42.9 


8 

4.20 

8.77 

2 26 

33.1 

4 

Jan. 3 

+0.78 

—6.87 

5 17 49 

+26 26 46.9 

17 

Nov. 22 

+3.83 

—9 09 

6 6 9 

+25 22 14.0 


6 

0.78 

6.77 

17 49 

47.0 


26 

3.92 

9.10 

6 9 

14.0 


9 

0.78 

6.66 

17 49 

47.. 

18 

Nov. 24 

+3.87 

—9.27 

6 7 39 

+25 32 12.5 

5 

1849.— Dec. 29 

+0.77 

— 7.]6 

5 21 43 

+26 27 39.5 


28 

3.96 

9.28 

7 39 

12.5 


31 
1850.— Jan. 2 

0.78 
0.80 

7.09 
7.01 

21 43 
21 43 

39.5 
39.6 

19 

Nov. 23 
27 

+3.84 
3.94 

—9.44 
9.46 

6 9 30 
9 30 

+25 34 53.3 
53.2 

6 

1849.— Dec. 27 
31 

+4 49 
4.51 

—3.97 
3.83 

5 22 36 
22 37 

+26 34 1.9 
2.1 

20 

Nov. 28 
Dec. 1 

+3.96 
4.02 

—9.68 
9.69 

6 11 36 
11 36 

+25 45 36.6 
36.6 

7 

Dec. 26 

28 
30 

+4.48 
4.49 
4.50 

—4.37 
4.30 
4.23 

5 25 44 
25 44 
25 45 

+26 26 58.2 
58.3 

58.4 

21 

Nov. 19 
23 

+3.70 
3.80 

—9.84 
9 89 

6 15 30 
16 30 

+25 7 10.2 
10.2 

8 

Dec. 20 
24 

+4.44 
4.47 

—5.02 

4.87 

5 29 37 
29 37 

+26 31 22.4 
22.6 

22 

Nov. 24 
28 

+3.83 
3.93 

—10.11 
10.14 

6 16 51 
16 51 

+25 35 14.7 
14.7 


28 

4.50 

4.74 

29 38 

22,7 

23 

Nov. 22 

+3.78 

—10.19 

6 18 3 

+25 27 13.4 

9 

Dec. 19 

+4.42 

—5.32 

5 32 16 

+26 31 46.5 


26 

3.87 

10.22 

18 3 

13.4 


24 

4.47 

5.17 

32 16 

46.6 

24 

Oct. 31 

+3.13 

-9.55 

6 18 48 

+24 20 21.4 


29 

4.51 

5.00 

32 17 

46 8 


Nov. 4 

3.24 

9.64 

18 48 

21.4 

10 

Dec. 10 

+4.29 

—6.89 

5 44 39 

+26 22 54.5 

25 

Nov. 25 

+3.85 

—10.38 

6 19 29 

+25 42 22.7 


14 

4.34 

6.80 

44 39 

54.6 


Dec. 1 

3.99 

10.43 

19 29 

22.6 


18 

4,39 

6.73 

44 39 

54.7 

26 

Nov. 19 

+3.67 

—10.35 

6 21 6 

+25 14 16.6 

11 

Dec. 14 

+4.35 

—7.01 

5 46 19 

+26 26 39.5 


23 

3.78 

10.42 

21 6 

16.5 


16 

4.38 

6.95 

46 19 

39 6 

27 

Nov. 30 

+3.96 

—10.60^ 

6 21 15 

+25 46 30.0 


18 

4.41 

9.90 

46 19 

39.7 


Dec. 4 

4.05 

10.62 

21 15 

29.9 

12 

Dec. 8 

+4.23 

-7.35 

5 48 32 

+25 55 38.5 

28 

Nov. 22 

+3.76 

—10.50 

6 21 40 

+25 31 5.8 


10 

4.27 

7.32 

48 32 

38.5 



3.86 

10.57 

21 40 

5.7 


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OBSERVATIONS. 
Apparent places of /^^^ar^— Continued. 


cxlv 


No. 

Date. 

Reduction in 

Apparent. 

No. 

Date. 

Reduction in 

Apparent. 

a, d. 

a. 

o^ 

«. 

d. 

«. 8. 

29 

1849.-Dec. 27 
31 

+4.49 
4.54 

—10.89 
10.84 

h. m. s. 
6 25 31 

25 32 

+26 33 40.7 
40.8 

33 

1849.-N0V. 2 
8 

s. 

+3.13 

3.31 

—10.30 
10.47 

h. m. s. 

6 27 56 

27 56 

/ // 

+24 30 54.5 
54.3 

30 

Nov. 13 

+3.48 

—10.60 

6 25 47 

+25 1 46.7 1 








18 

3.62 

10.71 

25 48 

46.6 1 

34 

Nov. 12 

+3.43 

—10.77 

6 28 49 

+24 57 13.6 

31 

Nov. 10 
15 

+3.39 
3.53 

—10,44 
10.56 

6 25 50 
25 51 

+24 44 34.1 1 
34.0 


17 

3.57 

10.91 

28 50 

13.5 

32 

Nov. 2 
6 

+3.14 
3.26 

—10.27 
10.40 

6 27 24 
27 24 

+24 32 38.8 

38.7 1 

35 

Nov. 19 
24 

+3.61 
3.75 

—11.51 
11.63 

6 34 42 

34 42 

+25 16 18.3 
18.1 














A.-OBSERVATIONS OF MARS I, WITH THE SANTIAGO EQUATORIAL. 
In the reduction of these observations the following errors were assumed in the printed copy: 

Pages 3,4,5, December 11, ^s should be negative throughout, and the signs in Col. Micr. reversed, excepting No. 31. 
*j an error nf r\-nci r-mT-.^i-.-.+i^^ . j _•. -».-r r>>^ 


an error of one revolution assumed in No. 27. 
12, Nos. 13, 25, 26, 33, reverse the signs in Col. Micr. 
25, Micr., /or 0.08 read 1 08. 


«, 

< i 

13, 

<< 

38, 

Micr. 

11 

9.24 '^ 

5.24. 




<< 

64, 

A6 

li 

3.15 '' 

3.05. 

^J, 

ii 

15, 

ii 

32, 

40, 


ii 

4.55 " 
5.46 '' 

4.59. 
5.52. 

13, 

I i 

16, 

il 

16, 


<^ 

1.72 ^' 

1.82. 

1*, 

U 


U 

48, 


11 

1.77 " 

1.71. 

16, 

( i 


*' 

67, 


11 

.79 '' 

6.79. 

23, 

(( 

21, 

'< 

8, 


11 

2.78 '' 

2.76. 

24, 

tl 

22, 

li 
li 

20, 

48, 


ii 

0.35 '' 
1.25 '' 

1.35. 
1.15. 

26, 

li 

23, 

" 

54, 


ii 

0.46 ^' 

0.54. 

38, 

" 

30, 

ii 

38, 


I i 

6.33 ^' 

6.36. 

50, 

January 

7, 

il 

34, 


ii 

10.46 '' 

10.86. 

53, 

<( 

9, 

il 
li 

12, 


11 
H 

18.16 '' 
17.32 '' 

18. 26. 
17.33. 

60, 

11 

u, 

11 

ii 

20, 
46, 


li 
ii 

2.05 '' 
1.25 '' 

2.15. 
1.35. 

69, 

<( 

20, 

il 

24, 


ii 

12.92 '' 

12.72. 

74, 
79, 

11 

24, 
27, 

11 
11 

12, 
30, 


li 

3.35 '' 
1.79 '' 

3.25. 
1.69. 


Uo 


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Cxlvi OBSERVATIONS, 

These necessarily introduce changes into the table of ^^Eesults/' and from these and other 
sources slight errors have arisen, which have been corrected in the present computation, as 
indicated below. The numbers of the lines as cited are counted from the beginnings of the 
several printed tables of Eesults. 

Page 3, lines 1,2, for Eight read Nine. 
5, in Col. Eev. reverse the sign. 

line 4., for 9. 039 zz: 2' 66'M7 read 9. 150 — 2' 58^33 

'' 15, '' 0.965= 18.81 " 1.076= 20.97 

- 18, '* 16.86 - 119.02 

8, '^ 2, '* 2. 719z=iO 52.99 '' 2.713 = 52.88 

13, " 3, '' 4.286 = 1 23.53 *' 4.307 = 1 23.90 

16, " 2, '' 1.650 = 32.16 '* 1.606 = 31.30 

n' " 6, *' 1,030= 20,25 " 0.995= 19.39 

.. 9, u " 17.99 *' 17.13 

23, '' 2, *' 2.757 = 63.73 ♦' 2.750 = 53.60 

" 6, '* 1.087= 21.18 " 1.080= 21.05 

u 9^ ^i 19.22 '' 19.09 

25, *' 2, *' 1.361 = 26.53 '' 1.352 = 26.36 
*' 6, " 1.039= 20.25 '^ 1.030= 20.08 
u 9^ u 18.16 '* 17.99 

26, *' l', " 0.471 = 9.18 '* 0.476 = 9.28 
'^ ei *' 0.994= 19.35 '* 0.996= 19.45 
u 9^ <i 17.21 " il.^l 

31^ u i' i. 18o91 '' 18.86 
'' 2, 


0.016 = 0.81 '^ 0.020 = 0.40 

0.986= 19.22 " 0.987= 19.26 

u 9; .. 17.02 - 17.06 

36, *' 1', " 0.055 = 1.07 '' 0.061=0 1.18 

37' '' 6, " 1.027= 20.02 *' 1.021= 19.91 

.. 9' i^ 17.78 " 17.67 

39, " 2', " 6.399 = 2 4.71 *' 6.401=2 4.75 

u e' " 19.75 '* 19.71 

.. 9', ^^ 17.48 '' 17.44 

51, ^* 1, " 10.848 = 3 31.03 " 10.877 = 3 31.99 

u 2, " 3 51.24 '* 3 51.64 

<* e', *' 1.037= 20.21 " 1.008= 19.65 

u 9^ i^ 18.01 '' 17.45 

64, '♦ 1! *' 17.323 = 5 37.62 " 17.324 = 5 37.64 

'' 2, '* 18.314 = 5 56.93 ** 18.324 = 5 57.13 

'* e', " 0.991= 19.31 '* 1.000= 19.49 

«« 9' ii 16.71 ** 16.89 

56, u 1' u 2 29.58 '* 2 29.60 

67^ i^ 6, '' 18.77 " 18.75 

61' *« 1' " 1.216 = 23.70 *' 1.224 = 23.86 

'.'* 2', *' 2.165 = 42.20 " 2.173 = 42.35 

66, '* l[ " 3 25.33 '* 3 25.27 

69,' ** 2, " 12.772 = 4 8.93 '' 12.738 = 4 8.27 

'' e', " 0.815= 15.88 " 0.849= 16.54 

<i 9, *' 13.47 '« 14.13 

75, '' 2,' «' 3.177 = 1 1.92 '* 3.168 = 1 1.75 

'« 6, " 0.836= 16.29 '^ 0.845= 16.46 

u 9' << 13.86 " 14.03 

79^ i^ l| '' 1.627 = 31.71 '' 1.618 = 31.54 

u 6,' " 14.72 '' 14.89 

u 9'^ i^ —12.22 " 12.39 

84, ^' 2' " 7.989 = 2 35.70 '' 8.041 = 2 36.72 

^' 6, *' 0.754= 14.69 '* 0.805= 15.71 

a 9^ '^ 12.42 " 13.44 


The introduction of these modifications furnishes the following table of observations, as they 
have been employed for the purposes of the present discussion : 


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OBSERVATIONS. 


cxlvii 


MARS I. 

Observations with the Santiago Equatorial, 



Date. 

Obs. part 

. Sant. S.T. 

Wash. M.T. 

t~T. 

Stai 
No. 

Star's d. 

Me^s.Dd 

. Refr. 

Obs'd 8, 

No.ofComp. 

N. S. 





A. m. s. 

h. m. s. 

d. 


° 1 II 




~ 




1849. 

-Dec.lO 

N. S. 

6 7 30.68 

12 22 21.69 

—20.48447 

13 

+26 16 22.40 

—0 14.90 

0.02 

+26 16 7.48 

9 

8 




11 

N. S. 

4 4 41.15 

10 15 56.37 

19.57226 

14 

20 52.15 

—2 52.12 

0.22 

17 59.81 

2 

3 





N. S. 

4 57 52.42 

11 8 58.93 

19.53543 

14 

20 52.15 

—2 47.84 

0.19 

18 4.12 

9 

9 





N. S. 

6 2 27.52 

12 13 23.44 

19.49070 

14 

20 52.15 

—2 41.08 

0.18 

18 10.89 

5 

4 




12 

N. S. 

3 45 40.36 

9 53 2.78 

18.58816 

14 

20 52. 17 

—0 55.14 

0.07 

19 56.96 

3 

2 





N. S. 

4 33 52.53 

10 41 7.05 

18.55478 

14 

20 52.17 

—0 48.04 

0.05 

20 4.08 

4 

4 




13 

N. S. 

5 44 32.98 

11 47 40.01 

17.50856 

14 

20 52.19 

+1 3.38 

0.06 

21 55.63 

17 

16 




14 

N. S. 

5 22 0.11 

11 21 14.93 

16.52691 

11 

26 39.54 

—3 5.91 

0.20 

23 33.43 

14 

13 




15 

N. S. 

4 3 20.25 

9 58 52.04 

15.58412 

11 

26 39.57 

—1 42.17 

0.13 

24 57.27 

8 

9 





N. S. 

5 48 56.38 

11 44 10.87 

15,51099 

11 

26 39.57 

—1 34.17 

0.10 

25 5.30 

14 

14 




16 

N. S. 

3 59 48,05 

9 51 24.51 

14.58930 

11 

26 39.60 

—0 21.53 

0.03 

26 18.04 

35 

34 




17 

N: S. 

5 6 31.16 

10 54 0.78 

13.54582 

11 

26 39.63 

+ 53.05 

0.06 

27 32.74 

23 

22 




18 

N. S. 

4 37 18.94 

10 20 57.43 

12.56878 

11 

26*^39.65 

+1 52.41 

0,13 

28 32 19 

13 

12 




20 

N. S. 

4 38 42.11 

10 14 28.55 

10.57328 

8 

31 22.42 

—1 15.88 

0.08 

30 6.46 

7 

7 





N. S. 

6 47 44.78 

12 23 10.08 

10.48391 

8 

31 22.42 

-1 10.70 

0.08 

30 11.64 

'4 

4 




21 

N. S. 

4 27 52.11 

9 59 44.42 

9.58351 

8 

31 22.46 

-0 43.08 

0.05 

30 39.33 

3 

3 




22 

N. S. 

5 13 39.03 

10 41 27.92 

8.55454 

8 

31 22.50 

~0 16.15 

0.02 

31 6.13 

12 

12 




23 

N. S. 

,4 44 23.25 

10 8 21.03 

7.57753 

8 

31 22.54 

—0 0.30 

0.00 

31 22.24 

15 

15 




24 

N. S. 

5 1 30.58 

10 21 29.64 

6.56841 

8 

31 22.57 

+0 8.53 

0.01 

31 31.11 

20 

20 




25 

N. S. 

5 1 32.01 

10 17 35.16 

5.57112 

8 

31 22.61 

+0 9.33 

0.01 

31 31.95 

20 

24 




26 

N. S. 

5 6 38.60 

10 18 45.00 

4.57031 

8 

31 22.64 

+0 2.53 

0.00 

31 25.17 

30 

30 




27 

N. S. 

5 24 41.28 

10 32 48.81 

3.56055 

8 

31 22,67 

-0 11.11 

0.01 

31 11.55 

19 

20 




30 

N. S. 

4 40 45.67 

9 37 12.66 

—0.59906 

5 

27 39.48 

+2 14.71 

0.15 

29 54.34 

16 

15 




31 

N. S. 

4 55 12.18 

9 47 40.89 

+0.40811 

5 

27 39.52 

+1 38.77 

0.11 

29 18.41 

18 

18 



1850.- 

-Jan. 1 

N. S. 

4 51 23.94 

9 39 57.37 

1.40275 

5 

27 39.56 

+0 54.31 

0.06 

28 33.93 

23 

22 




2 

N. S. 

4 59 8.35 

9 43 44.60 

2.40538 

5 

27 39.66 

+0 8.08 

0.01 

27 47.75 

18 

18 




4 

N. S. 

5 11 25.28 

9.48 7.99 

4.40843 

4 

26 46.99 

—0 44.86 

0.05 

26 2.08 

25 

25 




6 

N. S. 

4 17 11.49 

8 46 10.96 

6.36540 

4 

26 47.04 

—2 38.70 

0.17 

24 8.17 

6 

6 





N. S. 

5 54 57.53 

10 23 40.99 

6.43311 

4 

26 47.04 

—2 42.26 

0.18 

24 4.60 

3 

2 




7 

N. S. 

5 6 42.04 

9 31 37.49 

7.39696 

4 

26 47.09 

—3 41.69 

0.24 

23 5.16 

14 

13 




8 

N. S. 

5 12 55.47 

9 33 53.99 

8.39854 

4 

26 47.10 

—4 44.15 

0.31 

22 2.64 

10 

10 




9 

N. S. 

5 6 23.99 

9.23 27.67 

9.39129 

4 

26 47.15 

—5 47.25 

0.37 

20 59.53 

10 

10 




10 

N. S. 

5 30 34.80 

9 43 38.61 

10.40531 

2 

16 13.09 

+3 42.94 

0.24 

19 56.27 

9 

9 




11 

N. S. 

5 18 3.82 

9 27 13.77 

11.39391 

2 

16 13,13 

+2 39.08 

0.17 

18 52.38 

9 

9 




12 

N. S. 

5 10 26.38 

9 15 41.66 

12.38590 

2 

16 13.16 

+1 34.40 

0.10 

17 47.66 

10 

10 




13 

N. S. 

5 1 16.00 

9 2 36.88 

13.37682 

2 

16 13.19 

+0 30.73 

0.03 

16 43.95 

9 

9 




14 

N. S. 

5 20 13.40 

9 17 35.26 

14.38721 

2 

16 13.22 

— 32.97 

0.04 

15 40.21 

12 

12 




15 

N. S. 

5 17 24.21 

9 10 50.62 

15.38253 

2 

16 13.25 

— 1 35.25 

0.10 

14 37.90 

11 

11 





N. S. 

6 35 14.69 

10 28 28.35 

15.43644 

2 

16 13.25 

— 1 37.06 

0.11 

16 36.08 

1 

1 




16 

N. S. 

5 20 11.67 

9 9 41.72 

16.38173 

2 

16 13.28 

—2 35.33 

0.17 

13 37.78 

13 

13 




17 

N. S. 

5 22 7.53 

9 7 41.35 

17.38034 

2 

16 13.30 

—3 34.61 

0.23 

12 38.46 

15 

15 




18 

N. S. 

5 25 43.74 

9 7 21.06 

18.38010 

2 

16 13.33 

—4 31.77 

0.29 

11 41.27 

12 

12 




19 

N. S. 

4 .59 16.72 

8 37 2.47 

19.35906 

3 

5 42.59 

+5 10,48 

0.33 

10 53.40 

1 

1 




20 

N. S. 

4 56 59.78 

8 30 49.98 

20.35474 

3 

5 42.62 

+4 16.54 

0.27 

9 59.43 

6 

6 




21 

N. S. 

5 18 58.35 

8 48 49.05 

21.36724 

3 

5 42.65 

+3 26.01 

0.22 

9 8.88 

9 

9 




22 

N. S. 

5 26 8.50 

8 52 2.11 

22.36947 

3 

5 42.68 

+2 37.24 

0.17 

8 20.09 

12 

12 




23 

N. S. 

5 4 44.45 

8 26 45.65 

23.35192 

3 

5 42.71 

+1 52.54 

0.12 

7 35.37 

6 

6 





N. S. 

6 24 50.69 

9 46 38.77 

23.40739 

3 

5 42.71 

+1 51.67 

0.13 

7 34.51 

3 

3 




24 

N. S. 

5 40 17.24 

8 58 16.71 

24.37380 

3 

6 42.74 

+1 10.06 

0.07 

6 52.87 

11 

11 




25 

N. S. 

5 30 54.17 

8 44 59.27 

25.36458 

3 

5 42.-/6 

+0 31.51 

0.03 

6 14.30 

11 

11 




26 

N. S. 

5 36 34.66 

8 46 42.92 

26.36577 

3 

5 42.78 

— 5.48 

0.00 

5 37.30 

9 

9 




27 

N. S. 

5 15 38.37 

8 21 54.15 

27.34854 

3 

5 42.82 

— 38.99 

0.04 

5 3.79 

U 

9 




28 

N. S. 

5 40 9.22 

8 42 25.08 

28.36279 

3 

5 42.86 

— 1 11.65 

0.07 

4 31.14 

11 

12 




29 

N. S. 

5 24 30.34 

8 22 52.85 

29.34922 

3 

5 42.90 

-1 39.03 

0.10 

4 3,77 

11 

11 


\ 

31 

N. S. 

5 35 13.23 

8 25 42.17 

+31.35118 

3 

+26 5 42.94 

—2 28.86 

0.16 

+26 3 13.92 

13 

13 



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cxlviii 


OBSERVATIONS. 


B.— OBSEKVATIONS OF MAES I, WITH THE WASHINGTON EQUATOEIAL. 

The following corrections and changes have been made in the series of Washington observa- 
tions as given in this volume : 

Page 351, November 2, Nos. 4, 5. This comparison is excluded. 

352, < ' 4, No. 38, for Mars N. F. read Mars N. 

353, Remarks. There is no reference to indicate the comparison alluded to. 
359, November 24, No. 29, Mean of wires, for 4h.55m.2^s. 00 read ih.5Qm.29sM. 
359, Remarks. Nos. 15 and 19 are included in the mean of the declinations. 
361, ' ' 26, No. 74, for 1. 795 read 1. 792. 

363, December 6, '' 17, '' U.lOm.SSs. 10 read 4:h.l0m.37s. 10. 

<^ 27, '' 2 23. 503 read 2 33.503. 

364, Comparisons Nos. 56 to 70 are excluded, as evidently containing some source of error not detected. 

364, December 6, No. 68, for 2 37. 498 read 2 27. 498. 

365, ' ' 11, Mars N. P., for 6 read 5. 
366,. ' ' 12, No. 27, for 3. 398 read 3. 388. 

368, ' * 17, Comparison No. 60 is excluded from the mean. 

369, ' ' 27, Nos. 16, 17, 20, for 1. 080, 2. 061, 2. 074 read 1. 088, 2. 060, 2. 064. 
371, ^ ' 31, Comparison No. 21 is excluded from the mean. 

373, January 5, No. 26, for 8. 609 read 8. 069. 

Comparison No. 33 is excluded from the mean. 

The results of this series of observations will then be as follows, so far as they pertain to the 
measurements of declinations : 

Washington Observations of Mai^s during the opposition of 1849-50. 


Dcite. 


Star. 

Chroii. time. 

Chron. corr. 

Limb. 

A^ 

No. Comp. 







Rev. 

Arc. 





h. on. s. 

s. 



1 II 


1849.— Nov 

2 

B Z. 348.84 

5 29 50.74 

+ 43.83 

S. 

+ 0.324 

4.98 

3 




5 10 5.14 

43.81 

N. 

+ 1.681 

25.84 

3 


4 

B.Z. 348.95 

4 20 37.09 

49.40 

N. 

—20.247 

5 11.23 

5 




4 18 13.06 

49.42 

S. 

—21.736 

5 34.12 

5 

i 

1 



5 23 35.02 

49.46 

N. 
S. 

—19.877 
-21.083 

5 5.54 
5 24.08 

7 
7 

1 

6 

B.Z, 348.95 

4 17 34.45 

54.47 

N. 
S. 

-f- 0.320 
— 1.129 

4.92 
17.35 

8 
8 

! 

12 

Lai. 12557 

4 39 45.41 

1 5.12 

N. 
S. 

+14.828 
-1-13.020 

3 47.93 
3 20.14 

19 
19 

i 
1 



6 7 40.32 

1 5.24 

N. 
S. 

+ 15. .^.04 
+ 13.858 

3 58.32 
3 33.02 

6 
6 


13 

Lrl. 12557 

3 55 40.23 

1 6.96 

N. 
S. 

+26.243 
+24.834 

6 43.40 
6 21.74 

15 
15 


24 

B.Z. 5-23,106 

4 22 45.71 

1 27.40 

s. 

+ 2.104 

32.34 

5 




4 27 48.33 

1 27.40 

N. 

+ 3.407 

52.37 

5 


26 

Lai. 12237 

4 38 16.78 

1 32.34 

N. 

— 1.021 

— 2,4.53 

15.69 
37.71 

29 
29 




6 43 53,78 

1 32.55 

N. 
S. 

+ 0.286 
— 1.175 

4.40 
18.06 

11 
11 

Dec 

6 

Lai. 11714 

5 9 34.32 

1 53.21 

s. 

+20.451 

5 14.37 

13 




5 11 49.06 

1 53.21 

N. 

+21.853 

5 35.91 

11 



Lai. 11684 

4 44 48.40 

1 53.21 

S. 

+14.301 

3 39.83 

9 




4 .54 41.88 

1 53.21 

N. 

+15.754 

4 2.17 

s 


11 

RUmkerl673 

3 37 45.02 

2 3.72 

S. 

+ 4.802 

1 13.81 

6 




3 48 33.08 

2 3,72 

N. 

+ 6,357 

1 37.72 

5 


12 

RLimkerieSO 

4 27 9.06 

2 6.42 

S. 

— 5.140 

1 19.01 

8 




4 32 51.73 

2 6.42 

N. 

— 3.638 

55.92 

7 


17 

B. Z. 405.55 

4 18 44.53 

2 19. 1§ 

N. 

+ 2.991 

45.98 

16 




4 31 51.35 

-j-2 19.20 

S. 

+ 1.717 

26.39 

22 


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OBSERVATIONS. CXllX 

Washington Observations of Mars during the opposition of 1849-50 — Continued. 


Date. 

Star. 

Chron. time. 

Chron. corr. 

Limb. 

1 Ad 

No. Comp. 


Rev. Arc. 




h. m. s. 

m. s. 





27 

B. Z. 405.28 

3 56 0.24 

4-2 34.48 

S. — 2.347 

36.08 

22 




3 55 41.88 

2 34.48 

N. I — 1.114 

17.68 

20 


31 

B. Z. 405.15 

4 6 27.96 

2 46.40 

S. ; + 4.451 

1 8.42 

13 




4 9 25.92 

+2 46.40 

N. + 6.036 

1 32.78 

12 


1850.— Jan. 5 

B. Z. 523.15 

4 2 38.35 

—1 3.10 

S. 

— 8.097 

2 4.46 

13 




4 25 48.43 

1 3.08 

N. 

— 6.782 

1 44.25 

12 


9 

B. Z. 523.15 

3 54 39.60 

54.20 

S. 1 —23.644 

6 3.44 

7 




4 1 16.39 

54.20 

N. —22,638 

5 47.98 

7 


12 

B, Z. 396.4 

3 40 55.25 

45.67 

S. ■ -f 4.824 ■ 1 14.15 

8 1 



3 42 30.36 

45.67 

N. 1 + 5.922 i 1 31.04 

6 

14 

B. Z. 396.4 

4 26 35.37 

37.94 

S. — 3.577 1 54.98 

2 1 



4 34 25.12 

37.93 

N. : — 2.329 35.80 

2 \ 

22 

B. Z. 405.6 

4 13 11.25 

21.22 

S. + 8.924 : 2 17.17 

11 



4 18 27.31 i 

21.22 

N. 1 + 9.894 : 2 32.08 

10 

29 

B. Z. 405.6 

3 14 13.52 j 

19.86 

S. — 7.765 i 1 59.36 

3 



3 20 14.31 

— 19.86 

N. — 6.654 1 42.28 

3 

hiis obtain a 

Till 

series of ob 

servations which, wl: 

len arranged like those at Santiago, give 


the annexed table : 


MARS I. 

Observations ivith the Washington Equatorial. 


Date. 

Obs. part. 

Wash. S. T. 

! 

■ Wash. M. T. 

t—T. 

Star 
No. 

Star's 0. 

Meas.Do. 

Refr. 

Obs'd 0. 

No. Comp. 

N. 

S. 




h. m. s. 

! h. m. s. 

d. 


° / // 

1 II 





1849 

—Nov. 2 

N. S. 

5 20 44.34 

14 30 56.64 

-58.39518 

24 

+24 20 21.40 

+0 15.41 

0.00 

+24 20 36.81 

3 

3 


4 

N. S. 

4 15 24.50 

: 13 17 55.68 

56.44588 

33 

24 30 54.39 

—5 22.68 

0.10 

24 25 31.61 

5 

5 



N. S. 

5 24 24.48 

! 14 26 44.35 

56.39810 

33 

24 30 54.39 

i —5 14.81 

0.09 

24 25 39.49 

7 

-. 


6 

N. S. 

4 18 28.92 

1 13 13 7.78 

54.44922 

33 

24 30 54.33 

i — 6.21 

0.00 

24 30 48. 12 

8 

8 


12 

N. S. 

4 40 50.53 

13 11 50.28 

48.45011 

31 

24 44 .34.08 

! +3 34.06 

0.06 

24 48 8.20 

19 

19 



N. S. 

6 8 45.56 

1 14 39 30.91 

48.38922 

31 

24 44 34.06 

+3 45.70 

0.06 

24 48 19.84 

6 

6 


13 

N. S. 

3 56 47.19 

12 23 58.25 

47.48335 

31 

24 44 34.06 

' +6 32.56 

0.12 

24 51 6.74 

15 

15 


24 

N. S. 

4 26 44.42 

12 10 35.56 

.36.49264 

23 

25 27 13.40 

+ 42.36 

0.00 

25 27 55.76 

5 

5 


26 

N. S. 

4 37 49.12 

! 12 13 46.63 

. 34.49043 

22 

25 .35 14.71 

— 26.62 

0.00 

25 34 48.09 

29 

29 



N. S. 

6 45 26.33 

i 14 21 2.93 

34.40205 

22 

25 35 14.71 

— 6.81 

0.00 

25 35 7.90 

11 

11 


Dec. 6 

N. S. 

4 51 38.35 

: 11 48 14.49 

24.50817 

15 

26 2 7.39 

+3 51.06 

0.07 

26 5 58.52 

8 

9 



N. S. 

5 12 34.90 

1 12 9 7.60 

24.49366 

16 

26 33.09 

+5 25.14 

0.10 

26 5 58.33 

11 

13 


11 

N. S. 

3 50 12.77 

10 27 19.42 

19.56436 

13 

26 16 22.42 

+1 25.77 

0.00 

26 17 48.19 

5 

6 


12 

N. S. 

4 32 6.82 

11 5 10,69 

18.53807 

14 

26 20 52.67 

—1 7.47 

0.02 

26 19 44.68 

7 

8 


17 

N. S. 

4 27 37.13 

10 41 2.19 

13.55484 

11 

26 26 39.62 

+ 36.31 

0.02 

26 27 15.95 

16 

21 


27 

N. S. 

3 58 25.54 

9 32 36.26 

— 3.602.'i6 

8 

26 31 22.67 

- 26.82 

0.00 

26 30 55.85 

20 

22 


31 

N. S. 

4 10 43.34 

9 29 8.40 

+ 0.39524 

5 

26 27 39.52 

+ 1 20.64 

0.02 

26 29 0.18 

12 

12 

1850. 

—Jan. 5 

N. S. 

4 13 10.30 

9 11 55.41 

5.38328 

4 

26 26 47.00 

-1 54.22 

0.04 

26 24 52.74 

12 

12 


9 

N. S. 

3 57 3.80 

8 40 7.90 

9.36120 

4 

26 26 47.15 

—5 55.63 

0,10 

26 20 51.42 

7 

7 


12 

N. S. 

3 40 57.14 

8 12 16.15 

12.34185 

2 

26 16 13.15 

+ 1 22.65 1 

0.02 

26 17 35.82 

6 

8 


14 

N. S. 

4 29 52.31 

8 53 11.48 

14.37027 

2 

26 16 13.22 

— 45.28 

0.02 

26 15 27.92 

2 

2 


22 

N. S. 

4 15 28.06 

8 7 22.31 

22.33845 

3 

20 5 42,68 

+2 24.63 

0.04 

26 8 7.35 

10 

11 


29 

N. S. 

3 16 54.06 

6 36 26.54 

+29.27531 

3 

+26 5 42.88 

—1 50.82 

0.04 

+26 3 52,02 

3 

3 


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Cl OBSERVATIONS. 

0.— OBSERVATIONS OF MARS I, WITH THE GREENWICH EQUATORIAL. 

MARS I. 

Observations with the Greemvich equatorial. 


Date. 

Obs. part. 

Green. S. T. 

Wash. M. T. 

t—T. 

Star 
No. 

Star's 0, 

MesiS.Dd. 

Ilefr. 

Obs'd d. 

No. Comp. 

N. S. 



h. m. s. 

h. m. s. 

d. 


/ // 

/ If 


/ II 


1849.— Nov. 26 

N. S. 

28 32.0 

2 57 48.64 

—34.87652 

22 

25 35 14.71 

—1 47.72 

0.15 

25 33 26.84 

2 2 

30 

N. S. 

6 1 13.5 

8 13 52.00 

30.65704 

20 

25 45 36.56 

+1 47.87 

0.04 

25 47 24.47 

2 2 

Dec. 8 

C. 

2 44 40 

4 26 23.4 

^2.81501 


26 5 

+5 20.47 

0.]3 

26 10 

5 

15 

c. 

5 8 15 

6 32 1.9 

15.72776 

11 

26 26 39.57 

—2 11.77 

0.04 

26 24 27.76 

4 

27 

c. 

51 10 

1 18 29,7 

— 3.94549 

8 

26 31 22.67 

— 24.07 

0.04 

26 30 58.56 

6 

1850— Jan. 4 

N. S. 

4 20 15.5 

4 15 33.7 

'4- 4.17748 

4 

26 26 46.97 

— 46.22 

0.02 

26 26 0.73 

3 3 

5 

N. S. 

2 42 41.75 

2 34 20.0 

5.10717 

4 

26 26 47.00 

—1 40.02 

0.05 

26 25 6.93 

5 3 

7 

c. 

3 23 46 

3 7 25.7 

+ 7.13016 

4 

26 26 47.04 

—3 39.32 

0.08 

26 23 7.64 

3 


D.— OBSERVATIONS OF MARS I, WITH THE GREENWICH MURAL CIRCLE. 

MARS I. 

Observations with the Greenwich Mural Circle, 


Date. 

Obs. part. 

Green. S. T. 

Wash. M. T. 

t—T. 

Ch-cle reading. 

Eefr. 

Zenith. 

Obs'd (5. 

Semid. 









/ 

93.32 






h. m. s. 

h. m. s. 

d. 

° 1 II 

,1 

// 

/ // 

II 

1849— Nov 

1 

C. 

6 25 25.76 

10 32 1.7 

— 59.56109 

120 42 53.53 

29.80 

38.69 

-f 24 17 53.56 



6 

C. 

6 26 47.50 

10 ]3 43.7 

54.57380 

120 30 21.33 

30.35 

40.22 

24 30 26.74 



16 

C. 

6 24 54.52 

9 32 31.9 

44.60241 

120 21.70 

29.82 

37.01 

25 23.69 



30 

N. 

6 11 45.71 

8 24 22.5 

30.64974 

119 13 2.50 

28.32 

36.35 

25 47 3 J. 16 

10.57 

Dec. 

4 

N. 

6 6 2.49 

8 2 56.6 

26.66462 

119 38.80 

28.47 

32.79 

25 59 53.74 

9.98 


8 

N. 

5 59 40.97 

7 40 52.4 

22.67995 

118 49 50.82 

27.72 

32.54 

26 10 42.14 

10.06 


15 

N. 

5 47 37.74 

7 1 19.8 

15.70741 

118 36 5.22 

27.23 

31.87 

26 24 27.24 

10.38 


17 

N. 

5 44 6.64 

6 49 57.5 

13.71531 

118 33 32.53 

27.28 

31.87 

26 27 2.06 

8.20 


19 

N. 

5 40 37.36 

6 38 36.9 

11.72318 

118 31 35.47 

28.07 

33.78 

26 28 58.54 

9.90 


27 

N. 

5 27 30.51 

5 54 4.9 

3.75411 

118 29 38.97 

27.36 

35.94 

26 30 58.89 

8.92 


28 

N. 

5 26 1.22 

5 48 40.0 

2.75787 

]18 29 58.83 

28.16 

35.94 

26 30 38.02 

9.13 


29 

N. 

5 24 34.38 

5 43 17.5 

— 1.76160 

118 30 23.61 

27.58 

35.94 

/ 

83.31 

26 30 13.10 

9.85 

1850.— Jan. 

4 

N. 

5 16 52.14 

5 12 1.0 

-f 4.21668 

29.42 

27.23 

23.93 

26 25 55.32 

8.47 


5 

N. 

5 15 45.92 

5 6 59.0 

5.21318 

23.68 

27.66 

23.93 

26 24 59.94 

9.16 


7 

N. 

5 13 43.91 

4 57 5.6 

7.20632 

21.82 

28.61 

23.96 

26 23 0.94 

9.10 


23 

N. 

5 6 2.63 

3 45 31.0 

23.15730 

54.43 

28.64 

21.37 

26 7 28.23 

6.58 


30 

N. 

5 7 20.55 

3 20 17.3 

30.13909 

53.52 

28.91 

22.90 

26 3 29.74 

7.24 

Feb 

6 

N. 

5 11 6.50 

2 56 31.3 

37.12258 

1.97 

27.47 

32.22 

26 1 33.33 

5.96 


7 

N. 

5 11 49.75 

2 53 18.5 

38.12035 

7.77 

27.82 

32.22 

26 1 25.15 

7.99 


9 

N. 

5 13 24.15 

2 47 0.8 

40.11.598 

20.27 

27.56 

31.89 

26 1 13.78 

6.79 


13 

S. 

5 17 2.85 

2 34 55.3 

44.10758 

28.78 

28.85 

33.42 

26 1 5.91 

6.39 


16 

N. 

5 20 11.09 

2 26 15.3 

47.10156 

25.71 

28.36 

32.90 

26 1 10.14 

5.14 


21 

C. 

5 26 8.24 

2 12 31.9 

52.09204 

21.35 

27.86 

32.17 

26 1 19.47 



22 

c. 

5 27 25.10 

2 9 52.7 

-{- 53,09019 

20.20 

28.09 

32.06 

25 1 20.28 



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OBSERVATIONS, cli 

E.-0B8ERVATI0NS OF MAES I, WITH THE CAPE EQUATOEIAL. 

The changes made are contained in the following table, which comprises some conjectural 
emendations, as well as more evident errors of reduction or observation : 

Page 467, line 4, the decimation of Lalande 11946, tlie comparison star of November 25, 26, seems to be correct, but the 
right ascension given is Im. too great. 
471, November 21, No. 5, Arc aS, for 11' 21^^54 read 23' 2r'.54. 

^'^2, '' 25, *' 2, " 13 22.93 '• 13 4.16 

" ^» *'■ 13 9.90 '' 13 2.86 

'' 8, '' 13 4.68 '' 13 2.34 

*' 11, '' 13 0.77 '' 13 1.95 

The comparison stars are Lalande 11946 and 11976, 8. 

The app. declination of the latter should read 25° 35' 4". 

473, November 27, No. 5, Arc AcJ for 17' 11'^. 43 read IV 22". 43. ° 

" 6, ^' J2 38.75 '^ 12 48.75 

^'^^' " 28, '' 1, Clock '' 5A. 26m. 135. '^ 5^. 24m. 13^. 

'' 3, '^ 5 30 40 - 5 31 40 

" ^> " 5 39 33 " 5 38 33 

475, '* 29, " 8, ArcAJ '' 15^26^01 '* 15' 27". 44 

" 9, '' 13 46.39 '* 13 6.50 

475, December 30, '' 3, Clock '' 5^. 24m. 40^. '' 5A. 23m. 405, 

^'^^' *' 1» " 1, ArcAJ '•' 8' 23". 86 '' 8' 43". 86 

^'^^' " 1. '^ 9, - 8 57.03 - 8 42.95 

^^^^ " 4» *' 2, '* 15 22.12 ^* 15 28.12 

'' 8, ^^ 15 41.37 - 15 41.57 

** 10. " 13 27.40 *' 15 27.40 

^78, - 7, - 6, - 7 0.76 - 7 1.02 

'' 10, '* 6 59.04 '' 6 59.27 

^79' '* 8, - 6, - 21 51.57 - 21 51.86 

" '^^ " 21 61.80 '' 21 52.09 

" 9, <* 21 52.84 - 21 53.13 

^'^9, " 9, '* 1, Hour-circle '' 12A. 58m. 205. '' llA. 58m. 205. 

'' 2, Clock '' 6 56 36 '' 5 56 36 

'' 3, ArcAJ " 7'29'^56 '' 11' 50". 26 

480, - 9, - 9, - 7 26.51 '^ H 47.21 

" 12, '' 7 25.00 - 11 45.69 

^80, " 10, '* 13, Hour-circle ** 12A. 44m. 95. '' 12A. 54m. 95. 

484, *' 18, '' 1, ArcAJ *' 18' 39". 38 *' 18' 36". 38 

21, ** 2, Clock ** 6A. 15m. 545. '' 6^. 14m. 545. 

*' 4, *^ 6 23 30 '* 6 29 30 

485, '* 21, "■ 5 to 8, Hour-circle '< 12 «« 13 

485, " 22, <* 3, ArcA(J " 12^28^92 '* 12' 27^ 25 

"7, '' 12 40.03 '^ 13 40.03 

'' 8' '' 12 55.31 '* 13 55.31 

^85, " 23, - 1, u 12 58.61 u 12 58 87 

487, - 26, - 14, u 13 4.69 - 13 4.58 

'* 17, - 13 13.01 - 13 15.01 

" IS' " 13 2.87 '' 13 2.76 

488, - 26, - 37, - 13 18.63 - 13 18.14 

487, 8, ** 26, *« 8. The planet seems to have been compared throuffhont wi+i. + . . 

each star. One of these is Lalande 10669 af^i^^^^^^^^ ^ J^^ ''"" "^*' 

each limb; the other comparisons on mJ4««l Tt. f comparisons for 

*^^ ^ther star, which is No', rio:::^^.:^!:^' '''' ''' '^ ^'^ '^' ^^'^ 

489, January 8,- 5, Arc AJ /or 18^ 14". 91 ..«.? 18' 32- 74 

" 6, '< 13 29.24 " 9 8.55 

*' 7, ^* 18 16.89 '* 18 34.72 

'* ^' '' 13 45.87 *' 9 25.18 


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clii 


OBSERVATIONS. 


489, 

January- 

8, 

No. 9, 

Arc A(5 / 

or 18' 35". 81 reac? 18' 36". 81 




'' 10, 


' 13 34.51 

' 9 13.81 




'' 12, 


'< 13 53.17 

9 32.48 

490, 

it 

9, 

" 6, 
- 8, 
" 10, 


" 9 49.45 

9 48. 16 * 
' 9 50.85 

' 9 31.20 

9 30.00 

' 9 32. 69 

491, 

' ' 

14, 

'' 2, 
'' 6, 


' 11 28.21 
' 11 28.71 

' 11 29.01 
' 11 29.51 

492, 

(( 

17, 

'^ 9, 
- 11, 
" 13, 


' 13 42.48 
* 13 42. 17 
' 13 42. 38 

' 13 42. 74 
' 13 42.43 
' 13 42. 64 


The reductions in the Monthly Notices E.A.S. X, p. 156 having proved very useful in these 
computations, a few corrigenda to the series as there given are appended : 

November 21, Cape S. T., for 1h. 47m. 45^. 74 read 5h. 4:7m, 455. 74. 


25, Name 
25, 

'' 26, '' 
December 2, No. of Obs. 
" 25, Excess 
*' 26, Excess 


H. C. 11946? " ' 

Anon. 
H. C. 11946? 

6 ' 

— 0' 14". 143 ' 

— 5. 387 ' 


H. C. 11946 
Lalande 11976,8 
H. C. 11946 
4 
— 0' 14". 643 
+ 5. 387 


After introducing these emendations, we obtain detailed results of observations as follows : 
Micrometer-Observations of Mars at the Cape of Good Hope during the opposition of 1849-50. 








Jd, 

Date. 

Limb. 

No. 

Hour circle. 

Clock. 

-X- 



Micr. 

Arc. 




h. m. s. 

h. m, s. 


r. 

/ // 

1849.— Nov.21 

N. 

2 

6 1 25 

6 1 37 

B. A. C. 2058 

+23.468 

10 11.80 


S. 

2 

5 33 56 

5 34 12.5 


+22.774 

9 53.70 


N. 

2 

6 1 25 

6 1 37 

£ Greminor. 

+ 2.437 

1 3.54 


S. 

2 

5 33 56 

5 34 12.5 


+ 1.672 

43.59 

22 

N. 

2 

7 4 10 

7 4 18 


+10„672 

4 38.22 


S. 

2 

7 21 47 

7 21 56 


4-10.182 

4 25.42 

24 

N. 

2 

6 42 22 


Lai. 11854 

+12.712 

5 31.42 


S. 

2 

6 21 48 



+11.940 

5 11.26 

25 

N. 

3 

6 10 47 


Lai. 11946 

— 2.544 

1 6.32 


S. 

3 

6 26 3 



— 3.048 

1 19.45 


N. 

3 

6 10 47 


Lai. 11976,8 

— 8.711 

3 47.08 


S. 

3 

6 26 3 



— 9.206 

3 59.92 

26 

N. 

3 

6 47 3 


Lai. 11946 

— 5.560 

2 24.95 


S. 

3 

7 11 



— 5.013 

2 10.68 


N. 

1 

6 47 3 


Lai. 11976,8 

+ 0.455 

11.83 


S. 

2 

7 11 



+ 1.184 

30.88 

27 

N. 

7 

6 44 

6 1 13 

Lai. 12336 

+10.352 

4 29.87 


S. 

7 

6 7 43 

6 7 56 


+10.969 

4 45.96 

28 

N. 

6 

5 58 44 

5 58 56 


+ 2.652 

1 9.13 


S. 

6 

6 5 36 

6 5 44 


+ 3.228 

1 24.17 

29 

N. 

3 

6 51 11 

6 51 24 


— 5.277 

2 17.56 


S. 

3 

6 59 42 

6 59 56 


— 4.717 

2 2.97 

30 

N. 

2 

5 23 7 

5 23 20 


—12.346 

5 21.86 


S. 

2 

5 33 9 

5 33 19 


—11.766 

5 6.72 

Dec. 1 

N. 

3 

6 2 58 

6 3 10 

Lai. 12395 

—10.393 

4 30.94 


S. 

2 

6 2 36 

6 2 49 


- 9.758 

4 14.38 

2 

N. 

2 

7 16 32 

7 16 38 


—17.962 

7 48.26 


S. 

2 

7 33 33 

7 33 39 


—17.469 

7 35.41 

3 

N, 

3 

6 2 18 


Lai. 11684 

+11.385 

7 56.80 


S. 

3 

6 11 9 



+11.947 

5 11.44 


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OBSERVATIONS. 
Micrometer-Ohservations of liars at the Cape of Good ^oj^e— Continued. 


cliii 


Date. 

Limb. 

N°. 

Hour-Circle. 

Clock. 

■X- 

Jd, 

Micr. 

Arc. 




/i. m. s. 

h. m. s. 


r. 


1819.— Dec. 4 

N. 

4 

5 58 5 

5 58 16 

Lai. 11684 

+ 4.537 

1 58.28 


S. 

4 

6 5 1 

6 5 22 


+ 5.080 

2 12.43 

5 

N. 

5 

5 49 18 


e( 

- 2.031 

52.93 


S. 

5 

5 54 50 



~ 1.452 

37.84 

6 

N. 

5 

5 44 25 

5 44 35 

(C 

— 8.359 

3 37.92 


S. 

5 

5 47 45 

5 47 55 


- 7.822 

3 23.80 


N. 

4 

6 34 49 

6 35 


— 8.579 

3 43.64 


S. 

5 

6 34 48 

6 35 


— 8.004 

3 28.67 

7 

N. 

5 

5 25 22 


u 

—14.497 

6 17.91 


S. 

5 

5 27 55 



—13.867 

6 1.49 


N. 

5 

6 8 20 



+14.726 

6 23.88 


S. 

5 

6 11 8 



+14.071 

6 6.86 

8 

N. 

5 

5 50 58 


(I 

+20.311 

8 49.50 


S. 

5 

5 53 46 



+19.749 

8 34.80 


N. 

5 

5 32 48 



—20.556 

8 55.94 


S. 

5 

6 35 53 



—19.975 

8 40.73 

9 

N. 

2 

6 13 20 

6 13 31 

139 Taurl 

+40.879 

17 45.69 


S. 

2 

6 29 45 

6 29 54 


+40.384 

17 32.79 


N. 

2 

6 13 20 

6 13 31 

Lai. 11684 

+26.024 

11 18.44 


S. 

1 

6 29 45 

6 29 54 


+25.494 

11 4.61 

10 

N. 

2 

6 50 9 

6 50 12 

Lai. 11108 

—16.426 

7 8.20 


S. 

2 

7 5 51 

7 5 57 


-16.976 

7 22.54 


N. 

2 

7 57 27 

7 57 30 


+16.162 

7 1.34 


S. 

2 

8 15 23 

8 15 24 


+16.711 

7 15.64 

11 

N. 

2 

6 20 49 

6 20 41 

Cl 

+11.630 

5 3.17 


S. 

1 

6 32 16 

6 32 22 


+12.228 

5 18.78 

14 

N. 

5 

5 48 9 

5 48 15 

a 

— 0.978 

25.49 


S. 

5 

5 56 35 

5 56 44 


— 0.388 

10.12 

15 

N. 

5 

5 29 23 


C' 

— 4.419 

1 55.20 


S. 

5 

5 34 39 



— 3.853 

1 40.45 

16 

N. 

5 

5 26 52 


a 

— 7.699 

3 20.71 


S. 

5 

5 30 9 



— 7.002 

3 2.53 


N. 

5 

6 3 56 



— 7.654 

3 19.53 


S. 

5 

6 3 56 



— 6.994 

3 2.33 


N. 

5 

6 2l8 44 



+ 7.788 

3 22.97 


S. 

5 

6 28 44 



+ 7.150 

3 6.44 

17 

N. 

5 

6 8 8 


a 

—12.436 

5 24.21 


S. 

5 

6 10 49 



—11.876 

5 9.60 


N. 

5 

6 41 40 



+ 8.485 

3 41.19 


S. 

5 

6 43 52 



+ 7.917 

3 26.38 

18 

N. 

5 

5 47 


it 

+12.858 

5 35.19 


S. 

5 

5 50 41 



+ 12.313 

5 20.98 


N. 

5 

6 33 49 

6 33 54 


—12.840 

5 34.73 


S. 

5 

6 37 35 

6 37 39 


—12.337 

5 21.61 

20 

N. 

2 

5 25 25 

5 25 33 

Lai. 10669 

— 3.766 

1 38.18 


S. 

2 

5 33 51 

5 33 59 


— 4.432 

1 55.53 


N. 

2 

6 4 6 

6 4 10 


+ 3.798 

1 39.02 


S. 

2 

6 13 7 

6 13 12 


+ 4.360 

1 53.65 

21 

N. 

2 

6 15 43 

6 15 43 

a 

+ 2.472 

1 4.43 


S. 

2 

6 22 11 

6 22 12 


+ 3.046 

1 19.41 


N. 

2 

6 46 7 

6 46 11 


— 2.359 

1 1.49 


S. 

2 

6 52 55 

6 52 57 


— 2.982 

1 17.74 

22 

N. 

2 

5 59 39 

5 59 16 

" 

- 1.326 

34.57 


S. 

2 

6 4 33 

6 4 41 


— 1.931 

50.31 


N. 

2 

6 25 27 

6 25 32 


+ 1.474 

38.43 


S. 

2 

6 30 11 

6 30 18 

+ 2.039 

53.16 


Vo 


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cliv 


OBSERVATIONS. 
Micrometer-Observations of Mars at the Cape of Good; Hope — Continued. 









Ad 

Date. 


Limb. 

N°. 

Hour-Circle. 

Clock. 

^ 



Micr. 

Arc. 





h. m. s. 

h. w. s. 


r. 

/ // 

1849.— Dec. 

23 

N. 

1 

5 28 1 

5 98 1 

Lai. 10669 

+ 0.726 

18.93 



S. 

1 

5 31 29 

5 31 29 


+ 1.248 

32.53 


25 

N. 

5 

5 7 4 

5 7 17 

(( 

4- 0.252 

6.. 56 



S. 

5 

5 9 30 

5 9 52 


+ 0.832 

21.69 



N. 

5 

5 37 20 

5 37 28 


-}- 0.262 

6,86 



S. 

5 

5 39 53 

5 40 1 


4- 0.860 

22.43 


26 

N. 

5 

4 44 15 


(( 

-}- 0.468 

12.19 



S. 

5 

4 49 36 


Gen. Cat. N°.8 

+ 1.039 

27.06 



N. 

5 

5 33 6 



— 0.492 

12.82 



S. 

5 

5 35 5 



+ 0.079 

2.06 


29 

N. 

3 

5 26 55 

5 27 2 

Lai. 10669 

-f 2.643 

1 8.91 



S. 

2 

5 27 22 

5 27 26 


+ 3.220 

1 23.94 


30 

N. 

1 



" 

+ 3.827 

1 39.77 

1850.— Jan 

7 

N. 

2 

5 33 47 

5 34 12 

B. A. C. 1562 

—23.990 

10 25.40 



S. 

2 

5 55 21 

5 55 26 


—23.436 

10 10.94 


8 

N. 

1 

4 46 53 

4 47 

B.A.C. 1562 

—14.390 

8 15.13 



S. 

1 

5 2 54 

5 3 2 


—13.789 

7 58.47 



N. 

2 

5 48 52 

5 48 58 


-21.619 

9 23.60 



S. 

2 

6 9 13 

6 9 20 


—21.060 

9 9.02 


9 

c. 

4 

5 44 34 

5 13 8 

li 

—18.933 

8 13.57 


10 

c. 

4 

5 18 10 

5 18 19 

" 

—16.538 

7 11.14 


11 

N. 

2 

5 27 14 

5 27 22 

" 

—14.270 

6 12.00 



S. 

2 

5 45 16 

5 45 23 


—13.796 

5 59.46 


12 

N. 

2 

5 37 40 

5 37 43 

(( 

—11.744 

5 6.17 



S. 

2 

5 53 42 

5 53 52 


—11.302 

4 54.64 


14 

N. 

3 

5 26 27 

5 26 44 

a 

— 6.937 

3 0.83 



S. 

3 

5 40 40 

5 40 55 


— 6.454 

2 48.26 


15 

N. 

3 

5 2 30 

5 2 47 

a 

— 4.538 

1 58.30 



S. 

3 

5 16 40 

5 16 56 


— 4.112 

1 47.20 


16 

N. 

3 

5 40 25 

5 40 37 

u 

— 2.221 

57.91 



S. 

3 

5 44 20 

5 44 12 


— 1.733 

45.25 


17 

N. 

3 

5 10 55 

5 11 3 

a 

— 0.027 

0.69 



S. 

3 

5 23 43 

5 24 13 


+ 0.481 

12.55 



c. 

1 

4 50 23 

4 50 31 


4- 0.202 

5.27 


These reductions rarely afford precisely tlie same figures as are given in the Memoirs and 
Monthly Notices of the Eoyal Astronomical Society, although only few cases occur in which the 
discordance reached an amount capable of sensibly affecting the results. This seems best expli- 
cable upon the assumption that some little excess of delicacy was used at the Cape in points 
where the consequent accuracy was not thought to warrant fuller minuteness in publication, inas- 
much as the effect would not be appreciable. In such instances, the figures published by Mr. 
Maclear have been employed ; and the only deviations from the values given by that zealous and 
accomplished astronomer are for those cases in which the discordance is clearly due to some 
oversight in the reduction. This remark applies especially to the Cape sidereal times of 
observation, which appear to be means between the corrected indications of the clock and those 
of the hour-circle, and in which the want of entire accordance seems owing merely to some 
slight difference in tlie assumed correction of the ephemeris in right-ascension. 


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OBSERVATIONS. 


clv 


MARS I. 

Observations ivith the Cape Equatorial, 



Date. 

Obs. part 

. Cape S.T. 

Wash. M.l 

. t—T. 

Star 

N°. 

Star's 8. 

Corrected 

Meas'd J d 

. Kefr. 

Obs'd d. 

N°. of 
conip. 


N. S. 





h. m, s. 

h. m. s. 

d. 









1849.~Nov. 21 

N. S. 

5 47 45.74 

7 22 6.74 

-39.69298 

21 

+25 7 10.18 

+10 3.41 

1 II 
+10 2.75 

II 
0.66 

+25°17 13.59 

2 2 




N. S. 

5 47 45.74 

7 22 6.74 

39.69298 

35 

16 18.21 

+ 53.62 

+ 53.56 

0,06 

17 11.83 

2 2 



22 

N. S. 

7 13 0.94 

8 43 12.06 

38.63666 

35 

16 18.20 

+ 4 32.12 

+ 4 31.82 

0.30 

20 50.32 

2 2 



24 

N. S. 

6 32 8.96 

7 54 34.96 

36.67043 

17 

22 14,04 

+ 5 21.69 

+ 5 21.34 

0.35 

27 35.73 

2 2 



25 

N. S. 

6 18 31.45 

7 37 3.77 

35.68260 

18 

32 12.47 

- 1 12.96 

— 1 12.88 

0.08 

30 59.51 

3 3 




N. S. 

6 18 31.45 

7 37 3.77 

35.68260 

19 

34 53.25 

— 3 53.75 

— 3 53.50 

0.25 

30 59.50 

3 3 



26 

N. S. 

6 53 ^.72 

8 8 11.37 

34.66098 

18 

32 12.46 

+ 2 17.96 

+ 2 17.81 

0.15 

34 30.42 

3 3 



27 

N. S. 

6 4 18.30 

7 15 1.13 

33.69790 

25 

42 22.65 

— 4 38.21 

— 4 37.91 

0.30 

37 44.44 

7 7 



28 

N. S. 

6 2 15.44 

7 9 2.70 

32.70205 

25 

42 22.64 

— 1 16.73 

- 1 16.65 

0.08 

41 5.91 

6 6 



29 

N. S. 

6 55 30.81 

7 58 13.43 

31.66790 

25 

42 22.63 

+ 2 10.41 

+ 2 10.26 

0.15 

44 33.04 

3 3 



30 

N. S. 

5 28 15.58 

6 27 16.58 

30.73106 

25 

42 22.61 

+ 5 14.65 

+ 5 14.29 

0.36 

47 37.26 

2 2 



Dec. 1 

N. S. 

6 2 55.97 

6 57 55.39 

29.70978 

27 

46 29.94 

+ 4 22.95 

+ 4 22.66 

0.29 

50 52.89 

3 2 



2 

N. S. 

7 25 1.93 

8 15 51.98 

28.65565 

27 

25 46 29.94 

+ 7 42-39 

+ 7 41.83 

0.56 

54 12.33 

2 2 



3 

N. S. 

6 3 29.66 

6 50 36.96 

27.71485 

15 

26 2 7.37 

— 5 4.46 

— 5 4.12 

0.34 

25 57 2.91 

3 3 



4 

N. S. 

6 1 40.38 

6 44 52.27 

26.71884 

15 

2 7.37 

— 2 5.49 

— 2 5.35 

0.14 

26 1.88 

4 4 



5 

N. S. 

5 52 5.85 

6 31 23.39 

25.72820 

15 

2 7.38 

+ 45.44 

+ 45.39 

0.05 

2 52.82 

5 5 



6 

N. S. 

6 9 45.87 

6 45 4.61 

24.71870 

15 

2 7.39 

+ 3 33.75 

+ 3 33.51 

0.24 

5 41.14 

10 10 



7 

N. S. 

5 48 18.48 

6 19 44.83 

23.73629 

15 

2 7.40 

+ 6 12.46 

+ 6 12.04 

0.42 

8 19.86 

10 10 



8 

N. S. 

6 13 26.43 

6 40 52.75 

22.72161 

15 

2 7.41 

+ 8 45.83 

+ 8 45.24 

0.59 

10 53.24 

10 10 



9 

N. S. 

6 24 47.88 

6 48 16.42 

21.71648 

15 

26 2 7.43 

+ 11 12.29 

+ 11 11.52 

0.77 

13 19.72 

2 1 




N. S. 

6 21 37.20 

6 45 6.26 

21.71868 

J2 

25 55 38.50 

+17 40.45 

+17 39.24 

1.21 

13 18.95 

2 2 



10 

N. S. 

7 32 9.79 

7 51 31.39 

20.67255 

10 

26 22 54.52 

— 7 12.51 

— 7 11.94 

0.57 

15 42.01 

4 4 



11 

]\.S. 

6 24 39.74 

6 40 16.48 

19.72203 

10 

22 54.54 

— 5 11.33 

— 5 10.97 

0.3S 

17 43.21 

2 1 



14 

N. S. 

5 52 25.34 

5 56 19.63 

16.75255 

10 

22 54.61 

+ 17.83 

+ 17.81 

0.02 

23 12.44 

5 5 



15 

N. S. 

5 32 6.06 

5 32 7.77 

15.76936 

10 

22 54.63 

+ 1 47.94 

+ 1 47.82 

0.12 

24 42.57 

5 5 



16 

N. S. 

5 28 35.44 

5 24 41.81 

14.77452 

10 

22 54.65 

+ 3 11.84 

+ 3 11.62 

0.22 

26 6.49 

5 5 




N. S. 

6 16 21.04 

6 12 19.59 

14.74144 

10 

22 54.65 

+ 3 13.04 

+ 3 12.82 

0.22 

26 7.69 

10 10 



17 

N. S. 

6 26 8.30 

6 18 9.34 

13.73739 

10 

22 54.66 

+ 4 25.6.5 

+ 4 25.31 

0.31 

27 20.31 

10 10 



18 

N. S. 

6 12 18.28 

6 25.67 

12.74970 

10 

22 54.68 

+ 5 28.51 

+ 5 28.13 

0.38 

28 23.19 

10 10 



20 

N. S. 

5 49 10.66 

5 29 30.01 

]0. 77118 

9 

31 46.49 

— 1 46.72 

— 1 46.60 

0.12 

29 59.77 

4 4 



21 

N. S, 

6 34 13.76 

6 10 29.83 

9.74271 

9 

31 46.52 

— 1 8,09 

- 1 S.OO 

0.09 

30 38.43 

4 4 



22 

N. S. 

6 15 1.00 

5 47 24.30 

8.75875 

9 

31 46.55 

— 44.17 

— 44.12 

0.05 

31 2.38 

4 4 



23 

N. S. 

5 29 48.99 

4 58 23.78 

7.79278 

9 

31 46.58 

— 25.76 

— 25.73 

0.03 

31 20.82 

1 1 



24 

C. 

6 32 20.22 

5 56 48.85 

6.75221 

9 

31 46.61 

— 16.00 

~ 15.98 

0.02 

31 30.61 

3 



25 

N. S. 

5 8 26.05 

4 29 12.53 

5.81305 

9 

31 46.64 

— 14.15 

— 14.13 

0.02 

31 32.49 

5 5 




N. S. 

5 38 42.35 

4 59 23.87 

5.79209 

9 

31 46.64 

— 14.66 

— 14.64 

0.02 

31 31.98 

5 5 



26 

N. S. 

4 47 2.67 

4 3 56.74 

4.83059 

9 

31 46 68 

-- 19.65 

— 19.63 

0.02 

31 27.03 

5 5 




N. S. 

5 34 9.63 

4 50 55.98 

4.79796 

8 

31 22.64 

+ 5.39 

+ 5.38 

0.01 

.31 28.03 

5 5 



29 

N. S. 

5 27 13 31 

4 32 13.06 

— 1.81096 

9 

31 46.78 

— 1 16.51 

— 1 16.42 

0.09 

30 30.27 

3 2 


1850.- 

-Jan. 7 

N. S. 

5 44 46.65 

4 14 20.32 

+ 7.17662 


13 59.86 

+10 18.89 

+ 10 18.17 

0.72 

23 18.75 

2 2 



8 

N. S. 

5 59 5.12 

4 24 40.54 

8.18380 


12 59.89 

+ 9 16.97 

+ 9 16.31 

0.66 

22 16.86 

2 2 



9 

C. 

5 13 4.80 

3 34 51.85 

9.14921 


12 59.92 

+ 8 14.13 

+ 8 13.57 

0.56 

21 14,05 

4 



10 

c. 

5 18 14.70 

3 36 4.99 

10.15006 


12 59.95 

+ 7 11.63 

+ 7 11.14 

0.49 

20 11.58 

4 



11 

N. S. 

5 36 18.51 

3 50 9.96 

11.15984 


12 59.98 

+ 6 6.16 

+ 6 5.74 

0.42 

19 6.14 

2 2 



32 

N. S. 

5 45 44.58 

3 55 38.54 

12. 16364 


13 0.01 

+ 5 0.75 

+ 5 0.40 

0.35 

18 0.76 

2 2 



14 

N. S. 

5 33 37.05 

3 35 41. 18 

14.14978 


13 0.06 

+ 2 54.74 

+ 2 54.54 

0.20 

15 54.80 

3 3 



15 

N. S. 

5 9 40.33 

3 7 52.47 

15.13047 


13 0.09 

+ 1 52,88 

— 1 52,75 

0.13 

14 52.97 

3 3 



16 

N. S. 

5 42 26.16 

3 36 37.03 

16.15043 


13 0.12 

+ 51.64 

— 51.58 

0.06 

J3 51.76 

3 3 

~ 


17 

N. 0. S. 

5 13 34.02 

3 3 53.70 

+17.12770 

1 ^ 

-26 13 0.14 

— 5.85 

— 5.84 

0.01 -1 

-26 12 54.29 

3 1 3 


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clvi 


OBSERVATIONS. 


F.— OBSEEVATIONS OF MAES I. WITH THE CAPE MUEAL CIEOLE. 
To be corrected in the Memoirs E.A.S., vol. xx. 

Page 99, November 24, Observed Z. D., /or ^^".Q2read 33". 62. 

104, December 12, App. K. A., " 5/i. 53m. '* 5A. 52m. 

105, " 12, H. C. 11946 "68 39.55 "6 7 39.55 


MARS I. 

Observations ivith the Cape Ilural Circle . 







t—T. 



I 
Obs'd 8, 

'^°. Comp. 

Date. 


Obs. part. 

Cape S.T. 

Wash. M.T. 

Obs'd Zen. Dist. 

Refr.* 

N. S. 




h. in. s. 

h. m. s. 

d. 

o / // 

/ // 

o 1 II 


1849.— Nov 

18 

N. S. 

6 23 48.04 

8 9 50.86 

— 42.65983 

59 3 11.00 

1 34.96 

+ 25 7 8.00 

1 1 


19 

N. S. 

6 23 8.14 

8 5 15.17 

41.66302 

6 33.22 

1 34.62 

10 30.22 

1 1 


21 

N. S. 

6 21 36.84 

7 55 52.30 

39.66953 

13 20.13 

1 36.28 

17 17.13 

1 1 


22 

N. S. 


7 51 5.18 

38.67286 

16 49.76 

1 34.74 

20 46.76 

1 1 


24 

N. S. 

6 18 51.51 

7 41 19.69 

36.67963 

23 19.85 

1 36.63 

27 16.85 

1 1 


25 

N. S. 


7 36 22.43 

35.68307 

26 58.27 

1 37.66 

30 55.27 

1 1 


27 

N. S. 

6 15 35.71 

7 26 16.69 

33.69008 

33 50.62 

1 36.83 

37 47.62 

3 2 


28 

N.S. 

6 14 23.48 

7 21 8.75 

32.69365 

37 11.42 

I 36.93 

41 8.42 

3 2 


29 

N.S. 


7 15 57.56 

31.69725 

40 30.51 

1 36.49 

44 27.51 

1 2 


30 

N.S. 

6 11 49.46 

7 10 43.33 

30.70089 

43 43.13 

1 38.37 

47 40.13 

1 2 

Dec 

. 1 

N.S. 


7 5 26.18 

29.70456 

46 55.53 

1 38.91 

50 52.53 

2 1 


2 

N.S. 

6 9 3.91 

7 6.41 

28.70826 

50 5.73 

1 37.37 

54 2.73 

2 2 


3 

N. S. 


6 54 43.72 

27.71199 

53 7.80 

1 36.98 

57 4.80 

1 1 


4 

N. S. 


6 49 18.46 

26.71576 

59 56 7.68 

1 37.36 

26 4.68 

2 2 


6 

N.S. 


6 38 20.74 

24.72337 

60 1 43.96 

1 37.84 

26 5 40.96 

2 2 


7 

N.S. 


6 32 48.70 

23.72721 

4 24.53 

1 37.62 

8 21.53 

2 1 


8 

N.S. 


6 27 14.75 

22.73108 

6 56.08 

1 37.61 

10 53.08 

2 2 


9 

N. S. 


6 21 39.22 

21.73496 

9 21.74 

1 39.27 

13 18.74 

2 2 


10 

N.S. 

5 56 25.05 

6 16 2.34 

20 „ 73886 

11 34.70 

1 38.77 

15 31.70 

2 2 


11 

N.S. 

5 54 42.00 

6 10 23.65 

19.74278 

13 43.08 

1 38.68 

17 40.08 

2 , 2 


12 

N.S. 

5 52 58.33 

6 4 44.38 

18.74671 

15 41.78 

1 40.14 

19 38.78 

1 1 


14 

N. S. 

5 49 28,74 

5 53 23.52 

16.75459 

19 14.75 

1 40.39 

23 11.75 

2 2 


15 

N. S. 

5 47 43.14 

5 47 42.29 

15.7.5854 

20 48,62 

1 39.39 

24 45.62 

2 2 


16 

N.S. 

5 45 57.60 

5 42 1.12 

14.76249 

22 9.43 

1 38.22 

26 6.43 

1 1 


17 

N. S. 

5 44 12.23 

5 36 20.14 . 

13.76643 

23 28.56 

1 39.03 

27 23.56 

2 2 


18 

N.S. 

5 42 27.16 

5 30 39.44 

12.77038 

24 25.64 

1 39.48 

28 22.64 

2 2 


20 

N. S. 

5 38 59.22 

5 19 20.24 

10.77824 

26 3,29 

1 40.96 

30 0.29 

1 1 


21 

, N.S. 

5 37 16.80 

5 13 42.20 

9.78215 

26 39.46 

1 40.98 

30 36.46 

2 2 


22 

N.S. 


5 8 5.26 

8.78505 

27 6.13 

1 40.09 

31 3.13 

2 2 


23 

N. S. 

5 33 55.59 

5 2 29.71 

7.78993 

27 23.56 

1 39.28 

31 20.56 

2 2 


24 

N. S. 

5 32 17.64 

4 56 55.95 

6.79380 

27 32.29 

1 40.98 

31 29.29 

2 2 


26 

N.S. 

5 29 7.21 

4 45 54.38 

4.80145 

27 30.07 

1 39.46 

31 27.07 

2 2 


27 

N.S. 

5 27 35.16 

4 40 26.67 

3.80525 

27 18.95 

1 40,10 

31 15.95 

2 2 


29 

N.S. 

5 24 38.73 

4 29 38.90 

— 1.81874 

26 34.42 

1 39.55 

30 31.42 

2 2 


31 

N. S. 

5 20 53.05 

4 18 2.01 

+ 0.17919 

25 26.70 

1 40.63 

29 23.70 

2 2 

1850.— Jan 

. 3 

N. S. 

5 18 5.27 

4 3 26.96 

3.16906 

23 13.48 

1 38.82 

27 10.48 

2 2 


4 

N. S. 

5 16 55.66 

3 58 21.63 

4.16553 

22 21,07 

1 38.69 

26 18.07 

2 2 


7 

N.S. 

5 13 46.97 

3 43 25.70 

7.15516 

19 22.25 

1 40.34 

23 19.25 

1 1 


8 

C. 

5 12 50.86 

3 38 33.86 

8.15178 

18 21.23 

1 39.47 

22 18.23 

4 


9 

c. 

5 11 58.33 

3 33 45.56 

9.14844 

17 22.09 

1 39.51 

21 19.09 

1 


10 

c. 

5 11 9.31 

3 29 0.77 

10.14515 

16 17.41 

1 37.98 

20 14.41 

5 


11 

c. 

5 10 23.91 

3 24 19.58 

11.14189 

15 11.24 

1 37.84 

19 8.24 

5 


12 

c. 

5 9 42.22 

3 19 42.08 

12.13868 

14 7.97 

1 39.22 

18 4.97 

5 


14 

c. 

5 8 29.71 

3 10 37.95 

14.13238 

12 0.97 

1 38.24 

15 57.97 

5 


15 

c. 

5 7 58.35 

3 6 10.76 

15.12929 

10 58.99 

1 38.61 

14 55.99 

4 


16 

c. 

5 7 31.91 

3 1 48.49 

16.12626 

9 57.81 

1 38.36 

13 54.81 

5 


17 

c. 


2 57 29.13 

-f- 17.12325 

60 9 0,22 

1 37.46 

-f 26 12 57.22 

5 


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OBSERVATIONS. 


clvi 


a.— OBSEEVATIONS OF MAES I. WITH THE CAMBRIDGE EQUATOEIAL. 

A comparatively large number of observations of right-ascension only are given in the present 
volume; as these however not only have no relation to the problem before us, but are incapable, 
under any circumstances, of furnishing a trustworthy value for the parallax, (s. Astronomical 
Journal, W. 103,) they have not been critically examined. To the observations for declination 
the following corrections or modifications have been applied : 

Page 453, November 15, 16. The ''unknown star" is the comparison-star of the preceding day.— (Bessel Z. 348.) 
^^^» " l^j 1'^' The comparisons were evidently with the south limb, not the north. 

Mean aJ, for 3' 34^'. 69 read 0' 34'^ 69. 
The planet was south of Bessel Z. 405, not north. 
There is some undetected error here. 
The comparisons are neither accordant with one another nor with the mean. The second 

series, upon reduction, gives aJ ~ 0^ 34'^ 10 — 0". 02 = 0^ 34^^ 08 ; but even then the 

difference between the north and south limb is nearly twice the diameter of the planet. 

The comparisons will, if used as follows, give nearly the average accordance with the 

Ephemeris : 

Mars, S. limb, N. of Bessel 405. 
Chron. Corr. Sid. time. Microm. 


457, December 17. 

458, 

458, " 

459, January 


27. 

29,30. 
1. 


Adopted 
zero. 


\h. 54m. 40s. 8. 59s. 4. Ih. 53m. 41s. 4. 

and the values have been assumed. 
^60, "■ 5, results, line 1^ Mean aJ, for V 45^ 10 read 2' 4". 10. 

3, '' '' 1 45 .01 '' 2 4 .01 

460, " 5, '<■ 3, Microm. *' 8r. 394 '* 18r. 394 


Micrometer 
Rev. Arc. 


Corr. 


AJ 


53r.428. 50r. 034. 3r. 394 33". 26 —0.02 33.24 


The Cambridge series will then be as follows : 


MARS I. 

Ohservations with the Camhridge Eqiiatoriah 


Date. 

Obs. part. 

Camb. S.T. 

Wash. M.T. 

t-T, 

Star 

No. 

Star's d. 

Mcas.i)^. 

Refr. 

Obs'd ^. 

N-'. comp. 
N. S. 




h. m. s. 

h. in, s. 

(1. 


° 1 II 





1849 

—Nov. 14 

N. S. 

6 42 8.05 

14 41 18.46 

—46,38798 

34 

+24 57 13.56 

—2 35.52 

0/^05 

+24 54 37.99 

3 4 


15 

N. 

9 50 9.35 

17 44 53.04 

45.26050 

30 

25 1 46.63 

—3 22.56 

.08 

58 23.99 

1 



S. 

10 2 51.01 

17 57 32.62 

45.25171 

34 

.24 57 13.53 

+ 54.36 

.02 

24 58 7.91 

3 


16 

N. S. 

2 41 22.98 

10 33 21.00 

44.56017 

30 

25 1 46.60 

—1 14.59 

.04 

25 31.97 

4 4 



S. 

10 32 16.55 

18 22 57.42 

44.23406 

30 

1 46.60 

— 18.07 

.01 

1 28.52 

2 


§1 

N. S. 

3 21 13.46 

10 53 25.41 

39.54623 

26 

14 16.54 

+3 8.46 

.07 

17 25.07 

5 10 



N. S. 

10 14 48.29 

17 47 52.16 

39.25842 

26 

14 16.54 

+4 6.13 

.11 

18 22.78 

5 6 


26 

S. 

10 58 38.65 

18 9 56.11 

34.24310 

22 

35 14.71 

+ 11.95 

.01 

35 26.67 

5 


30 

N. S. 

10 44 31.67 

17 50 7.80 

30.25685 

20 

25 45 36.56 

+3 12.02 

.10 

25 48 48.68 

1 6 


Dec. 6 

C. 

11 50 52.75 

18 22 42.54 

24.23423 


26 9 

—2 1.51 

.14 

26 6 

3 


11 

N. S. 

55 21.97 

7 9 19.60 

19.70206 

13 

16 22.42 

-j-1 3.55 

.04 

17 26,01 

5 3 


12 

N. 

1 59 3.17 

8 8 54.46 

18.66048 


19 

+ 3.00 

00 

19 

1 


17 

N. 

2 10 4.80 

8 14.63 

13.66650 

11 

26 39.62 

+ 34.67 

.01 

27 14.30 

4 


18 

S. 

3 4 49.77 

8 50 54.81 

12.63131 


29 

—I 6.52 

.02 

28 

\ 


21 

S. 

2 36 14.38 

8 10 36.38 

9.65930 


29 

+ 51.06 

.02 

30 

5 


27 

N. 

2 43 36.12 

7 54 21.44 

3.67058 

8 

31 23.67 

- 18.41 

.01 

31 4.25 

5 


28 

S. 

1 44 1.50 

6 51 0.67 

2.71458 

7 

26 58.30 

+3 35.28 

.08 

30 33.66 

2 



N. S. 

3 11 3.90 

8 17 48.81 

2.65430 

7 

26 58.30 

+3 40.64 

0.07 

30 39.01 

5 5 


29 

N. 

12 17 13.70 

17 18 33.22 

— 1.27878 

6 

34 2.00 

—3 51.91 

1.45 

30 8.64 

4 


31 

S. 

6 4 1.98 

10 58 30.81 

+ 0.45730 

5 

27 39.52 

-f-1 11.03 

0.02 

28 50.57 

12 

1850. 

—Jan. 1 

S. 

1 53 41.40 

6 44 55.34 

1.28120 

5 

27 39.56 

+ 33.24 

.01 

28 12.81 

11 


4 

N. 

1 46 58.82 

6 26 26.13 

4.26836 

4 

26 46.97 

— 46.05 

.02 

26 0.90 

4 


5 

N. S. 

4 44 31.07 

9 19 33.38 

5.38858 

4 

26 47.01 

-1 55.41 

.04 

24 51.56 

5 5 


6 

S. 

1 35 31.77 

6 7 9.13 

6.25497 


4-26 21 

+3 0.10 

.07 

26 23 

7 


10 

s. 

2 26 28.06 

6 42 13.44 

-flO. 27-932 



+3 33,80 

0.07 


7 


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clviii OBSERVATIONS, 

H.— OBSEEYATIONS OF MAES I. WITH THE ATHENS MEEIDIAN-OIECLE. 

The observations of Mars at Athens were made by Professor Bouris, then Director of the 
observatory at that place, for the special purpose of proving useful in connection with the labors 
of Lieut. Gilliss at Santiago, the meridian- circle being the only instrument at the observatory 
available for the purpose. A full description of the measurements and their results, together 
with an extended discussion, is given by Mr. Bouris in the Astronomisclie Nachrichten, vol. 
XXXVII, pp. 153-188. On only four nights was the observation of /9 Taiiri omitted ; and, 
in general, the choice of other stars was guided by the programme of Ifars-culminating stars 
in the London Nautical Almanac for 1849. The readings of the alhidade-level and the correc- 
tions for refraction computed in triplicate by Mr. Bouris are there given, and after such pains- 
taking zeal on his part, it has seemed superfluous to renew any part of the computation. I 
have consequently-adopted the values of the correction for refraction as given by this astronomer. 

The only typographical errors to be noticed are : 

Page 165, Nov. 26, 5 Geminorum, Circle-reading, /or 346° 30' 44^63, r^oJ 346° 29' 44^63. 
Dec. 14, 1937 B.A C, Level, for 2^^08, read 2''. 80. 

167, Jan. 2, for 1648 Hist. C61., read 1648 B.A.C. 

il O it li ii ii ii ii 

5, *' '^ '' " '' 

168, 6, 10669, H. C. Result, /or 34".50, read Sl^'.SO. 

169, 15, Mars N. Circle-reading, /or 348^17' 21". 50, read 348^ 18' 21".50. 
171, Feb. 1-10, /or 1754, Hist. Cel., read 1754 B. A. C. 

The diaphragm of the Athens circle was provided with two fixed horizontal threads, at a dis- 
tance from one another which Mr. Bouris gives as 26^^ To insure variety of circumstance, and 
for other reasons mentioned in his article already cited. Professor Bouris adopted the practice of 
observing with the two threads alternately, using the one on the even^ the other on the odd days 
of the month, analogously to the rule which he followed for guiding his selection of the limb 
to be observed. 

The first question for consideration^ therefore^ is to deduce from the materials furnished the 
best value for the distance of these threads. The following table presents in a compact form the 
data as obtained from the values of the zenith-distance of the zero-pointy afforded by the indi- 
vidual observations. Denoting the two threads by the letters A and B, the former being the 
upper, (or that one which furnishes the larger circle-reading for the observation, and the smaller 
for the zenith-distance of the zero-point,) the table will explain itself. The columns headed 
^'Sum" present the sum-total of the seconds, belonging to the distance upon the graduated arc. 
From the sums at the foot of the columns, we deduce the adopted value of the thread-inierval 
27'^299, which has been employed through the whole series ; careful scrutiny having failed to 
detect either any gradual or any sudden and permanent change in this value during the entire 
series of ilfars-observations. 


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OBSERVATIONS. 


clix 


Interval of Declination-threads in the Athens Meridian- Circle. 





A, 


B. 

Mean. 


^ 

Name. 







B—A. 









N°. Obs. 

Sum. 

N°. Obs. 

Sum. 

A, 

B, 


a 

B. A. C. 1648 . 

1 

11,2 

2 

80,3 

11.20 

40.15 

28.95 

b 

/?Tauri . . . 

17 

217.9 

17 

680.3 

12.82 

40.02 

27.20 

c 

118 Tauri . . 

6 

62.3 

5 

192.6 

10.38 

38.52 

28.14 

d 

B.A. C. 1754 . 

7 

96.2 

7 

279,2 

13.74 

39.89 

26.15 

e 

125 Tauri . . 

1 

12.3 

3 

115.2 

12.30 

38.40 

26.10 

/ 

B. A. C. 1937 . 

14 

192.0 

]3 

536.1 

13.71 

41.24 

27.58 

S 

5 Greminorum . 

2 

25.7 

2 

85.6 

12.86 

42.78 

29.92 

1 

B. A. C. 1562 . 

7 

94.7 

6 

243.7 

13.53 

40,62 

27.09 

9 

Lai. 10669 . . 

8 

87.6 

6 

226.8 

10.95 

37.80 

26.85 

10 

Lai. 11108 . . 

9 

124,9 

8 

330,5 

13.88 

41.31 

27.43 

12 

139 Tauri . . 

2 

24.4 

3 

117.4 

12.20 

39.13 

26.93 

15 

Lai. 11684 . . 

1 

12.1 



12.07 



17 

Lai. 11854 . . 



1 

37.2 


37.22 


18 

Lai. 11946 . . 



1 

42.7 


42.71 


21 

B. A. C. 2058 . 

1 

11.9 



11.91 



25 

Lai. 12336 . . 

1 

12.2 

1 

39.2 

12.15 

39.23 

27.08 

35 

s Greminorum , 
Sum . . . 

1 

11.9 

1 

39.6 

11.91 

39,56 

27.65 

78 

997.3 

76 

3046.4 

12.785 

40.084 

27.299 


The thread A has been taken as the standard, and all the circle-readings corresponding to 
observations with B, are reduced by subtracting the assumed distance between the two threads 
The observations on the successive days hardly permit any trustworthy inferences regarding the 
fluctuations of the zenith-point, but show the nonexistence of any progressive change. They 
are here given in full detail in the table of circle-readings. 

In this table all the observations of each star are grouped together ; the columns headed 
Level and Refraction being taken directly from Professor Bouris's paper. The apparent decli- 
nations of the stars observed have been deduced'from the list of mean places and^constants for 
reduction to the apparent equinox, given at the close of the preceding division of this article 
The ninth column, headed Zero of circle, gives the declination corresponding to the circle- 
reading 0°, or, in other words, the distance of the equator-point for the thread A from the zero 
of graduation, as indicated by each observation. 


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clx 


OBSERYATIONS, 


Circle-readings of Stars observed at Athens in connexion with Mars I, 


No. 

Name. 

Date. 

Circle. 

Level. 

Refraction. 

Corr'd reading. 

Star's 8, 

Zero of circle. 




o / // 

// 

// 

o / // 

1 II 

/ // 

h 

{3 Tauri 

1849.— Nov. 22 

350 31 24.00 

—4.16 

-9.57 

350 31 10.27 

+28 28 22.3 

37 57 12.0 



23 

30 58.00 

4.24 

9.62 

30 44.14 

22.4 

11.0 



25 

30 52.63 

2.24 

9.41 

30 40.98 

22.5 

14.2 



26 

31 20.75 

1.44 

9.28 

31 10.03 

22.5 

12.5 



28 

31 21.88 

1.36 

9.51 

31 11.01 

22.6 

11.6 



29 

30 50.75 

0.08 

9.67 

30 41.00 

22.6 

14.3 



30 

31 18.50 

0.40 

9.66 

31 8.44 

22.7 

14.3 



Dec. 4 

31 23.00 

4.08 

9.66 

31 9.26 

22.9 

13.6 



9 

30 56.38 

1.52 

9.71 

30 45.15 

23.1 

10.7 



J4 

31 24.63 

2.08 

9.77 

31 12.78 

23.2 

10.4 



15 

30 56.13 

1.28 

9.84 

30 45.01 

23.3 

11.0 



16 

31 23.88 

2.08 

9.73 

31 12.07 

23.4 

11.3 



17 

30 51.63 

0.24 

9.69 

30 41.70 

23.4 

14.4 



19 

30 56.88 

1.52 

9.64 

30 45.72 

23.5 

10.5 



21 

30 58.25 

2.64 

9.59 

30 46.02 

23.6 

10.3 



22 

31 22.13 

—0.48 

9.64 

31 12.01 

23.7 

11.7 


^ 

23 

30 52.50 

+1.04 

9.57 

30 43.97 

23.7 

12.4 



24 

31 20.50 

—0.40 

9.53 

31 10.57 

23.8 

13.2 



28 

31 21.13 

1.76 

9.46 

31 9.91 

24.0 

13.1 



29 

30 53.00 

1.44 

9.49 

30 42.07 

24.0 

14.6 



1850 Jan. 1 

30 53.38 

—1.60 

9.58 

30 42.20 

24.1 

14.6 



8 

31 18.25 

0.00 

9.67 

31 8.58 

24,5 

15.9 



10 

31 19.25 

4-1.92 

9.62 

31 11.55 

24.6 

13.0 



15 

30 53.83 

—0.08 

9.74 

30 43.81 

24.8 

13.7 



19 

30 56.00 

—1.92 

9.54 

30 44.54 

24.9 

13.1 



26 

31 20.25 

+0.24 

9.80 

31 10.69. 

25.2 

14.5 



27 

30 51.50 

2.24 

9.49 

30 44.25 

25.2 

13.6 



29 

30 54.38 

1.04 

9.87 

30 45.55 

25.3 

12.4 



Feb. 1 

31 23.00 

1.44 

10.18 

31 14.26 

25.3 

11.0 



2 

31 20.50 

+0.88 

9.83 

31 11.55 

25.4 

13.8 



3 

30 55.75 

—0.56 

9.79 

30 45.40 

25.4 

12.7 



4 

31 22.13 

+0.16 

9.67 

31 12.62 

25.4 

12.8 



5 

30 55.75 

—0.56 

9.66 

30 45.53 

25.5 

12.7 



10 

31 20.63 

+1.68 

9.70 

31 12.61 

25.6 

13.0 
12.76 

21 

B. A. C. 2058 

1849.— Nov. 22 

347 10 15.75 

—4.40 

13.06 

347 9 58.29 

+25 7 10.2 

37 57 11.9 

35 

g Geminorum 

1849.— Nov. 22 

347 19 23.25 

—4.08 

12.90 

347 19 6.27 

+25 16 18.2 

37 57 11.9 



23 

18 56.25 

—4.80 

12.91 

18 38.54 

18.1 

12.3 
12.10 

17 

H. C. 11854 

1849.— Nov. 23 

347 24 53.75 

—4.16 

12.81 

347 24 36.78 

+25 22 14.0 

37 57 10.2 

S 

5 Geminorum 

1849.— Nov. 25 

346 29 16.00 

—2.32 

13.52 

346 29 0.16 

+24 26 43.5 

37 57 16.0 



26 

29 44.63 

0.24 

13.35 

30 31.04 

43.5 

12.5 



28 

29 46.88 

—2.96 

13.67 

29 30.25 

43.5 

13.3 



29 

29 14.63 

+0.56 

13.90 

29 1.29 

43.4 

14.9 
14.18 

18 

H. C. 11946 

1849.— Nov. 25 

347 34 44.25 

—2.16 

12.40 

347 34 29.69 

+25 32 12.4 

37 57 15.4 

25 

H. 0. 12336 

1849.— Nov. 28 

347 45 24.63 

—1.84 

12.34 

347 45 10.45 

+25 42 22.6 

37 57 12.2 



29 

44 55.75 

+0.16 

12.54 

44 43.37 

22.6 

11.9 
12.05 

/ 

B. A. C. 1937 

1849.— Dec. 4 

347 29 34.25 

-4.16 

12.80 

347 29 17.29 

+25 26 31.6 

37 57 14.3 



14 

29 36.13 

2.08 

12.96 

29 20.37 

31.7 

11.3 



15 

29 6.50 

0.72 

13.02 

28 52.76 

31.8 

11.7 



16 

29 33.88 

—1.44 

12.89 

29 19.55 

31.8 

12.2 



17 

29 2.25 

+0.32 

12.84 

28 49.73 

31.8 

14.8 



19 

29 6.25 

—1.44 

12.77 

28 52.04 

31.8 

12.5 



21 

29 7.13 

—2.16 

12.75 

28 52.22 

31.9 

12.4 



22 

29 32.00 

+0.16 

12.77 

29 19.39 

31.9 

12.5 



23 

29 2.75 

1.44 

12.70 

28 51.49 

31.9 

13.1 



24 

29 32.25 

+0.64 

12.66 

29 20.23 

31.9 

11.7 


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OBSERVATIONS. cll^i 

Cirde'readings of Stars observed at Athens in connection with Mars I— Continued. 


No 

. 1 Name. 

Date. 

\ Circle. 

Level. 

Refraction. 

j 
Corr'd reading, j Star's d. 

i 

Zero of circle 

i 


1 
/ 

B. A. C. 193 

1 1849.-Dee. 2. 

! 
i 347 29 30.25 

// 
-0.56 

12.55 

/ // 

347 29 17.14 

j o / // 

j +25 26 32.0 

1 ° 1 II 
\ 37 57 14.9 




21 

) 29 2.88 

0.00 

12.61 

28 50.27 

1 32.0 

1 14.4 




1850.— Jan. 2 ; 29 31.88 

+0.72 

12.82 

29 19.78 

1 

1 32.1 

12.3 


: 

3 29 4.75 

—0.72 

12.74 

28 51.29 

32.1 

13.5 



l 

! 29 5.63 

—1.92 

12.82 

28 50.89 

32.2 

1 14.0 



i € 

1 29 28.88 

+1.U4 

12.86 

1 29 17.06 

1 32.2 

1 15.1 


j 

1 ^ 

29 28.13 

+0.96 

12.84 

1 29 16.25 

32.3 

16.0 



18 

\ 29 5.63 

: —0.88 

12.66 

j 28 52.09 

i 32.6 

13.2 



26 

\ 29 29.88 

+0.24 

12.99 

29 17.13 

i 32.9 

\ 15.8 


1 

27 

29 2.50 

0.56 

12.59 

28 50.47 

1 32.9 

15.1 



29 

\ 29 3.13 

1.36 

13.11 

28 51.38 1 33.0 

i 14.3 



Feb. 1 

29 30.75 

3.52 

13.54 

29 20.73 33.1 

1 

i 12.4 



1 2 

1 

29 28.50 

+1.52 

13.03 

29 16.99 33.1 

i 16.1 




3 

29 5.38 

—1.20 

12.96 

28 51.22 

33.1 

j 14.6 




1 "^ 

29 32.75 

+0.16 

12.81 

29 20.10 

33.2 

i 13.1 




5 

29 3.75 

—0 64 

12.80 

28 50.31 

33.2 

15.6 




10 

29 30.38 

+1.60 

12.86 

29 19.12 

33.3 

14.2 
13.74 


15 

H. C. 11684 . 

1849.-Dec. 4 

348 5 11.13 

—3.60 

12.20 

348 4 55.33 

+26 2 7.4 

37 57 12.07 


12 

139Tauri . . 

1849 Dec. 9 

347 58 13.75 

--1.52 

12.37 

347 57 59.86 

+25 55 38.5 

37 57 11.3 



1850.— Feb. 3 

58 12.75 

—1.52 

12.45 

57 58.78 

39.1 

13.0 



i 

4 

58 39.63 

+0.48 

12.30 

58 27.81 

39.2 

11.4 




5 

58 13.75 

—0.80 

12.29 

58 0.66 

39.2 

11.2 




10 

58 36.50 

+2.24 

12.35 

58 26.39 

39.4 

' 13.0 
11.98 


10 

H.C. 11108 . 

1849— Dec. 14 

348 25 56.25 

—2.08 

11.98 

348 25 42.19 

+26 22 54.6 

37 57 12.4 



i 

15 

25 28.13 

1.52 

12.03 

25 14.58 

54.6 

12.7 




22 

25 54.63 

—0.72 

11.80 

25 42.11 

54.8 

12.7 




23 

25 24.13 

+1.52 

11.72 

25 13.93 

54.8 

13.6 




24 

25 52.75 

—0.08 

11.69 

25 40.98 

54.8 

13.8 




1850.— Jan. 2 

25 54.38 

0.80 

11.84 

25 41.74 

55.1 

13.4 




3 

25 25.13 

0.72 

11.77 

25 12.64 

55.2 

15.3 




5 

25 29.25 

3.60 

11.84 

25 13.81 

55.2 

14.1 




6 

25 52.00 

+0.55 

11.88 

25 40.68 

55.2 

14.5 




19 

25 28.38 

—1.04 

11.68 

25 15.66 

55.7 

12.7 




26, 

25 52.75 

—1.36 

11.99 

25 39.40 

55.9 

16.5 




27 1 

25 24.00 

+1.12 

11.62 

25 13.50 

55.9 

15.1 




29 1 

25 27.25 

0.80 

12.10 

25 15.95 

56.0 

12.8 




Feb. 1 i 

25 53.38 

+2.40 

12.50 

25 43.28 56.1 

12.8 




3 

25 26.13 

-1.04 

11.98 

25 13.11- 1 56.2 

15.8 




4 

25 55.25 

0.00 

11.84 

25 43.41 1 56.2 

12.8 




10 

i 

25 50.63 i 

+1.68 

11.88 

25 40.43 56.4 

16.0 
13.94 


10* 

H. 0. 11108 pr. 

1849.— Dec. 28 

348 27 J. 50 1 

—0.64 

11.59 

348 28 49.27 ^ +26 22 





29 

26 37.13 i 

0.08 

11.64 

26 25.41 





1850.— Feb. 5 

25 38.63 

—0.72 

11.82 

26 25.09 



e 

125Tauri . . 

1849.— Dec. 17 

347 50 5L88 

—0.32 

12.46 

347 50 39.10 I +25 48 18.7 

37 57 12.3 




19 

50 55.50 

1.52 

12.39 

50 41.59 i 18.8 

10.0 




22 

51 19.50 

-0.64 

12.39 

51 6.47 18.8 

12.3 




23 

50 51.75 

+1.04 

12.31 

50 40.48 18.9 

11.1 
11.42 


c 

llSTauri . . 

1849.— Dec. 24 

347 4 18.75 

+0.88 

13.10 

347 4 6.53 \ +25 1 15.6 

37 57 9.1 


i 


29 

3 50.38 

—0.72 

13.05 

3 36.61 15.7 

11.8 




1850.— Jan. 10 

4 17.50 

+2.16 

13.22 

4 6.44 16.0 

9.6 




15 

3 49.75 

+0.24 

13.39 

3 36.60 16.1 

12.2 


! 


26 

4 18.50 

-0.16 

13.47 

4 4.87 ; 16.4 

11.5 




29 

3 52.38 

+1.12 

13.57 

3 39.93 

16.5 

9.3 




Feb. 1 

4 16.75 

2.80 

14.01 

4 5.54 

16.5 

11.0 




2 

4 19.00 

+0.56 

13.51 

4 6.05 j 16.6 

10.6 



WO 


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clxii 


OBSERVATIONS. 


Circle-readings of Stars observed at Athens in connection with Mars I — Continued. 


No. 

Name. 

Date. 

Circle. 

Level. 

1 
Refraction. ! 

Corr'd reading. 

Star's 8 

1 
Zero of circle, i 



c 

llSTauri . . 

1850.-Feb. 3 

o / // 

347 3 52.00 

// 
—0.96 

J 
13.45 

/ // 

347 3 37,59 

1 II 

4-25 1 16.6 

/ // 

37 57 11.7 



5 

3 52.38 

—0.80 

13.27 

3 38.31 

16.7 

11.1 



10 

4 18.13 

4-1.36 

13.32 

4 6.17 

16.7 

10.5 
10.76 


9 

11. C. 10669 . i 

1849.— Dec. 29 

348 34 18.63 

-0.40 

11.48 

348 34 6.75 

4-26 31 46 8 

37 57 12.7 




1850.— Jan. 2 

34 46.38 

4-0.32 

11.68 

34 35.02 

44.5 

9.5 




3 

34 19.13 

—0.64 

11.61 

34 6.88 

44.5 

10.3 




6 

34 42.25 

4-0.96 

11.71 

34 31.50 

44.6 

13.1 




8 

34 42.13 

4-0.80 

11.69 i 

34 31.24 

44.7 

13.5 




19 

34 20.88 

—1.20 

11.53 

34 8.15 

45.1 

9.7 




26 

34 45.63 

4-0.48 

11.84 

34 34.27 

45.3 

11.0 




29 

34 20.13 

0-80 

11.93 

34 9.00 

45.4 

9.1 




Feb. 1 

34 45.63 

2.40 

12.32 

34 35.71 

45.5 

9.8 




o 

34 46.13 

4-0.80 

11.88 

34 35.05 

45 6 

10.6 




3 

34 19.88 

—0.96 

11.81 

34 7.11 

45.6 

11.2 




4 

34 48.50 

0.56 

11.68 

34 36.26 

45.6 

9.3 




5 

.34 20.50 

-0.5G 

11.66 

34 8.28 

45.6 

10.0 




10 

34 44.75 

4-2.00 

11.71 

34 35.04 

45.8 

10.8 
10.76 


a 

B, A. C. 1648 

1850.— Jan. 2 

349 50 52.75 

—1.36 

10.35 

349 50 41.04 

4-27 47 52.2 

37 57 11.2 




3 

50 23.13 

0.56 

10.30 

50 12,27 

52.3 

12.7 




5 

50 24.63 

—2.16 

10.35 

50 12.12 

52.4 

13.0 
12.30 


d 

B. A. C. 1754 

1850.— Jan. 5 

318 51 57.25 

—3.12 

11.36 

348 51 42.77 

4-26 49 23.2 

37 57 13.1 




6 

52 19.63 

4-0.64 

11.40 

52 8.87 

23.2 

14.3 




8 

52 19.75 

0.24 

11.37 

52 8.62 

23.3 

14.7 




10 

52 20.13 

4-1.68 

11.31 

52 10.50 

23.3 

12.8 




15 

51 56.00 

0.00 

11.45 

51 44,55 

23.5 

11.7 




19 

51 57.13 

—1.84 

11.20 

51 44.09 

23.6 

12.2 




26 

52 20.50 

-0.16 

11.52 

52 8.82 

23.9 

15.1 




27 

51 53.25 

4-1.20 

11.15 

51 43.30 

23.9 

13.3 




29 

51 56.00 

0.72 

11.61 

51 45.11 

24.0 

11.6 




Feb. 1 

52 22.63 

1.68 

11.99 

52 12.32 

24.1 

11.8 




2 

52 21.:S8 

4-1.04 

11.55 

52 10.87 

24.1 

13.2 




3 

51 55.50 

—1.04 

11.50 

51 42.96 

24.2 

13.9 




4 

52 23.63 

0.16 

11.36 

52 12.11 

24.2 

12.1 




5 

51 56.50 

-0.72 

11.35 

51 44,33 

24.2 

12.5 




10 

52 19.63 

4-1.84 

11.40 

52 10.07 

24.3 

14.2 
13.10 


1 

B. A. C. 1562 

1850.— Jan. 6 

348 15 58.75 

—0.72 

12.04 

348 15 45.99 

+26 12 59.8 

37 57 13.8 




8 

15 57.38 

0.08 

12.02 

15 45.28 

59.9 

14.6 




15 

15 32.00 

0.40 

12.11 

15 19.49 

13 0.1 

13.3 




19 

15 32.50 

1.04 

11.85 

15 19.61 

0.2 

13.3 




26 

15 58.50 

—0.08 

12.18 

15 46.24 

0.4 

14.2 

1 


27 

15 29.88 

4-0.80 

11.80 

15 18.83 

0.4 

14.2 

1 


29 

15 32.00 

1.28 

12.27 

15 21.01 

0.4 

12.1 




Feb. 1 

15 58.50 

3.20 

12.66 

15 49.04 

0.5 

11.5 




2 

15 58.13 

4-0.80 

12.22 

15 46.71 

0.5 

13.8 




3 

15 32.38 

—0.64 

12.17 

15 19.57 

0.5 

13.6 




4 

16 0.25 

0.08 

12.02 

15 48.15 

0.5 

12.3 




5 

15 32.25 

—0.48 

12.01 

15 19.76 

0.5 

13.4 




10 

15 56.63 

4-1.52 

12.06 

1 15 46.09 

0.6 

14.5 
13.43 


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OBSERVATIONS. 


clxiii 


The mean equator reading for the series is as previously shown, 3f)0° — 37^5*7' 12". 18, which 
value might be employed for the entire set of Jfars-observations without danger of introducing 
any essenti^xlIy injurious error. Bat to obviate any distrust arising from this mode of deducing 
the results, the stars observed on each day have been used to establisli the zero-points from 
which the declinations of Mars on the same day should be counted. 


Equator-points of the Athens Circle, 





Secondri-reading. 



Second^--reading. 


Date. 

* 



Date. 

^ 



- 



Obseived. 

Mean. 

Adopted. 



Observed. 

Mean. 

Adopted. 



// 

// 

// 



// 

// 

// 


1849 — November 22 

h 

12.0 



1849.--Deceraber 24 

b 

13.2 





21 

11.9 

1L93 

11.9 


c 

9.1 

11.95 

12.0 



35 

11.9 




10 

13.8 




23 

h 

11. 




/ 

11.7 





17 

10.2 

11.17 

11.2 

28 

b 

13.1 





35 

12,3 




f 

14.9 

14.00 

14.0 


25 

h 

14.2 










g 

16.0 

15.20 

15.1 

29 

b 

14.6 





18 

15.4 




c 
9 

11.8 
12.7 

13.38 

13.4 


26 

g 

12.5 
12.5 

12.50 

12.5 


/ 

14.4 




28 

b 

11.6 



1850.— January 1 

b 

14.6 

14.60 

13.4 



g 

13.3 

12.37 

12.3 

2 

a 

11.2 





25 

12.2 




9 

9.5 

11.60 

12.4 


29 

b 

14.3 




10 

13,4 





g 

14.9 

13.70 

13.7 


/ 

12.3 





25 

11.9 



3 

a 

12.7 




30 

b 

14.3 

14.30 

14.0 


9 

10 3 

12.95 

13.0 


December 4 

b 

13.6 




10 

15.3 





f 

14.3 

13.33 

13.3 


/ 

13.5 





15 

12.1 



5 

a 

13.1 




9 

b 
13 

10.7 
11.3 

11.00 

11.0 


d 
10 

13.0 
14.1 

13.55 

13.5 


14 

6 

10.4 




/ 

14.0 





10 

12.4 

11.37 

11.4 

6 

1 

13.8 





^ 

11.3 




d 

14 3 




15 


11.0 




9 

13.1 

14.16 

14.2 



10 

J2.7 

11.80 

11.8 


10 

11.5 





/ 

11.7 




/ 

15. 1 




IG 

b 
f 

11.3 
12.2 

11.75 

11 8 

8 

1 
b 

14.6 
15.9 

i 



17 

b 

14.4 




d 

14.7 

14.94 

14.9 



c 

12.3 

13.83 

12.8 


9 

13.5 





f 

14.8 




/ 

16.0 




19 

b 

10.5 



10 

// 

13.0 





e 

10.0 

11.00 

11. 


c 

9.6 

11. eo 

12.8 



f 

12.5 




d 

12 8 




21 

b 
f 

10.3 
12.4 

11.35 

11.3 

1.5 

1 

b 

13.3 

13.7 

12.72 

12.7 


22 

b 
c 
10 
/ 

11.7 
12.3 
12.7 
12 5 

12.30 

12.3 

19 

c 
d 

1 
b 

12.2 
11.7 

13 3 
IM 




23 

b 

e 

10 

/ 

12.4 
11. 1 
13.6 
13 1 

12.55 

IS. 5 

i 
1 


d 
9 
10 
J 

lvJ.2 
9.7 
12 7 
13.2 

12.37 

13.4 


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clxiv 


OBSERVATIONS. 

Equator points of the Athens-Circle — Continued. 




Seconds reading. 



Seconds reading. 

Date. 

* 



Date. 

* 


Observed. 

Mean. 

Adopted. 

Observed. 

Mean. 

Adopted. 

1850.— January 26 

1 
I 
c 

// 
14.2 
14.5 
11.5 

// 

1 

1850.--February 3 

1 
b 
c 

// 
13.6 
12.7 
11.7 

// 

// 


d 
9 

15.1 
11.0 

14.09 

14.1 


d 
9 

13.9 
11.2 

13.31 

13.3 


10 

16.5 




10 

15.8 




/ 

15.8 




12 

13.0 



27 

1 
b 

14.2 
13.6 




/ 

14.6 




d 

13.3 

14.26 

14.3 

4 

1 

12.3 




10 

15.1 




5 

12.8 




J 

15.1 




d 

12.1 



29 

1 

b 
c 

12.1 
12.4 
9.3 




9 
10 
12 

9.3 
12.8 
11.4 

11.97 

12.0 


d 

11.6 

11.66 

11.8 


/ 

13.1 




9 

9.1 









10 

12.8 



5 

1 

13.4 




/ 

14.3 




b 

12.7 



February 1 

1 
6 
c 
d 
9 

11.5 
11.0 
11.0 
11.8 
9.8 

11.47 

11.5 


c 
d 
9 

12 
/ 

11.1 
12.5 
10.0 
11.2 
15.6 

12.36 

12.4 


10 
/ 

12.8 
12.4 



10 

1 

b 

14.5 
13,0 



2 

1 

13.8 




c 

10.5 




b 
c 

d 

13.8 
10.6 
13.2 

13.02 

13.0 


d 
9 
10 

14.2 
10.8 
16.0 

13.28 

13.3 


9 

10.6 




12 

13.0 




/ 

16.1 




/ 

14.2 




The quantities here given are the number of seconds to be added to 37° 57' in order to obtain 
the declination corresponding to the zero of tbe circle. For this purpose all the observations 
are referred to the thread A] and besides their mean for each day, as given in the fourth column, 
a fifth column is added, containing that value which^ after some consideration of the weights to 
be attributed to the diiferent observations and comparison with the results obtained for the pre- 
ceding and following days, seemed best fitted for conducting to tolerably accordant results. 
Comparison of the several observations of each night with their mean gives the mean error of 
a single measurement at Athens of a star's declination, £= zh F.444. 


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OBSERTATIONS. 


clxv 


Making use of tbe equator points in the fifth column of the preceding table, we obtain the 
series of Mars observations at Athens in the annexed form. 

MARS I. 

Observations with the Athens Meridian-Circle. 


Date. 


1849— Nov. 22 
23 
25 
26 

28 

29 
30 
Dec. 4 
9 
14 

15 
16 
17 
19 
21 

22 
23 
24 
28 
29 

1850.— Jan. 1 
2 
3 
5 


10 
15 
19 
26 

27 
29 
Feb. 1 
2 
3 

4 

5 

10 


Obs. part. 


N. 
N. 


S. 
N. 
S. 


N. 
N. 
N. 

S. 

N. 


N. 

N. 
S. 
N. 
N. 
S. 


N. 
N. 


N. 
N. 


S. 

N. 


Athens S.T. 


A. m. s. 
6 20 44.6 
6 19 49 8 
6 17 49.4 
6 J6 43.9 
6 14 22.9 

6 13 7.5 
6 11 49.0 
6 6 6.5 
5 58 5.5 
5 49 28.0 

5 47 42.5 
5 45 57.0 
5 44 11.6 
5 40 42.2 
5 37 16.1 

5 35 34.9 
5 33 55.1 
5 32 17.0 
5 26 5.1 
5 24 38.0 

5 20 33.0 
5 19 17.1 
5 18 4.4 
5 15 48.5 
5 14 45.5 

5 12 49.9 
5 11 8.3 
5 7 57.8 
5 6 31.0 
5 6 14.7 

5 6 25.8 

5 6 57.3 

5 8 7.6 

5 8 36.9 

5 9 9.1 

5 9 44.2 
5 10 21.9 
5 14 10.6 


Wash. M.T. 


ti. m. s. 
7 30 7 
7 25 16 
7 15 24 
7 10 23 
7 11 

6 54 59 
6 49 45 
6 28 20 
6 41 
5 32 25 

5 26 44 
5 21 3 
5 15 22 
5 4 1 
4 52 44 

4 47 7 
4 41 31 
4 35 58 
4 14 3 
4 8 40 

3 52 49 
3 47 37 
3 42 28 
3 32 21 
3 27 22 

3 17 35 
3 8 2 
2 45 13 
2 28 3 
2 15 

1 56 30 
1 49 1 ) 
1 38 32 
1 35 6 
1 31 42 

1 28 21 
1 25 3 
1 9 11 


t — T. 


Circle reading. 


d. 
—38.68742 
37.69079 
35.69764 
34.70113 
32.70821 

31.71182 
30.71545 
26.73033 
21.74952 
16.76915 

15.77310 
14.77705 
13.78100 
11.78888 
9.79671 

8.80061 
7.80450 
6 80836 
2.82358 
— 1.82731 

4- 1.16168 
2.15807 
3.15449 
5,14746 
6.14400 

8.13721 
10.13058 
15.11473 
19.10281 
26.08351 

27.08090 
29.07581 
32.06843 
33.06604 
34.06368 

35.06135 

36.05906 

+41.04804 


347 23 19.50 
347 26 38.50 
347 33 23.25 
347 36 55.50 
347 43 42.38 

347 46 47.75 

347 50 12.88 

348 2 38.13 
348 15 44.00 
348 25 45.25 
348 27 8.88 
348 28 39.25 
348 29 42.25 
348 31 42.38 
348 33 4.63 

348 33 36.50 
348 33 44.25 
348 34 4.25 
348 33 30.13 
348 32 57.63 

348 31 9.63 
348 30 34.00 
348 29 38.13 

348 27 50.88 
348 26 57.00 

348 24 54.25 
348 23 46.75 
348 18 21.50 
348 13 32.25 
348 8 25.00 

348 
348 
348 
348 
348 


Level. 


348 
348 
348 


7 38.88 
6 39.25 
5 41.13 
5 17.38 
4 51.50 

4 49.13 
4 24.75 
4 1.75 


—4.00 
-4.00 
-2.24 
—0.08 
—3.12 

+1.52 
—0.24 
—3.52 
—1.76 
—2.08 

—0.72 
—1.44 
+0.08 
—1.20 
—2.40 

0.00 
+0.96 
+0.80 
—0.88 
—1,04 

— 1.20 
—0.64 
—1.04 

—2.64 
+0.72 

—0 08 
+ 1.52 
+0.16 
—1.20 
+0.24 

+0.72 

+0.88 
+0.88 
+0.64 
—0.56 

+0 08 
-0.08 
+ 1.36 


Refr. 


12.82 
12.78 
12.43 
12.19 
12.35 

12.51 
12.41 
12.23 
12.06 
11.95 

11.99 
11.85 
11.77 
11.68 
11.61 

11.66 
11.57 
11.53 
11.45 
11.50 

11.63 
11.75 
11 70 
11.79 
11.84 

11.85 
11.84 
12.07 
11.89 
12.30 

11.93 
12.44 
12.85 
12.40 
12.35 

12.22 
12.20 
12.25 


Equator. 


11.9 
38.5 
42.4 
12.5 
12.3 

41.0 
14.0 
13.3 
38.3 
11.4 

39.1 
11.8 
40.1 
38.3 
38.6 

12.3 

39.8 
12.0 
14.0 
40.7 

40.7 
12.4 
40.3 
40.8 
14.2 

14.9 
12.8 
40.0 
39.7 
14.1 

41.6 
39.1 
38.8 
13.0 
40.6 

12.0 
39.7 
13.3 


Obs'd 


+25 20 14.6 
25 24 0.2 
25 30 51.0 
25 33 55.7 
25 40 39.2 

25 44 18.6 
25 47 14.2 

25 59 35.7 

26 13 8.5 
26 22 42.6 


26 24 35.3 

26 25 37.8 

26 27 10.7 

26 29 7.8 

26 30 29.2 

26 30 37.1 

26 31 13.4 

26 31 5.5 

26 30 31.8 

26 30 25.8 

26 28 37.5 

26 27 34.0 

26 27 5.7 

26 25 17.2 

26 24 0.1 

26 21 57.2 

26 19 49.2 

26 15 49.6 

26 10 58.9 

26 5 27.0 


26 


9.3 


+25 


5 

4 6.8 
2 40.7 
2 18.6 
2 19.2 

1 49.0 
1 52.2 
1 4.1 


These eight series include all the materials available for our purpose, which are derived from 
observations of Mars during the opposition of 1849-50, and we pass to the second series of 
observations during the opposition of 1851-2. 

II.— SECOND SERIES OF OBSERVATIONS OF MARS. 

We have seven sets of observations during this opposition, instead of eight, as in the first series 
there having been no observations at Athens or Cambridge, nor with the equatorial at the Cape 
of Good Hope, while, on the other hand, the prompt repair and return of the eye-piece had 
restored Lieut. Gilliss's meridian-circle to usefulness, and the Astronomische NachricUen, xxxv 
p. 269, affords a series of meridian observations at Kremsmiinster. ' ' 


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clxvi 


OBSERVATIONS. 


Apparent places of stars compared loitli Mars daring the second series of observations. 


No. 

Date. 

Reduction in 

Apparent 

No. 

Date. 

Reduction in 

Apparent 

i 



1 







a. 

0. 

a. 

5* 1 
0. 1 



a. 

d. 

a. 

d. 



S. 

// 

h. m. s. 

1 II 



s. 

II 

h m. s. 

« / // 

47 

1852.-~Mar. 3 

+0.40 

—1.64 

7 46 33 

+24 44 49.1 1 

85 

1852.— Jan. 19 

+0.46 

—4.19 

8 35 7 

+23 14 27.5 


7 

0.35 

1.37 

46 36 

49.4 


21 

0.49 

4.19 

35 7 

27 5 

48 

Mar. 6 

+0.36 

—1.49 

7 46 57 

+24 35 47.1 

87 

Jan. 15 

+0.39 

—4.16 

8 40 18 

+22 44 37.9 


n 

0.29 

1.19 

46 57 

47.4 


17 

0.42 

4.18 

40 18 

37.9 

49 

Feb. 24 

+0.49 

—2.06 

7 47 6 

+25 3 0.6 

88 

Jan. 13 

+0 34 

—4.14 

8 44 15 

+22 33 29.6 


28 

0.45 

1.81 

47 6 

0.9 


15 

0.38 

4.16 

44 15 

29 6 

52 

Feb. 27 

+0.47 

—1 92 

7 48 38 

+24 54 9.3 

89 

Jan. 16 

+0.39 

—4.22 

8 45 28 

+22 51 33.8 


Mar. 1 

0.43 

1.75 

48 38 

9 5 


18 

0.42 

4.24 

45 28 

33.7 


4 

0.39 

1.54 

48 38 

9.7 

90 

Jan. 12 

+0.32 

—4.08 

8 45 58 

+22 22 40.8 

54 

Mar. 10 

+0.33 

— 1..31 

7 50 59 

+24 28 25.8 


14 

0.36 

4.14 

45 58 

40.8 


14 

0.28 

1.07 

50 59 

26,1 

91 

Jan. 11 

+0.30 

—4.05 

8 47 23 

+22 15 12.4 

55 

Mar. 13 

+0.28 

—1.18 

7 52 38 

+24 18 57.5 


13 

0.34 

4.12 

47 26 

12.3 


15 

0.26 

1.06 

52 38 

57.6 

92 

Jan. 10 

+0.28 

-4 01 

8 47 33 

+22 8 43.1 

57 

Feb. 14 

+0.58 

—2.76 

7 55 4 

+25 18.1 


12 

0.32 

4.08 

47 33 

43.0 


19 

0.55 

2 47 

55 4 

18.4 

93 

Jan. 8 

+0-23 

—3.91 

8 48 54 

+21 54 53 9 


24 

0.52 

2.16 

65 4 

18.7 


10 

0.27 

3.98 

48 54 

53.8 


29 
Mar. 5 

0.47 
0.41 

1.84 
1.51 

55 3 
55 3 

19.1 
19.4 

94 

Jan. 6 
9 

+0.18 
0.25 

—3.78 
3.92 

8 50 26 
50 23 

+21 44 9.4 
9.2 


10 

0.35 

1.20 

55 3 

19.7 













95 

Jan. 9 

+0.24 
0.29 

-3.97 

8 52 13 

+22 2 25.3 

58 

Feb. 10 

+0.59 

—2.99 

7 55 16 

+24 55 7.2 


u 

4.04 

52 13 

25.2 


13 

0.58 

2.83 

55 16 

7.3 








15 

0.57 

2.73 

55 16 

7.4 

95 

Jan. 5 

7 

+0.15 
0.20 

-3.71 
3.83 

8 53 47 
53 47 

+21 34 4.8 
4,7 

60 

Feb. 9 

+ 0.60 

—3.12 

7 59 25 

+24 52 38.7 








12 

0.59 

2.96 

59 25 

38.9 

97 

Jan. 1 
3 

+0.04 
0.09 

—3.37 
3.51 

8 58 36 
58 16 

+21 6 19.5 
19.4 

62 

Feb. 6 

+0.61 

—3 37 

8 6 17 

+24 48 53.8 








10 

0.61 

3.17 

6 17 

57.0 

98 

Jan. 4 
6 

+0 11 
0.16 

-3.64 
3.75 

8 59 27 
59 27 

+21 29 18.0 
17.9 

63 

June 7 

-0.78 

+1.18 

8 10 13 

+24 57 4.2 








11 

0.79 

1.23 

10 13 

4.2 

99 

1851 .-Dec. 30 
1852.— Jan. 2 

—0.01 
+0.05 

-3.18 
3.41 

9 3 20 
3 20 

+20 57 18.2 
18 

65 

Sept. 5 

+0.17 

+0.27 

8 U 51 

+ 15 55 48.3 







8 

0.24 

0.14 

11 51 

48.6 

100 

Jan. 1 
2 

+0.02 
0.05 

-3.33 

3.44 

9 3 20 
3 20 

+21 1 43.4 
43.4 

67 

Sept. 7 

+0.20 

+0.32 

8 14 59 

+ 15 41 3^.. 8 








9 

0.25 

0.23 

14 59 

33.7 

101 

Jan. 3 
5 

+0.07 
0.12 

—3,53 
3.65 

9 4 16 
4 16 

+21 16 47.7 
47.6 

69 

Jan. 27 

+0.56 

-3.91 

8 16 37 

+24 1 28.1 








29 

0.58 

3.85 

16 37 

28.1 

102 

I851.-Dec. 27 
29 

+3.25 
3.31 

—17.33 

17.48 

9 4 23 

4 23 

+20 37 35.7 
35.5 

71 

Jan. 29 

+0.58 

—3.89 

8 19 48 

+21 9 36.6 








Feb. 1 

0.60 

3.80 

19 48 

33 7 

103 

Dec. 18 
20 

+3.05 
3.11 

-18.41 
16. 5S 

9 7 25 
7 25 

+19 51 29.3 
29.1 

72 

Jan. 29 

+0.58 

-3.89 

8 19 51 

+24 19 ^9.2 








Feb. 2 

60 

3.76 

19 51 

39.3 

104 

Dec. 28 
31 

+3.3? 
3.40 

-17.57 
17.82 

9 7 40 

7 40 

+20 41 6.2 
5.9 

73 

Jan. 28 

+0.57 

—3.91 

8 20 53 

+24 5 27.0 








30 

0.59 

3.fc8 

23 56 

27.0 

lor. 

Dec. 25 
29 

+3 23 
3.34 

—17.23 
17 61 

9 7 42 

7 42 

+20 27 42.7 
42 3 

77 

Jan. 26 

+0.55 

—4.07 

8 27 33 

+23 53 1.4 








28 

0.57 

4.03 

27 33 

1.5 

103 

Dec. 18 

+3.01 

-16.42 

9 8 14 

+ 19 52 9 8 

78 

Jan. 22 

+0.50 

—4.13 

8 28 3 

+23 34 13.1 


20 

3.07 

16.64 

8 14 

9.6 


24 

0.54 

4.11 

28 4 

13.1 

107 

Dec. 23 

+3 17 

-17.04 

9 8 14 

'+20 15 31.6 

79 

Jan. 23 
27 

+0..52 
0.53 

-^4.12 
4 06 

8 28 16 
2d 16 

+23 45 33 9 
33.9 


26 

3 25 

17.33 

8 14 

31.3 







108 

Dec. 19 

+3.03 
3.15 

—16.67 

9 10 21 

+20 2 23.1 

80 

Jan. 21 

+0.49 

-4.15 

8 30 12 

+23 24 17.3 

i .- r» 


23 

17.09 

10 9i 

22.6 


23 

0.51 

4.13 

30 13 

17.3 







83 

Jan. 20 

+0 48 

—4.17 

8 31 41 

+23 16 7.6 

109 

Dec. 15 

+2.89 

-15.21 

9 12 17 

+ 19 42 49.3 


22 

50 

4 16 

31 42 

7.6 


17 

2.95 

13.44 

12 17 

49.1 


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OBSERVATIONS. 


clxvi 


A.— OBSERVATIONS OF MAES II, WITH THE SANTIAGO EQUATORIAL. 

The following corrections have been made to the printed observations : 


Page 


90 
106 


129 
137 


Jan. 


138 
153,4,5, 

166 

209 Mar, 

212 


Dec. 20 No. 37, for .79 read 8.79. 

31 15, Micr. =— 5".69 has been used instead of — 5.31, on the assumption that the comple- 

mentary decimal was inadvertently read off from the micrometer head. 
This gives aJi=: llr.57J. 
29, for 2h. 8m. 7s. 74, read sli. 8m. 75.74. 
4, The AS 2 Ir. 29 seems to have been accidentally written instead of 227-. 29, and this hypo- 
thesis was evidently made in taking the printed mean, although the original MS. gives 
the micrometer-reading as printed. This assumption of an error of Ir. has been made 
in the computation, and the printed mean therefore employed. 
38, for 22.11 read 22.01. 
AS should be positive, 
line 1, for Feb. 12 read Feb. 13. 

14 No. 14, *' —1.18 *' —7.18. 

15 68, " 0.78J '* 0.79J. 


24 

Feb. 2 


The corresponing changes in the tables of results will then be: 


Page 88, 


107, 


155, 
157, 
162, 

176, 


178, 
181, 
184, 
207, 
213, 


December 19 line 2 

4 

31 1 


116, January 8 


127, 


137, 


139, 

141, 
142, 

151, 


14 


23 


24 


25 


31 


153, February 1 


March 


20 


21 
24 
26 
12 
15 


9 
1 
2 
1,2 
2 
6 
2 
6 
9 
1 
2 
2 


1 
6 
9 
2 
6 
9 

1,2 
6 
2 
4 
2 
6 
9 
1 

10 
1 
3 

1,2 
2 


for 2' 8".01, 
" 2 12 .89, 
** llr. 269=3' 39. "68 
" 0. 826 zzi 16."10 

13".60 
*' 2' 44".95 
'* 2 30. ^^0 
* ' Fourteen 
" 3' 1". 48 
'* 17". 03 

'' 5r.l31zz:-l'40". 00 
" 0. 941 z=: 18^34 
'' 14."74 

" 21r.771ziz7'4''.32 
'* 20,837 = 6 46.11 
'' 2.560=0 49.89 
" 0.069 = 18". 89 

16". 27 
" -8^. 888 = 2^53" 23 

0. 835 = 16". 27 
13". 18 
'' -11.060 = 3' 35".56 
** 15".49 
'* 13".27 

aS should be positive. 


for 15". 70 read 

'* 7.267 = 2'21".63 '< 

*' 2'17".55 '' 

** 8.264= 2'4r.06 
a 13".72 

*' 11.51 

** 7r.460 = 2'25".30 " 

li o".0 " 

" 9r.915 

'' Or. 147 *♦ 

Ad should be negative. 

for 0.533 read 0.534. 


read 2' 8". 11. 
'' 2 12 .86. 
** llr. 277 = 3' 39". 79. 
*' 0. 818 =15".94. 

13". 44. 
" 2'44".85. 
'* 2 30. 70. 
" Eighteen. 
'' 3' 1 ". 07. 

^7^44. 

'' 5r. 151=-1'40".40. 
** 0.921 = 17" 94. 
*' 14."34. 

" 21r.766=7'4".23. 
*' 20.793=6 45.26. 
" 2.618=0 51.03. 
'' 0.911=17". 75. 
16". 13. 

8r885 = 2'53"16. 
'' 0.832 = 16".21. 

13". 12. 
'* -11.058 = 3'35".52. 
15^47. 
13". 25. 

15". 67. 
7.268 = 2' 21".65. 
2' 17".56. 
8.270 = 2'41". 18. 
13". 84 
13.63. 

7r.452 = 2' 25".24. 
0".06. 
9r.914. 
Or. 146. 


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clxviii 


OBSERVATIONS, 

MARS II. 

Observations tvith the Santiago Equatorial, 


Date. 

Obs. part. 

Santiago S.T 

Wash. M.T. 

t—T, 

Star 
No. 

Star's d. 

Meas'd Dd, 

Refr. 

Obs'd d. 

No. coiup. 

N. S. 




h- m. s. 

h. in. s. 

d. 


1 II 

1 II 

/ 

1 II 


1851.— Dec 

.16 

N. S. 

7 43 43.76 

13 36 38.24 

— 45.43289 

109 

4- 19 42 49.18 

+ 1 35.31 

0.09 

4- 19 44 24.58 

10 10 



N.S. 

8 46 11.00 

14 38 55.24 

45.38964 

109 

42 49.18 

-f 1 41.83 

.08 

44 31.09 

1 2 


19 

N. S. 

7 31 4.22 

13 12 13.04 

42.44985 

106 

19 52 9.67 

+ 1 58.08 

.11 

54 7.86 

10 10 



N.S. 

8 14 36.40 

13 55 38.09 

42.41970 

106 

52 9.67 

+ 2 4.99 

.09 

54 14.75 

5 5 



N.S. 

8 39 0.67 

14 19 58.36 

42.40280 

106 

52 9.67 

+ 2 8.78 

.10 

54 18.55 

3 3 


20 

S. 

7 47 29.09 

13 24 39.31 

41.44121 

108 

20 2 22.95 

— 4 36.23 

.23 

57 46.49 

20 


21 

s. 

7 42 52.93 

13 16 7.99 

40.44713 

108 

2 22.85 

— 37.87 

.04 

20 1 44.94 

32 


22 

■s. 

7 37 43.55 

13 7 3.55 

39.45343 

108 

2 22.75 

+ 3 33.94 

.18 

5 56.87 

27 


24 

s. 

8 7 51.50 

13 29 14.73 

37.43802 

107 

20 15 31.50 

— 24.52 

.02 

15 6.96 

32 


25 

s. 

8 9 57.45 

13 27 24.42 

36.43930 

107 

15 31.40 

4- 4 29.10 

.22 

20 0.72 

20 


26 

s. 

7 28 47.18 

12 42 24.98 

35.47054 

105 

20 27 42.57 

— 2 46.93 

.15 

24 55.49 

24 



s. 

8 32 56.91 

13 46 24.21 

35.42611 

105 

27 42.57 

— 2 33.17 

.12 

25 9.28 

8 


27 

s. 

7 44 37.59 

12 54 16.90 

34.45230 

105 

27 42 48 

+ 2 33.46 

.16 

30 16.10 

26 


28 

N.S. 

7 58 48,63 

13 4 29.70 

33.45521 

102 

20 37 35.56 

— 1 37.74 

.08 

35 57.74 

21 20 


29 

N.S. 

7 32 4.18 

12 33 53.71 

32.47646 

104 

20 41 6.08 

+ 27.65 

.02 

41 33.75 

9 9 


30 

N.S. 

7 36 7.82 

12 34 0.78 

31.47638 

104 

41 5.99 

■f 6 22.80 

.33 

47 29.12 

10 10 


31 

N.S. 

7 30 6.94 

12 24 4.98 

30.48328 

99 

20 57 18.15 

— 3 47.76 

.20 

53 30.19 

13 14 

1852.— Jan 

1 

N.S. 

7 53 50.28 

12 43 48.52 

29.46958 

100 

21 1 43.43 

— 1 53,61 

.09 

59 49.73 

15 15 


2 

N.S. 

7 33 31.20 

12 19 36.86 

28.48638 

97 

21 6 19.42 

— 14.91 

.01 

21 6 4.50 

16 16 


4 

N.S. 

7 32 9.06 

12 10 23.15 

26.49279 

101 

21 16 47.63 

-f- 2 30.43 

.13 

19 18.19 

8 8 


5 

N.S. 

7 44 23.75 

12 18 39.89 

25.48704 

98 

21 29 17.95 

— 3 12.27 

.17 

26 5.51 

10 10 


6 

N.S. 

7 58 20.19 

12 28 38.13 

24.48011 

96 

21 34 4.77 

— 1 0.44 

.05 

33 4.28 

8 8 


7 

N.S. 

7 47 37.47 

12 14 1.25 

23.49026 

94 

21 44 9.31 

— 4 11.03 

.22 

39 58.06 

8 8 


8 

N.S. 

6 54 13.74 

11 16 50.38 

22.52997 

94 

44 9.27 

+ 2 37.78 

.16 

45 47.21 

5 5 



N.S. 

8 6 57.46 

12 29 22.17 

22.47960 

94 

44 9.27 

+ 3 0.32 

.15 

47 19.74 

6 6 


9 

N.S. 

7 42 27.41 

12 1 0.22 

21.49930 

93 

21 54 53.86 

_ 44.08 

.04 

54 9.76 

10 10 


10 

N.S. 

7 46 36.52 

12 1 12.73 

20.49916 

95 

22 2 25.24 

—1 1.81 

.05 

22 1 23.38 

23 23 


11 

N.S. 

8 18 16.02 

12 28 51.13 

19.47996 

92 

22 8 43.02 

-f 3.45 

.00 

8 46.47 

5 5 


12 

N.S. 

7 22 21.12 

11 29 9.49 

18.52142 

91 

22 15 12.36 

+ 32.94 

.03 

15 45.33 

12 12 



N.S. 

8 25 0.27 

12 31 38.38 

18.47803 

91 

15 12.36 

-f 52.44 

.04 

16 4.84 

3 3 


13 

N.S. 

8 2 30,77 

12 5 16.65 

17.49834 

90 

22 22 40.79 

+ 31.41 

.02 

23 12.22 

12 12 


14 

N.S. 

7 46 39.03 

11 45 31.59 

16.51005 

88 

22 33 29.59 

— 3 9.76 

.17 

30 19.66 

18 18 


16 

N.S. 

7 32 33.61 

11 23 36.66 

14.52528 

87 

22 44 37.90 

+ 2.17 

.00 

44 40.07 

12 12 


17 

N.S. 

7 22 19.50 

11 9 28.31 

13.53509 

89 

22 51 33.75 

-f- 9.29 

.01 

51 43.05 

8 8 


20 

N.S. 

7 25 28.33 

11 48.90 

10.54110 

85 

23 14 27.45 

— 1 55.38 

.10 

23 12 31.97 

18 18 



N.S. 

8 40 58.43 

12 16 6.63 

10.48881 

85 

14 27.45 

— 1 .33.75 

.08 

12 53.62 

12 12 


21 

N.S. 

6 59 36.29 

10 31 5.19 

9.56174 

82 

23 16 7.63 

-f 2 57.41 

.18 

19 5.22 

2 2 


22 

N.S. 

8 9 10.32 

11 36 31.91 

8,51630 

80 

23 24 17.31 

+ 1 44.78 

.10 

26 2.19 

13 13 


23 

N.S. 

8 2 29.64 

11 25 56.41 

7.52365 

78 

23 34 13.08 

— 1 49.30 

.11 

32 23.67 

13 13 


24 

N.S. 

8 2 48.04 

11 22 18.85 

6.52617 

79 

23 45 33.88 

— 6 54.67 

.39 

38 38.82 

23 23 


25 

N.S. 

7 18 58.17 

10 34 40.25 

5.55926 

79 

45 33.89 

— 59.91 

.06 

44 33.92 

17 17 


27 

N.S. 

7 34 50.65 

10 42 38.31 

3.55372 

77 

23 58 1.45 

— 1 51.71 

.11 

56 9.63 

15 15 


28 

N.S. 

7 54 14.57 

10 58 3.14 

2.54302 

69 

24 1 28.11 

+ 16.61 

.01 

24 1 44.73 

9 9 


29 

N.S. 

8 3 41.99 

11 3 33.11 

1.53920 

73 

24 5 27.00 

+ 2 53.82 

.16 

8 20.98 

19 20 


30 

N.S. 

8 11 2.11 

11 6 56.11 

_ 0.53685 

71 

24 9 38.65 

+ 2 29.84 

.14 

12 6.63 

25 25 


31 

N.S. 

8 6 37.72 

10 58 .36.54 

+ 0.45737 

72 

24 19 39.28 

— 2 45.00 

.16 

16 54.12 

13 13 

Feb. 

1 

N.S. 

7 14 13.48 

10 2 24.97 

1,41835 

68 

24 25 1.59 

— 3 43.29 

.22 

21 18.08 

14 14 


2 

N.S. 

8 6 34.80 

10 50 41.81 

2.45187 

68 

25 1.62 

+ 46.54 

.04 

25 48,20 

15 15 


3 

N.S. 

8 35 .55.75 

11 16 2.03 

3.46947 

66 

24 29 18.89 

4- 38.56 

.04 

29 57.49 

15 15 


7 

N.S. 

7 35 27.43 

10 0.00 

7.41667 

62 

24 46 56.88 

— 3 14.17 

.19 

43 42.52 

13 13 


8 

N.S. 

7 13 9.65 

9 33 49.96 

8.39850 

62 

46 58.93 

— 23.22 

.02 

46 33.69 

14 15 


9 

N.S. 

7 10 7.96 

9 26 52.85 

9.39.367 

62 

46 56.98 

+ 2 13.85 

.13 

49 10.96 

8 8 



N.S. 

8 49 53.86 

11 6 22.40 

9.46276 

62 

46 56.98 

4- 2 24.52 

.14 

49 21.64 

2 3 


10 

N.S. 

7 39 48.89 

9 52 33.01 

10.41149 

60 

24 52 38.76 

- 1 1.91 

.06 

51 36.79 

9 9 


11 

N.S. 

7 31 1.54 

9 39 51.19 

11.40268 

60 

52 38.81 

4- I 6.43 

,06 

53 45.30 

1 2 



N.S. 

8 45 5.37 

10 53 42,88 

li. 45397 

60 

52 38.81 

4- 1 12.55 

.07 

53 51.43 

4 3 


13 

N.S. 

7 29 12.17 

9 30 10.30 

^ 13.39595' 

• 58 

24 55 7.33 

4- 2 12.03 

.13 

57 19.49 

3 3 



N.S. 

8 37 12.00 

10 37 58.99 

13.44304 

58 

55 7.33 

4- 2 16.84 

.14 

57 24.31 

2 2 


14 

N.S. 

8 46 5.47 

9 43 4.92 

14.40492 

57 

25 18.13 

— 1 31.90 

.09 

58 46.14 

9 9 


15 

N.S. 1 

7 17.45 

8 53 28.49 

+ 15.37047 

57 

18.19 

— 21.13 

0.02 

59 57.04 

9 9 


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OBSERVATIONS 
Observations with the Santiago Ecjtmtorial—Gontumed, 


clxix 


Date. 

Obs. part 

! 
Santiago S.T 

Wash. M.T. 

t—T, 

Star 

No. 

Star's 0. 

Meas'd JDS 

Refr. 

Obs'd d. 

No. comp. 

N. S. 



A. m. s. 

h, in. s. 

d. 





- - 


1852.-Feb. 16 
17 
19 

N. S. 
N. S. 
N.S. 

7 28 12.88 
7 30 24.80 
7 12 56.96 

9 17 23.45 
9 15 39.10 
8 50 22.30 

+ 16.38708 
17.38587 
19.36831 

57 

.57 
57 

+ 25 18,25 
18.34 
18.42 

-f 40.50 
+ 1 27.86 
+ 2 24.88 

0.04 
08 
14 

-1-25 58.79 

1 46.28 

2 43.44 

15 15 

24 24 

8 9 

20 

N. S. 

7 16 43.08 

8 50 11.90 

20.36819 

57 

18.48 

+ 2 34. 3J 

15 

2 52.94 

15 15 

21 

N.S. 

7 29 1.81 

8 58 32.70 

21.37399 

57 

18.54 

+ 2 32.24 

15 

2 50.93 

13 13 

22 

N.S. 

7 7 11.29 

8 32 49.85 

22.35613 

57 

18.60 

+ 2 18.88 

14 

2 .37.62 

4 4 
11 11 

23 

N.S. 

7 3 42.05 

8 25 25.27 

23.35099 

57 

018. 66 

+ 1 54.74 

11 

2 13.51 

24 

N.S. 

7 1 40.35 

8 19 28.00 

24.34685 

57 

18.73 

+ 1 19.14 

07 

1 37.94 

11 11 

25 
26 

N.S. 
N.S. 

7 9 5.18 
7 11 52.74 

8 22 55.71 
8 21 46.90 

25.34926 
26.34846 

49 

49 

25 3 0.69 
3 0.75 

— 2 9.91 

— 3 6.59 

13 
19 

50.65 
24 59 53.97 

12 12 

12 12 

27 
28 

N.S. 
N.S. 

8 27 18.13 
6 51 42.57 

9 33 4.03 
7 53 48.23 

27.39796 
28.32903 

49 
52 

3 0.81 
24 51 9.36 

■- 4 14.55 

+ 3 24.85 

25 
21 

58 46.01 
57 34.42 

9 9 

7 7 


N.S. 

8 11 24.86 

9 13 17.46 

28.38423 

52 

54 9.36 

+ 3 21.31 

20 

57 30.87 

6 6 

29 
Mar. 1 

n:s. 

N.S. 

6 44 2.27 
6 59 13.51 

7 42 13.28 
7 53 26.12 

29.32099 
30.32877 

52 
52 

54 9.41 
24 54 9.47 

+ 2 1.07 
+ 25.57 

12 
03 

56 10.60 
24 54 35.07 

6 6 
19 19 

2 
3 

N.S. 
N.S. 

7 15 4.17 
6 50 12.48 

8 5 18.28 
7 36 34.76 

31.33702 
32.31707 

52 
52 

54 9.53 
54 9.59 

— 1 18.96 

— 3 9.31 

08 
20 

52 50.49 
51 0.08 

30 30 
13 13 
11 11 

4 

N.S. 

7 19 35.94 

8 1 57.49 

33.33469 

47 

24 44 49.15 

+ 4 11.93 

25 

49 1.33 

6 

N.S. 

7 36 48.15 

8 11 15.07 

35.34115 

47 

44 49.29 

— 14.70 

01 

44 34.58 

12 12 

7 

N.S. 

7 16 20.97 

7 46 55.33 

36.32455 

48 

24 36 47.11 

. + 5 26.77 

33 

42 14.21 

7 7 

8 

N.S. 

7 24 47.03 

7 51 24.10 

37.32736 

48 

36 47.17 

+ 2 53.80 

18 

39 41.15 

12 12 

9 

N. Si 

7 16 54.31 

7 39 36.77 

38.31918 

48 

36 47.23 

+ 15.72 

01 

37 2.96 

9 10 

4 5 

14 14 

10 

N.S. 

6 57 38.52 

7 16 28.23 

39.30310 

48 

36 47.30 

- 2 29.44 

16 

34 17.70 

11 

N.S. 

7 29 36.35 

7 44 24.91 

40.32251 

54 

24 28 25.88 

+ 2 59.86 

18 

31 25.92 

12 

N.S. 

6 45 13.66 

6 56 13.58 

41.28905 

54 

28 25.94 

+ 4.03 

00 

28 29.97 

5 5 
15 13 


N.S. 

7 40 30.81 

7 51 21.68 

41.32734 

54 

28 25.94 

— 3.12 

00 

28 22.82 

13 

N. S. 

7 21 1.07 

7 27 59.23 

42.31110 

54 

28 26.00 

— 3 7.92 

18 

25 17.90 

15 15 

14 

N.S. 

7 31 37.04 

7 34 37.76 

43.31572 

55 

24 18 57.55 

+ 3 5.51 

18 

22 3.24 

13 13 
20 20 

15 

N.S. 

7 31 24.00 

7 30 28.64 

4- 44.31283 

55 

18 57.61 

— 15.96 

0.01 

18 41.64 










1 



B.-OBSEKVATIONS OF MAES II. WITH TPIE SANTIAGO MEEIDIAN-CIECLE. 
The only remarks needed, relative to this series, are these : 

Page 309, note h, for 1' 21^ 30 read 1' 21". 27. 

311, the observation N^. 7 has not been used. 

312, Jan. 28. For 2io 28' 66".97 rmc? 24:° 28' 53".97. 

312, Feb. 1. The sign of Nadir-reading should be positive. 

313, note I. The star is measured from Bessel 341. 
314,/ and ^. Keference-letters should be transposed. 
318, Mar. 23. Far 24^ 33' 35".04 read 22° 33^ 35'^04. 

The observations in this series are of two classes : the first, consisting of microscope-readings 
after setting the fixed thread upon the limb of the planet ; the second, of micrometric difierences 
from some near star. The latter cases are indicated in the foot-notes. This second class of 
observations has been treated like the micrometric measurements ; with the equatorial and the 
measured differences applied to the star-place, not as it was observed on that day, but as de- 
rived from our General Catalogue. This being kept in view, we deduce the appended table, in 
which the semi-diameter is not applied; inasmuch as this is derived from computation, and 
incorporated in the computed place of the observed limb. 


Xo 


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clxx 


OBSERVATIONS. 
MARS II. 

Observations tuith the Santiago Meridian-Circle, 


Date. 

Limb. 

Sant. S.T. 

Wash. M.T. 

Obs'd 0. 

Circle-reading. 

Refr. 

Nadir. 

t-T. 




h. in. s. 

h. m. s. 

/ // 

o / // 

/ // 

// 

d. 

1851.- 

-Dec. 19 

S. 

9 9 9,18 

14 50 1.93 

+19 54 14.48 




—42.381923 


21 

S. 

9 8 37.91 

14 41 38.92 

20 1 58.46 

306 32 34.92 

—1 13.57 

+14,3 

40.387745 


22 

S. 

9 8 17.01 

14 37 22.17 

20 6 9.65 

306 28 24.27 

1 12,24 

10.9 

39.390716 


24 

S. 

9 7 25.62 

14 28 39.09 

20 15 18.70 

306 19 18.15 

1 13.34 

10.6 

37,396771 


25 

S. 

9 6 54 84 

14 24 12.48 

20 20 7.74 

306 14 27,10 

1 12.93 

12.2 

36.399856 


26 

s. 

9 6 20.40 

14 19 42.22 

20 25 15.99 

306 9 20.68 

1 12,66 

10.1 

35.402984 


27 

{^. 

9 5 42.75 

14 15 8.77 

20 30 34.01 

306 4 5.00 

1 13.60 

8.7 

34.406148 


28 

s. 

9 5 1.37 

14 10 31.59 

20 36 4.08 

305 58 43,92 

1 14.29 

0.4 

33.409357 


30 

s. 

9 3 29.31 

14 1 7.95 

20 47 42,31 

305 46 57,65 

1 14.55 

8.7 

31.415881 


31 

s. 

9 2 38.29 

13 56 21.17 

20 53 47.01 

305 40 52.18 

1 J4.18 

9.1 

30,419198 

1852. 

-Jan. 1 
2 

N. 
N. 

9 1 43.93 
9 45.43 

13 51 31.04 
13 46 36.79 

21 21.13 
21 6 38.13 

305 34 17.00 

1 14.42 

10.4 

29.422556 
28.425963 


4 

N. 

8 58 40.94 

13 36 40.82 

21 19 51.11 

305 14 53.88 

1 16,28 

5.4 

26.432859 


5 

N. 

8 57 33.99 

13 31 38.14 

21 26 29.69 

305 8 14.92 

1 16.00 

5.5 

25.436363 


6 

S. 

8 55 25.42 

13 26 33.84 

21 33 13.39 




24 . 439886 


7 

s. 

8 55 11.63 

13 21 24.34 

21 40 12 21 

304 54 26.25 

1 16.75 

12.4 

23.443468 


8 

N. 

8 53 56.05 

13 ]Q 13.06 

21 47 31.22 




22.447071 


9 

S. 

8 52 39.16 

13 11 0.47 

2L 54 24.12 




21.450688 


10 

N. 

8 51 17.59 

13 5 43.21 

22 1 50.48 

304 32 46.75 

1 17.32 

+14.2 

20.454361 


11 

N. 

8 49 55.37 

13 25.30 

22 9 5,65 




19.458040 


12 

S. 

8 48 28.55 

12 55 2.81 

22 16 2.49 

304 18 50.80 

1 18,08 

—0.5 

18.461773 


13 

N. 

8 47 0.66 

12 49 39.25 

22 23 35.18 




17.465518 


14 

S. 

8 45 31.85 

12 44 14.77 

22 30 30.43 




16.469272 


15 

N. 

8 43 58.98 

12 .38 46.24 

22 38 0,58 

303 56 54.72 

1 19,49 

1,7 

15,473076 


16 

S. 

8 42 26.57 

12 33 18.17 

22 44 56.64 

303 49 59.78 

1 19,31 

3.0 

14.476872 


17 

N. 

^ 8 40 50,23 

12 27 46.18 

22 52 16.98 

303 42 38.58 

1 19.35 

—2.1 

13.480715 


18 

S. 

8 39 14.93 

12 22 15.24 

22 58 58.82 

303 35 54.70 

1 20.31 

+0.9 

12.484545 


19 

N. 

8 37 35.91 

12 16 40.57 

23 6 7.34 

303 28 45.82 

1 20.35 

+ 1.3 

11.488419 


20 

N. 

8 35 58.75 

12 11 7.76 

23 13 3.22 

303 21 52.12 

1 20.63 

—0.6 

10,492270 


21 

N. 

8 34 17.56 

12 5 30.95 

23 19 44.54 

303 15 11.25 

1 21.28 

—0.4 

9.496170 


22 

S. 

8 32 38.83 

11 59 56.57 

23 25 56.35 

303 8 55.80 

1 21.64 

+3,6 

8.500037 


23 

.N. 

8 30 56.90 

11 54 19.01 

23 32 43.25 

303 2 12.02 

1 22.16 

+1.0 

7.503947 


24 

S. 

8 29 17.10 

11 48 43.58 

23 38 41.07 




6.507829 


25 

N. 

8 27 33.77 

11 43 4.61 

23 45 0.22 

302 49 56.98 

1 22.59 

—0.5 

5.511753 


27 

N. 

8 24 14.53 

11 31 54.10 

23 56 34.03 

302 38 22.82 

1 22.84 

+0.1 

3.519513 


28 

S. 

8 22 36.05 

11 26 19.97 

24 1 41.42 

302 33 12,45 

1 23.26 

3.5 

2.523371 


29 

N. 

8 20 56.05 

11 20 44.34 

24 7 12.70 

302 27 45.. 58 

1 24.59 

0.4 

1.527265 


30 

S. 

8 19 19.54 

11 15 12,18 

24 12 2.91 

302 22 54.82 

1 24.25 

+0.6 

—0.531109 


31 

N. 

8 17 41.86 

11 9 38.86 

24 17 5.37 

302 17 53.55 

1 23.61 

—1.2 

+0.465033 


Feb. 1 

S. 

8 16 7.69 

11 4 8.87 

24 21 24.45 

302 13 35.72 

1 23.56 

+2.5 

1.461214 


2 

N. • 

8 14 32.97 

10 58 38.67 

24 25 58.54 

. 302 8 56.83 

1 23.56 

+2.3 

2.457393 


3 

S. 

8 13 2.41 

10 53 12.44 

24 29 53.32 




3.453616 


4 

N. 

8 11 31.13 

10 47 45.51 

24 33 52.12 

302 1 5,70 

1 24.81 

1.1 

4.449833 


7 

S. 

8 7 13.82 

10 31 41.17 

24 43 39.72 




7.438672 


8 

S. 

8 5 53.33 

10 26 25.00 

24 46 32.75 

301 48 24.43 

1 24.57 

1.5 

8.435012 


9 

N. 

8 4 33.51 

10 21 9.. 48 

24 49 23.99 

301 45 33.63 

1 24.71 

1.2 

9 431360 


10 

S. 

8 3 19 28 

10 15 59.55 

24 51 32.38 

301 43 16,88 

1 24.95 

9.8 

10.427774 
11,424185 


11 

N. 

8 2 5.05 

10 10 49.61 

24 53 55.30 






13 

N. 

7 59 47.45 

10 40.57 

24 57 26.78 

301 37 23.38 

1 25.65 

9.6 

13,417137 


14 

N. 

7 58 42.92 

9 55 40.31 

24 58 52.61 




14.413661 


15 

N 

7 57 41.71 

9 50 43.35 

25 6.58 




15.410224 


16 

S. 

7 56 44,76 

9 45 50.65 

25 54.88 




16.406836 
17.403463 


17 

N. 

7 55 49 07 

9 40 59,21 

25 1 54.75 





18 

S. 

7 54 58.40 

9 36 12.77 

25 2 14.55 

301 32 41.23 

1 27.67 

6.0 

18.400148 


19 

N. 

7 54 10.46 

9 31 29.05 

25 2 53.31 

301 32 3.75 

1 26.45 

3.5 

19.396866 


20 

S. 

7 53 25.31 

9 26 48.12 

25 2 47 09 

301 32 10.33 

1 26,21 

2.9 

20.393612 
21.390395 


21 

N. 

7 52 43.12 

9 22 10.13 

25 2 58.01 

301 31 54.95 

1 25.25 

6.4 


22, 

N. 

7 52 4.84 

9 17 33.05 

25 2 43.90 

301 32 13,42 

1 25.91 

2.7 

22.387222 


23 

N. 

7 51 30.67 

9 13 6.06 

25 2 17,96 

301 32 38.12 

1 26.57 

4.6 

23.384098 

1 

24 

S. 

7 51 0.53 

9 8 40.10 

-f-25 1 28.26 

301 33 28,80 

—1 25.65 

+4.7 

+24.381020 


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OBSERVATIONS. 
Observations with the Santiago 3Ieridian- Circle — Continued. 


clxxi 


Date. 

Limb. 

Sant. S.T. 

Wash. M.T. 

Obs'd §, 

Circle-reading. 

Refr. 

Nadir. 

t-T. 




h. m. s. 

h. in. s. 

o 1 II 

o / // 

/ ' // 

// 

d. 

1852 

—Feb. 25 

N. 

7 50 31.85 

9 4 15.59 

+25 1 0.09 

301 33 57.43 

—1 25.91 

+4.5 

+25.377959 


26 

S. 

7 50 8.43 

8 59 56.32 

24 59 47.53 




26.374957 


27 

N. 

7 49 46.66 

8 55 38.71 

24 58 54.77 




27.371975 


28 

S. 

7 49 30.26 

8 51 26.45 

24 57 24.56 

301 37 30.67 

1 26.32 

5.2 

28.369056 


29 

. N. 

7 49 14.81 

8 47 15.13 

24 56 21.08 




29.366147 


Mar. 1 

N. 

7 49 4.99 

8 43 9.43 

24 54 23.73 




30.363303 


2 

N. 

7 48 56.85 

8 39 5.41 

24 53 1.57 




31.360479 


3 

N. 

7 48 52.42 

8 35 5.08 

24 51 5.69 




32.357697 


4 

N. 

7 48 51.23 

8 31 7.98 

24 49 4.51 

301 45 49.02 

1 24.72 

5.3 

33.354954 


6 

N. 

7 48 57.93 

8 23 22.86 

24 44 41.48 




35.349570 


7 

S. 

7 49 7.03 

8 1.9 36 02 

24 42 1.37 

301 52 52.30 

1 25.06 

5.5 

36.346944 


8 

N. 

7 49 17.47 

8 15 50.53 

24 39 45.78 




37.344334 


9 

S. 

7 49 32.18 

8 12 9 29 

24 36 54.23 




38.;J41774 


.10 

N. 

7 49 48.37 

8 8 29.53 

24 34 17.74 




39.339231 


11 

S. 

7 50 8.58 

8 4 53.77 

24 31 UM 

.302 3 39.88 

1 24.63 

4.5 

40.336734 


12 

N. 

7 50 30.59 

8 1 19.98 

24 28 27.80 

302 6 25.75 

1 23.84 

4.4 

.41.334258 


13 

S. 

7 50 56.74 

7 57 50.14 

24 25 8.82 

302 9 44.50 

1 23.21 

4.0 

42.331830 


14 

N. 

7 51 24.03 

7 54 21.31 

24 22 5.66 

302 12 48.12 

1 23.17 

3.5 

43.329414 , 


15 

S. 

7 51 55.24 

7 50 56.52 

+24 18 32.73 

302 16 20.58 

—1 24.00 

+4.8 

+44.327043 


C— OBSEKYATIONS OF MAES II. WITH THE WASHINaTON EQUATOKIAL. 
The corrections applied are — 


379, January 24, No. 4, for U. 48m. 24s. 67 
381, 


26, *' 21, 
Nos. 21 to 36, 

383, February 2, No. 32, 

384, ** 3, *' 10, 
Kesults 385, '' 3, line 1, 

2, 

We have then the observations — 


22/. 244 

9 

2r. 365 

Ir. 152 

Ir. 244 

19". 12 


dh. 4:5m. 245.67. 

22r. 239 

10 

2r. 373 

Ir. 132 

Ir. 242 

19". 09 


MARS II. 


Observations tvith the Washington Equatorial. 


Date. 

Obs. part. 

Wash. S.T. 

Wash. I^.T. 

.t-T. 

Star 
No. 

Star's 0, 

Meas.Z)(J. 

Refr. 

Obs'd d. 

No. 

comp. 

N. 

S. 



h. m. s. 

h, m. s. 

d. 


o 1 II 

/ // 

II 

° > II 



1852.— Jan. 24 

N. S. 

6 25 40.24 

10 11 16.02 

—6.57551 

79 

+23 45 33.87 

—7 25.50 

0.13 

+23 38 8.24 

5 

7 

26 

N. S. 

6 22 36.53 

10 21.00 

4.58309 


23 44 

+5 46.98 

.10 


9 

9 

30 

N. S. 

7 27 24.70 

10 49 14.91 

-0.54913 


24 12 

— 40.22 

.01 


4 

4 

Feb. 2 

N. S. 

6 36 51.43 

9 47 2.20 

+2.40766 

68 

24 25 1.62 

+ 20.73 

.00 

24 25 22.35 

8 

8 

3 

N. S. 

6 42 46.55 

9 49 0.43 

+3.40903 

64 

+24 28 59.71 

+ 28.87 

0.01 

+24 29 28.59 

9 

9 


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Clxxii OBSERVATIONS. 

The Greenwich volumes for 1851-52 give us™ 

D.— OBSERVATIONS OF MAES II. WITH THE GREENWICH TRANSIT-OIROLE, 


MAKS II. 

Observations with the Greenwich Transit- Circle, 


Date. 

Limb. 

Gi-een. S.T. 

Wash. M.T. 

t-^T, 

Circle- reading. 

Refr. 

Zenith corr. 

Observed 0, 









+ 8' 





h. m. s. 

h. m. s. 

d. 

// 

// 

// 

o 1 II 

1851 

—Dec. 8 

N. S. 

9 8 3.89 

10 50 39,2 

— 53.54816 

51.00 

37.40 

46.62 

+ 19 28 28.20 


26 

C. 

9 6 27.11 

9 38 16.3 

35.59842 

5.78 

37.17 

46.83 

20 24 8.44 

1852 

—Jan. 5 

N. S. 

8 57 47.85 

8 50 20.2 

25.63171 

2G.33 

34.42 

47.34 

21 24 50.13 


7 

C. 

8 55 26.62 

8 40 6.7 

23.63881 

36.19 

34.02 

47.34 

21 38 40.67 


9 

N. S. 

8 52 54.36 

8 29 43.0 

21.64603 

27.93 

33.56 

47.34 

21 52 49.40 


20 

N. S. 

8 36 17.33 

7 29 .53.6 

10.68757 

33.34 

31.72 

46.55 

23 11 16.60 


22 

N. S. 

8 32 57.69 

7 18 42.7 

8.69534 

46.70 

30.90 

46.55 

23 24 34.06 


23 

N., S. 

8 31 17.19 

7 13 6.6 

7.69923 

20.52 

31.56 

46.55 

23 30 58.34 


28 

S. 

8 22 54.93 

6 45 6.2 

2.71868 

59.53 

31.11 

46.55 

24 29.19 


29 

N. S. 

8 21 15.98 

6 39 31.6 

1.79255 

33.06 

30.63 

46.55 

24 5 47.97 


30 

N. S. 

8 19 38.16 

6 33 58.1 

-i 0.72641 

28.31 

30 72 

46.55 

24 10 52.13 


Feb. 3 

N. S. 

8 13 19.72 

6 11 57.1 

-4- 3.25830 

30.28 

30.27 

46.80 

24 28 50.86 


6 

N. S. 

8 8 54.50 

5 55 44.8 

6.24705 

34.02 

30.11 

46.80 

24 39 47.27 


9 

N. S. 

8 4 49.93 

5 39 53.2 

9.23603 

50.84 

29.57 

46.80 

24 48 31.00 


10 

N. S. 

8 3 33.42 

5 34 41.0 

10.23242 

25.12 

30.06 

46.80 

24 50 56.23 


11 

N. S. 

8 2 19.95 

5 29 31.8 

11.22884 

13.39 

50.28 

46.80 

24 53 7.76 


14 

N. S. 

7 58 56.03 

5 14 20.6 

14.21829 

34.24 

30.08 

46.80 

24 58 17.09 


18 

N. S. 

7 55 7.83 

4 54 49.4 

,. 18.20474 

22.60 

29.39 

46.87 

25 1 59.34 


20 

N. S. 

7 53 33.79 

4 45 23.8 

20.19189 

43.18 

30.16 

46.87 

25 2 37.99 


26 

C. 

7 50 12.78 

4 18 27.9 

26.17949 

28.75 

.30.01 

46.87 

24 59 52.57 


28 

N. S. 

7 49 33.01 

4 9 56.5 

28.17357 

48.02 

29.36 

46.87 

24 57 33.96 


Mar. 2 

N. S. 

7 48 58.30 

3 57 34. 7~ 

31.16498 

25.27 

29.82 

46.45 

24 52 56.67 


3 

N. S. 

7 48 53.68 

3 53 33.2 

32.16219 

14.94 

30.36 

46.45 

24 51 6.44 


4 

N. S. 

7 48 51.62 

3 49 35.2 

33.15944 . 

11.51 

30.90 

46.45 

24 49 9.35 


5 

C. 

7 48 52.95 

3 45 41.0 

34.15672 

18.88 

31.15 

46.45 

24 47 1.73 


6 

S. N. 

7 48 57.56 

3 41 49.7 

35.15404 

31.82 

31.00 

46.45 

24 44 48.94 


8 

C. 

7 49 15.49 

3 34 15.8 

37.14879 

24.36 

30.62 

46.45 

24 39 56.88 


9 

c. 

7 49 28.56 

3 30 ^.9 

38.14621 

2.56 

30.43 

46.45 

24 37 18.77 


12 

c. 

7 50 26.41 

3 19 42.9 

41.13869 

37.12 

30.76 

46.45 

24 28 43.88 


17 

c. 

7 52 57.11 

3 2 33.6 

46.12678 

13.97 

31.08 

45.52 

24 12 7.64 


18 

c. 

7 53 35.12 

2 59 15.6 

47.12449 

51.74 

30.88 

45.52 

24 8 30.07 


20 

c. 

7 54 .58.09 

2 52 46.6 

49.11998 • 

30.03 

30.96 

45.52 

24 51.70 


22 

c. 

7 56 30.91 

2 46 27.3 

51.11559 

34.02 

30.45 

45.52 

23 52 48.22 


23 

c. 

7 57 20.60 

2 43 21.0 

52.11344 

45.67 

30.27 

45.52 

23 48 36.75 


25 

c. 

7 59 6.62 

2 37 14.9 

54.10920 

23.69 

31.35 

45.52 

23 39 57.65 


27 

c. 

8 1 1.12 

2 31 17.3 

+ 56.10406 

28.13 

31.21 

45.52 

+23 30 53.35 


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OBSERVATIONS. clxxiii 

From the Memoirs of the Koyal Astronomical Society, volume XXI., we have— 

E.— OBSERVATIONS OF MARS II. WITH THE CAPE MURAL-CIROLE. 

MARS II. 

Observations ivith the Cape Mural-Circle. 


Date. 

Assumed Cape S. T 

. Wash. M. T. 

t—T. 

Circle-reading. 

Zenith point. 

Kefr. 

Observed d. 







o / 

33 57 





h. m. 5. 

h. m. s. 

d. 

° / // 

II 

/ // 

<' / // 

1851- 

-Dec. 22 

9 8 22.2 

8 42 11.8 

— 39.63736 , 

339 56 59.41 

0.53 

1 18.89 

+20 5 17.01 


26 

9 6 28.6 

24 34.9 

35.64960 

38 7.14 

0.95 

1 19.14 

20 24 9.95 


29 

9 4 27.9 

10 40.7 

32.65918 

21 45.96 

1.68 

1 19.77 

20 40 32.49 


30 

9 3 40.9 

8 6 4.0 

31.66245 

15 53.11 

0.81 

1 17.89 

20 46 22.59 

1852 

-Jan. 1 

9 1 57.1 

7 56 28.6 

29.66911 

3 44.37 

1.52 

1 20.38 

20 58 34.53 


2 

9 1 0.4 

51 36.2 

28.67250 

338 57 24.82 

1.55 

121.69 

21 4 55.42 


3 

9 4 

46 40.4 

27.67592 

50 53.50 

1.61 

1 21.28 

21 11 26.39 


5 

8 57 51.3 

36 39.8 

25.68287 

37 31.89 

2.33 

1 21.64 

21 24 49.08 


9 

8 52 58.0 

16 3.7 

21.69718 

9 34.69 

3.74 

1 22.67 

21 52 48.72 


10 

8 51 38.0 

10 48.0 

20.70083 

2 25.47 

3.42 

1 24.46 

21 59 59.41 


12 

8 48 50.4 

7 9.0 

18.70823 

337 47 58.55 

3.44 

1 23.74 

22 14 25.63 


13 

8 47 23.1 

6 54 46.1 

17.71197 

40 45.75 

3.63 

1 24.82 

22 21 39.70 


14 

8 45 53.7 

49 21.0 

16.71573 

33 33.38 

4.30 

1 26.05 

22 28 53.97 


15 

8 44 22.4 

43 54.0 

15.71951 

26 19.33 

4.14 

1 25.65 

22 36 7.46 


16 

8 42 49.3 

38 25.3 

14.72332 

19 10.04 

4.53 

1 26.05 

22 43 17.54 


19 

8 38 0.9 

21 49.9 

11.73484 

336 58 5.41 

5.70 

1 26.66 

23 4 23.95 


20 

8 36 22.3 

16 15.7 

10.73871 

51 14.37 

6.22 

1 26.15 

23 11 15.00 


21 

8 34 42.9 

10 40.7 

9.74258 

44 33.34 

5.81 

1 27.65 

23 17 57.12 


22 

8 33 2.8 

6 5 4.9 

8.74647 

37 58.39 

6.57 

1 28.64 

23 24 33.82 


23 

8 31 22.4 

5 59 28.9 

7.75036 

31 32.15 

6.97 

1 28.85 

23 31 0.67 


24 

8 29 41.6 

53 52.4 

6.75426 

25 15.26 

7.11 

1 29.03 

23 37 17.88 


25 

8 26 20. J 

42 39.7 

4.76204 

13 16.18 

8.35 

1 29.44 

23 49 18.61 


27 

8 24 39.7 

37 3.7 

3.76593 

7 32.14 

8.80 

1 29.28 

23 55 2.94 


29 

8 21 21.0 

25 53.6 

— 1.77369 

335 56 45.56 

9.37 

1 30.81 

24 5 51.62 


Feb. 2 

8 14 56.7 

5 3 46.8 

•f 2.21096 

37 49.78 

10.87 

1 31.02 

24 24 49.11 


3 

8 13 24.3 

4 58 18.8 

3.20716 

33 42.08 

10.79 

1 31.03 

24 28 56.74 


4 

8 11 53.7 

52 42.5 

4.20339 

29 48.86 

10.92 

1 31.93 

24 32 50.99 


5 

8 10 25.2 

47 22.3 

5.19963 

26 9.72 

11.58 

1 31.98 

24 36 30.84 


6 

8 8 58.8 

42 6.2 

6.19591 

22 46.33 

12.01 

1 32.56 

24 39 55.24 


7 

8 7 34.7 

36 46.4 

7.19220 

19 36.67 

12.26 

I 32.66 

24 43 5.25 


9 

8 4 53.7 

26 14.0 

9.18488 

14 0.14 

13.50 

1 31.85 

24 48 42.21 


10 

8 3 37.1 

21 1.8 

10.18127 

11 35.68 

14.59 

1 32.35 

24 51 8.26 


11 

8 2 23.2 

15 52.8 

11.17769 

9 24.94 

15.03 

1 33.14 

24 53 20.23 


12 

8 1 12.2 

10 45.5 

12.17414 

7 28.26 

15.29 

1 32.54 

24 55 16.57 


13 

8 4.1 

5 41.6 

13.17062 

5 46.73 

15.62 

1 33.05 

24 56 58.94 


14 

7 '58 58.9 

4 40.7 

14.16714 

4 17.26 

16.31 

1 32.79 

24 58 28.84 


16 

7 56 58.2 

3 50 48.5 

16.16028 

1 59.29 

16.95 

1 33.97 

25 48.63 


17 

7 56 2.6 

45 57.1 

17.15691 

1 7.70 

17.30 

1 32.63 

25 1 39.23 


18 

7 55 10.3 

41 9.1 

18.15358 

31.85 

18.35 

1 32.32 

25 2 15.82 


19 

7 54 21,3 

36 24.3 

19.15028 

8.56 

18.67 

1 33.51 

25 2 40.62 


20 

7 53 35.7 

31 42.9 

20.14702 

334 59 54.55 

18.96 

1 32.91 

25 2 54.32 


21 

7 52 53.5 

27 4.9 

21.14381 

59 56.21 

19.68 

1 31.79 

25 2 52.26 


23 

7 51 39.3 

17 59.1 

23.13749 

335 99.46 

19.57 

1 34.44 

25 2 21.55 


24 

7 51 7.2 

13 31.2 

24.13439 

1 1.64 

20.58 

1 33.03 

25 1 48.97 


25 

7 50 38.7 

3 9 6.9 

25.13133 

1 43.09 

21.55 

1 29.92 

25 1 5.38 . 

.. 

28 

7 49 33.6 

2 56 14.2 

+28.12239 

4 58.80 

21.87 

1 34.39 

+24 57 54.46 


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Clxxiv OBSERVATIONS. 

And finally, from the Astronomische Nadir ichten^ N^- 833 — 

F.— OBSEKVATIONS OF MAES II. WITH THE KREMSMUNSTEK MERIDIAN- 

CIECLE. 

MARS II. 

Observations with the Kremsmunster Meridian-Git cle. 


Date. 

Kremsm. M. T. 

Wash. M. T. 

Observed (X. 

Observed 0. 

t—T. 


h. m. s. 

h. m. s. 

h. m. a. 

1 II 

d. 

1852-Jan. 20 

12 38 18.91 

6 33 34.31 

8 36 19.84 

-f-23 11 8.64 

— 10.726686 

24 

12 15 55.21 

6 11 10.61 

8 29 38.95 

23 37 9.22 

— 6.742238 

Feb. 8 

10 53 32.34 

4 48 47.74 

8 6 10.72 

24 45 49.51 

4- 8.200553 

9 

10 48 17.33 

4 43 32.73 

8 4 51.53 

24 48 29.94 

9.196907 

10 

10 43 4.93 

4 38 20.33 

8 3 34.96 

24 50 55.64 

10.193291 

24 

9 35 34.89 

3 30 50.29 

7 51 5.85 

25 1 34.31 

24.146415 

25 

9 31 10.78 

3 26 26.18 

7 50 37.38 

25 54.03 

25.143358 

26 

9 26 50.46 

3 22 5.86 

7 50 12.33 

24 59 55.86 

26.140345 

Mar. 6 

8 50 10.50 

2 45 25.90 

7 48 56.04 

24 44 58.97 

35.114883 

7 

8 46 22.11 

2 41 37.51 

7 49 3.43 

24 42 37.25 

36.112239 

8 

8 42 36.23 

2 37 51.63 

7 49 13.80 

24 40 3.54 

37.109625 

14 

8 21 3.15 

2 16 18.55 

7 51 16.54 

24 22 40.59 

43.096659 

16 

8 14 13.92 

2 9 29.32 

7 52 19.33 

24 15 52.30 

45.089923 


These complete our data, so far as Mars is concerned. 

III. FIRST SERIES OF OBSERVATIONS OF VENUS. 

The observations of Venus are, as lias already been stated, far less numerous than those of 
Mars; and not only do the rich series garnered by Lieutenant Grilliss, at Santiago, find no 
corresponding comparisons on the same nights with the same star, but there are scarcely a suffi- 
cient total number of observations in the northern hemisphere for the deduction of trustworthy 
results, even by the circuitous and time-consuming methods which it has been found necessary 
to employ. Two hundred and one Santiago observations are to be compared with the seventy- 
four which can be obtained from northern observers. Of these, 83 are the results of micro- 
metric comparisons at Santiago, and 118 are meridian determinations made there. The 
northern hemisphere furnishes, during the same two conjunctions, 22 micrometric observa- 
tions at Washington, 34 meridian ones at Grreenwich, two at Altona, and 16 at Cracow. 
From these we are to endeavor to extract the best .determination of the parallax which they 
will aiford. 


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OBSERVATIONS. 


clxxv 


Apparent jdaces of stars compared ivith Venus during the first series of observations. 


No. 

Date. 

Reduction in 

Apparent 



Reduction in 

Apparent 

110 

a. 

d. 

a. 

8. 

No. 

Date. 

«. 

d. 

«. 

d. 

1850— Oct. 18 
20 

s. 

4-0.92 

0,91 

II 

+2.66 

2.75 

h. m. s. 

16 40 56 

40 56 

° 1 II 

—26 28 25.3 
25.2 

129 

1851.— Jan. 26 
29 

s. 

-1.76 

1.68 

II 

+4.92 

4.74 

h. TYl. S. 

17 46 21 
46 21 

° / // 
-18 15 23.2 
23.4 

111 

Oct. 19 
21 

+0.92 
0.90 

+2.71 
2.80 

16 42 57 
42 57 

—26 39 27.9 

27.8 

130 

1850.— Nov. 9 
11 

+0.95 
0.94 

+4.58 
4.67 

17 47 15 
47 15 

—28 2 0.8 
0.7 

112 

Oct. 20 

22 

-fO.93 
0.91 

+2.84 
2.94 

16 49 13 
49 13 

—26 52 17.9 

17.8 

131 

Nov. 9 
12 

+0.97 
0.95 

+4.72 
4.82 

17 52 25 
52 25 

—27 51 53.5 
53.4 

113 

Oct. 20 
22 

+0.93 
0.91 

+2.84 
2.94 

16 50 6 
50 6 

—26 56 32.4 
32.3 

132 

Nov. 9 
11 

+0.97 
0.96 

+4.75 
4.82 

17 53 29 
53 29 

—27 49 5.8 
5.8 

114 

Oct. 21 
23 

+0.93 
0.91 

+2.91 
3.01 

16 52 
52 

—27 1 14.8 
14.7 

133 

Nov. 12 
14 

+0.96 
0.95 

+4.89 
4.94 

17 55 55 
55 55 

—27 50 4.5 
4.5 

115 

Oct. 22 

24 

+0.93 
0.94 

+3.03 
3.13 

16 54 43 
54 43 

—26 59 38.4 
38,3 

134 

Nov. 14 
16 

+0.95^ 
0.94 

+5.07 
5.13 

17 59 7 
59 7 

—27 39 20.4 
20.3 

116 

Oct. 23 

25 

+0.94 
0.92 

+3.13 
3.22 

16 59 45 
59 45 

—27 11 44.2 
44.1 

135 

Nov. 13 
15 

+0.96 
0.95 

+5.02 
' 5.09 

17 59 51 
59 51 

-27 44 56.5 
56.5 

117 

Oct. 24 
27 

+0.96 
0.93 

+3.30 
3.42 

17 7 9 
7 9 

—27 23 5.4 
5.3 

136 

Dec. 2 
.6 

+0.92 
0.92 

+6.03 
6.07 

18 4 8 
4 8 

-25 10 47.1 
47.1 

118 

1851.— Jan. 5 
10 
15 

—2.14 
2.02 
1.81 

+7.58 
7.20 
6.80 

17 11 15 
11 15 
11 15 

-17 35 35.2 
35.6 
36.0 

137 
138 

Nov. 15 
18 

Nov. 29 

+0.97 
0.95 

+0.92 

+5.20 
5.31 

+5.94 

18 4 47 
4 47 

18 6 41 

—27 32 3.4 
3.3 

-25 44 59.6 

119 

1850.— Oct. 28 

+0.94 

+3.47 

17 12 51 

—27 50 49.5 


Dec. 1 

0.92 

5.98 

6 41 

59.5 


31 

0.91 

3,61 

12 51 

49.3 

139 

Nov. 17 

+0.96 

+5.33 

18 7 2 

—27 27 14.2 

120 

Oct. 26 

+0 96 

+3.48 

17 13 23 

—27 31 21.2 


19 

0.95 

5.40 

7 2 

14.1 


30 

0.92 

3.64 

13 23 

21.0 

140 

Nov. 20 

+0.94 

+5.52 

18 8 41 

—27 5 20.8 

121 

Oct. 30 

+0.93 

+3.58 

17 13 52 

—27 48 59.1 


22 

0.94 

5.57 

8 41 

20.7 


Nov. 1 

0.91 

3.66 

13 62 

59.0 

141 

1851.— Feb. 4 

—1.63 

+3.77 

18 9 3 

—18 50 44.9 

122 

1851.— Jan. 14 

—1.93 

+6.79 

17 13 53 

—17 33 2.1 


6 

1.58 

3.68 

9 3 

44.9 


18 

1.83 

6.47 

13 53 

2.4 

142 

1850.- Nov. 28 

+0.92 

+5.94 

18 9 31 

—25 59 3.7 

123 

Jan. 17 

—1.89 

+6.32 

17 21 16 

—17 41 6.1 


30 

0.93 

5.97 

9 31 

3.6 


19 

1.83 

6.16 

21 16 

6.3 

143 

Nov. 27 

+0.93 

+5.90 

18 11 54 

—26 8 36.9 

124 

Jan. 19 

—1.85 

+6.04 

17 25 16 

—17 43 26.6 


28 

0.93 

5.92 

11 54 

30.9 

• 

21 

1.77 

5.88 

25 16 

26.8 

144 

1851.— Feb. 5 

—1.62 

+3.62 

18 12 35 

—18 55 12.7 

125 

1850.— Nov. 1 

+0.96 

+4.14 

17 28 46 

—27 56 53.2 


8 

1.54 

3.50 

12 35 

12.8 


3 
5 

0.94 
0.93 

4.03 
4.10 

28 46 
28 46 

53.4 
63.3 

145 

1850.— Nov. 25 
27 

+0.94 
0.93 

+5.84 
5.90 

18 13 2 
13 2 

-26 28 43.0 
42.9 

126 

1851.— Jan. 22 
26 

-1.80 
1.96 

+5.63 
5.36 

17 31 59 
31 59 

—17 59 46.5 
46.7 

146 

Nov. 24 
26 

+0.94 
0.94 

+5.85 
5.89 

18 15 20 
16 20 

-26 33 47.7 
47.6 

127 

Jan. 23 

27 

-1.81 
1.70 

+6.33 
5 08 

17 38 42 
38 42 

—18 2 38.1 

38.4 

147 

Nov. 23 
25 

+0.95 
0.95 

+5.84 
5.89 

18 18 24 
18 24 

—26 42 54.7 
54.7 

128 

1850.— Nov. 5 
9 

+0.97 
0.94 

+4.37 
4.52 

17 43 53 
43 53 

—28 50.1 
50.0 

148 

1851— Feb. 9 
11 

— 1.57 
1.51 

+3.12 
3.05 

18 23 41 
23 41 

-19 4 20.9 
20.9 


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cli^xvi 


OBSERVATIONS. 


A.— OBSEKVATIONS OF VENUS I. WITH THE SANTIAGO EQUATOKIAL. 

The following changes have been made from the printed observations : 
Page 222, October 22 


223, '< 23, 

228-9, '' 26, 

233-4, November 2, 


241, 

244-5, '< 

261-2, January 

264, *' 

269, 


13, 
15, 
14, 
16, 
24, 


Kemarks.— All the observations from N^. 57, inclusive, are assumed to be recorded 1 rev. too 
great ; not the others too small, as printed. 
NO. 34, Micr. for 20r. 37 read 207-. 78. 
The sign of aJ should be negative. 
'< '< '' positive. 

<' 22, Micr. for 4r. 15 read 4r. 45. 

The names of the objects are transposed. 
The sign of A^ should be positive. 
" 14, a5 for 0. 8J read 0. 78J. 

Eemarks /or corrected diameter 38". 00 read 37''. 93 


And for the results to be adopted and employed, the corrections and modifications are these : 

for 12r. 004 =i 3' 63". 96 read 


Page 217, 
219, 

227, 
229, 
234, 
238, 
2.39, 
244, 
245, 

252, 
253, 
255, 


October 


19, line 

20, '' 


*' 25, 

'' 26, 

November 2, 

8, 

10, 

14, 

15, 


12r. 004 =1 3' 53". 96 read 12r. 149 = 3' 56". 61. 
6.615 '' 6.614. 

'■'■ 8. 844 =2' 52". 37 '' 8. 846 i=z 2' 52". 41. 

The sign of A J should be negative. 
" «< " " positive. 

fcyr llf. 683 — 3' 47". 72 read llr. 689 — 3' 47''. 82. 
'« 2' 25". 29 '* 2' 25". 30. 

'' 6r. 238 — 2'1'. 58 '' 6r. 246 = 2' 1". 75. 
1, 2, The names of the objects are transposed, and the signs of Aa and A^ become positive. 
2, for eleven, read twelve. 


1, 

1, 
1, 
1, 
1, 
1, 
1, 
1, 


December 
258, January 
262, 
266, " 

272, 

277, February 

280, 


26, 
29, 

3, 
10, 
1^, 
17, 
28, 

6, 
10, 


1, 
1, 
1, 
1, 
1, 

1, 
1, 
1, 


4' 26". 03 
4 40 . 14 
2 42 .10 
6 12 .60 


4' 25". 03. 
4 45 . 14. 
2 41 .73. 
6 11 . 60. 


The sign of a5 should be positive. 
for 2' 34". 20 read 2' 34". 24. 

«♦ 67*. 045= r38". 33 "■ 4r. 992 zz: T 37". 28. 
6.379 =zl44 .84 '* 6.375 zi: 1 44 .76. 


1, 2, The sign of Lh should be positive. 


for 


Ir. 834 

13/i. 46w. 19S.77 
13 45 28 .11 


Ir. 835. 

13/i. 41?7i. 19s. 77. 

13 40 28. 11. 


We thus obtain our table of observations in the same form as the previous ones for Mars. 


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OBSERVATIONS. 


clxxvii 


VENUS I. 

Observations with the Santiago Equatorial. 


Date. 

Obs. 
part. 

Sant. S.T. 

Wash. M.T. 

t—T, 

Star 

N°. 

Star's d. 

Meas'd D 8 

Refr. 

Obs'd (J. 

N°. of 
comp, 

N. S. 




h. m. s. 

h. m. s. 

d. 


° 1 II 

1 II 

II 



1850 

.—Oct. 19 

N. 

22 25 50.70 

8 7 22.03 

—56.66155 

110 

—26 28 25.21 

—3 .56.61 

0.22 

—26 32 22,04 

33 


20 

N. 

22 11 55.14 

7 49 32.85 

55.67392 

111 

26 39 27.85 

-2 8.93 

.08 

26 41 36.86 

36 


22 

N. 

22 21 4.80 

7 50 49.19 

53.67304 

114 

27 1 14.74 

+2 32.53 

.15 

26 58 42.06 

44 


23 

N. 

22 19 41.90 

7 45 30 ."Si 

52.67673 

115 

26 59 38.32 

—6 47.09 

.26 

27 6 25.67 

40 


24 

N. 

22 6 7.53 

7 28 2.55 

51.68886 

116 

27 11 44.10 

—1 46.81 

.06 

27 13 30.97 

36 


25 

N. 

22 36 59.11 

7 54 53.17 

50.67022 

117 

—27 23 5.40 

+2 52.41 

.02 

—27 20 12.97 

21 


26 

N. 

22 16 46.07 

7 30 47.53 

49.68695 

117 

27 23 5.36 

—3 8.72 

.10 

27 26 14.18 

27 


29 

N. 

21 55 30.16 

6 57 47.39 

46.70987 

119 

27 50 49.40 

+9 46.65 

.24 

27 41 2.51 

3 



N. 

23 22 33.58 

8 24 36.55 

46.64958 

119 

27 50 49.40 

+9 33.24 

.80 

27 41 15.36 

4 


30 

N. 

22 51 43.36 

7 49 55.56 

45.67366 

119 

27 50 49.35 

+5 43.61 

.23 

27 45 5.51 

5 


31 

N. 

22 58 51.39 

7 53 6.42 

44.67145 

121 

—27 48 59.03 

+ 28.73 

.02 

-27 48 30.28 

9 


Nov. 1 

N. 

22 41 8.48 

7 31 30.50 

43.68645 

125 

27 56 53.24 

+5 33.40 

.19 

27 51 19.65 

22 


2 

N. 

22 59 11.28 

7 45 34.44 

42.67668 

125 

27 56 53.30 

+3 12.29 

.13 

27 53 40.88 

31 


4 

N. 

22 33 37,34 

7 12 12.87 

40.69985 

125 

27 56 53.31 

+ 4.76 

.00 

27 56 48.55 

9 


6 

N. 

22 58 11.79 

7 28 51.48 

38.68829 

128 

28 50.07 

+2 54.94 

.07 

27 57 55.06 

19 


7 

N. 

22 59 47.05 

7 26 30.57 

37.68992 

128 

—26 50.03 

+3 8.02 

.11 

—27 57 41,90 

17 


8 

N. 

22 59 3.94 

7 21 51.67 

36.69315 

128 

28 49.99 

+3 47.82 

.12 

27 57 2.05 

18 


10 

N. 

22 28 27.40 

6 43 28.32 

34.71981 

131 

27 51 53.44 

—2 25.29 

.06 

27 54 18.79 

1 


11 

N. 

23 24 2.89 

7 34 58.80 

33.68404 

131 

27 51 53.41 

— 12.32 

.01 

27 52 5.74 

29 


13 

N. 

23 29 15.60 

7 32 18.84 

31.68589 

133 

27 50 4.50 

+3 38.52 

.15 

27 46 25.83 

24 


14 

N. 

23 34 40.74 

7 33 47.17 

30.68487 

135 

—27 44 56.48 

+2 1.75 

.09 

—27 42 54.64 

27 


15 

N. 

22 49 23.55 

6 44 41.50 

29.71896 

134 

27 39 20.34 

+ 16.27 

.01 

27 39 4.06 

3 



N. 

23 35 11.06 

7 30 21.51 

29.68724 

134 

2T 39 20.34 

+ 25.26 

.02 

27 38 55.06 

12 


16 

N. 

23 30 58.43 

7 22 13.65 

28.69290 

137 

27 32 3.33 

—2 27.03 

.10 

27 34 30.46 

18 


17 

N. 

23 13 10,49 

7 32.73 

27.70796 

137 

27 32 3.30 

+2 24.05 

.08 

27 29 39.17 

10 


18 

N. 

23 42 16.68 

7 25 38.23 

26.69053 

139 

—27 27 14.11 

+3 1.65 

.15 

—27 24 12.31 

22 


21 

N. 

23 28 8.62 

6 59 44.76 

23.70851 

140 

27 5 20.73 

— 6.98 

.00 

27 5 27.69 

22 


24 

N. 

23 57 11.67 

7 16 55.32 

20.69658 

147 

26 42 54.67 

+ 35.02 

.03 

26 42 19.62 

2 


25 

N. 

8 5.64 

7 23 51.60 

19.69176 

146 

26 33 47.63 

+ 9.35 

0.01 

26 33 38,27 

7 


26 

N. 

49 46.83 

8 1 30.04 

18.66563 

145 

26 28 42.94 

+4 25.03 

1.35 

26 24 16,56 

3 


28 

N. 

14 4.63 

7 18 1.87 

16.69581 

143 

-26 8 36.91 

+3 42.95 

0.37 

—26 4 53.59 

8 


29 

N. 

29 46.56 

7 29 45.32 

15.68767 

142 

25 59 3.64 

+4 45.14 

.71 

25 54 17.79 

1 


30 

N. 

25 42.47 

7 21 45.99 

14.69322 

138 

25 44 59.54 

+1 46.05 

.27 

25 43 13.22 

9 


Dec. 3 

s. 

30 49.80 

7 15 4.75 

—11.69786 

136 

25 10 47.12 

+2 41.73 

.56 

28 8 4.83 

5 

1851.- 

—Jan. 6 

s. 

11 27 7.05 

16 55 53.50 

+22.70548 

118 

17 35 35 24 

—3 3.93 

.24 

17 38 39.41 

4 


7 

S. 

11 31 6.03 

16 55 55.91 

23.70551 

118 

—17 35 35.32 

+ 15.67 

.02 

-17 35 19.63 

4 


8 

s. 

11 37 27.35 

15 58 20.27 

24.66551 

118 

17 35 35.39 

+2 55.14 

.24 

17 32 40.01 

5 


9 

s. 

11 37 11.14 

15 .54 8.20 

25.66260 

118 

17 35 35.48 

+4 52.97 

.32 

17 30 42,19 

7 


10 

s. 

11 34 1,83 

15 47 3.49 

26.65768 

118 

17 35 35.56 

+6 11.60 

.43 

17 29 23.53 

11 


11 

S. 

11 16 42.64 

15 25 51.23 

27.64295 

118 

17 35 35.64 

+6 54.10 

.79 

17 28 40,75 

6 


12 

S. 

11 42 8.19 

15 47 16.70 

28.65783 

118 

—17 35 35.72 

+7 0.63 

.44 

-17 28 34.65 

18 


14 

s. 

11 57 19.97 

15 54 34.17 

30.66290 

118 

17 35 35.88 

+5 33.36 

.29 

17 30 2.23 

27 


15 

s. 

1] 55 21.72 

15 48 40.34 

31.65880 

122 

17 33 2.17 

+1 37.80 

.09 

17 31 24.28 

30 


16 

s. 

11 56 53.91 

15 46 16.36 

32.65713 

122 

17 33 2.25 

— 16.88 

.01 

17 33 19.14 

22 


17 

s. 

12 50.34 

15 46 16.23 

33.65713 

122 

17 33 2.33 

—2 34.24 

.15 

17 35 36.72 

14 


18 

s. 

11 53 17.70 

15 34 48.92 

34.64918 

123 

-17 41 6.18 

+2 54.50 

.18 

-17 38 11.50 

10 


20 

s. 

12 50.32 

15 34 28.48 

36.64894 

124 

17 43 26.72 

—1 0.13 

.06 

17 44 26.91 

18 


24 

s. 

12 18 45.78 

15 36 37.37 

40.65043 

127 

18 2 38.18 

+2 54.75 

.14 

17 59 43.29 

8 


26 

s. 

12 27 11.97 

15 37 10.36 

42.65081 

127 

18 2 38.30 

-5 37,72 

.26 

18 8 16.28 

15 


27 

s. 

12 31 55.96 

15 37 57.65 

43.65136 

129 

18 15 23.24 

+2 47.07 

,13 

18 12 35.04 

8 


28 

s- 

12 37 33.58 

15 39 38.45 

44.65253 

129 

—18 15 23.30 

-1 37.28 

.07 - 

-18 17 0.65 

13 


Feb. 5 

s. 

13 7 24.77 

15 37 57.48 

52.65136 

141 

18 50 44.89 

+ 48.67 

.03 

18 49 56.19 

23 



N. 

13 19 5.63 

15 49 36.43 

52.65945 

141 

18 50 44.89 

+1 21.64 

,05 

18 49 23,20 

17 


6 

N. S. 

13 27 44.73 

15 54 18.19 

53.66271 

144 

18 55 12.69 

+2 1.79 

.06 

18 53 10.84 

25 25 


7 

N.S. 

13 20 46.12 

15 43 24.82 

54.65515 

144 

18 55 12,73 

—1 12.94 

.04 

18 56 25.71 

12 12 


10 

N.S. 

13 37 43.29 

15 48 31.48 

+57.65869 

148 - 

- 19 4 20.90 

— 19.82 

0.01 

-19 4 40.73 

12 12 


Y-O. 


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clxxviii 


OBSERVATIONS. 


B.— OBSERVATIONS OF VENUS I. WITH THE SANTIAGO MERIDIAN-CIRCLE. 
After making the annexed correction in the printed observations^ 


Page 322, 

NO. 35, 

Obs'd app. 6 for 

— 220 68^7^79 

read 

— 220 59' 7'^ 79 


*' 39, 

Date, 

December 20, 


December 21. 


'' 43, 

Object, 

N. L. 


S.L. 


- 43, 

Corr. forSemid. 

+ 30''. 8 


— 30". 8 

323, 

- 4, 

App. a 

11 h. ISm. 6U93 


17^. 12m. 51s. 93 


" 4, 

Obs'd transit. 

17 13 59. 40 


17 12 59. 40 


- 5, 

Object, 

N.L. 


S.L. 


- 5, 

Corr. for Semid. 

+ 30^4 


— 30". 4 

325, 

- 24, 

Obs'd app. S 

— 180 4' 56". 79 


— 180 4' 38". 49 


we have the series following : 


VENUS I. 

Observations with the Santiago Meridian-Circle, 







Observed 

t—T, 


Refr. 

Nadir. 


Date. 

Obs. part. 

Santiago S.T. 

Washington M.T. 

a. 

8. 

Circle-reading. 




^. m. s. 

h. m. s. 

h. m. s. 

o I II 

d. 

o / // 

II 

II 

1850 

.-Oct. 19 

N. 

16 39 31.25 

2 21 59.32 

16 39 31.25 

— 2G 30 16.65 

-56.90140 

353 3 53.68 

— 6.34 

— 2.92 


20 

N. 

16 43 21.01 

2 21 52.54 

16 43 21.01 

26 39 56.01 

55.90148 

353 13 25.30 

6.20 

5.18 


21 

N. 

16 47 8.56 

2 21 43.56 

16 47 8.56 

26 48 36.91 

54.90158 

353 22 23.55 

6.06 

6.47 


22 

N. 

16 50 54.27 

2 21 32.75 

16 50 54.27 

26 57 0.18 

53.90171 

353 30 46.85 

5.99 

6.57 


23 

N. 

16 54 36.67 

2 21 18.63 

16 54 36.67 

27 4 52.54 

52,90187 

353 38 39.00 

5.83 

6.52 


24 

N. 

16 58 15.02 

2 21 0,46 

16 58 15.02 

27 12 11.56 

51.90208 

353 45 54.17 

5.75 

2.75 


25 

N. 

17 1 53.48 

2 20 42.44 

17 1 53.48 

27 18 53.98 

50.90229 

353 52 36,75 

5.58 

3.08 


26 

N. 

17 5 27.56 

2 20 20.03 

17 5 27.56 

27 25 21.38 

49.90255 

353 59 3.42 

5.48 

2,45 


27 

N. 

17 8 57.95 

2 19 53.93 

17 8 57.95 

27 30 44.04 

48.90285 

354 4 28.22 

5.47 

4.60 


28 

N. 

17 12 24.89 

2 19 24.40 

17 12 24.89 

27 35 51.73 

47.90319 

354 9 35.68 

5.42 

4.42 


30 

N. 

17 19 8.62 

2 18 15.05 

17 19 8.62 

27 44 24.03 

45.90399 

354 18 8.00 

5.26 

4.60 


31 

N. 

17 22 24.27 

2 17 34.41 

17 22 24.27 

27 47 56.36 

44.90446 

354 21 40.90 

5.11 

5.32 


Nov. 1 

N. 

17 25 35.56 

2 16 49.27 

17 25 35.56 

27 50 57.61 

43.90498 

354 24 41.15 

5.08 

4.35 


2 

N. 

17 28 42.34 

2 15 59.64 

17 28 42.34 

27 53 20.45 

42.90556 

354 27 8.48 

5.03 

8.89 


4 

N. 

17 34 41.81 

2 14 6.31 

17 34 41.81 

27 57 23.25 

40.90687 

354 31 10.75 

5.01 

8.38 


5 

N. 

17 37 33.47 

2 13 1,76 

17 37 33.47 

27 57 36.57 

39.90762 

354 31 23.40 

4.97 

7.75 


7 

N. 

17 43 0.84 

2 10 36.26 

17 43 0.84 

27 58 0.16 

37.90930 

354 31 ;14.93 

4.98 

5.68 


8 

N. 

17 45 35.51 

2 9 14.59 

17 45 35.51 

27 57 26.52 

36.91025 

354 31 11.68 

5.00 

6.05 


10 

N. 

17 50 25.31 

2 6 11.78 

17 50 25.31 

27 54 49.85 

34.91236 

354 28 36.78 

5.09 

7.73 


11 

N. 

17 52 40.15 

2 4 30.35 

17 52 40.15 

27 52 50.56 

33.91354 

354 26 37.23 

5.08 

7.48 


13 

N. 

17 56 47.85 

2 45.55 

17 56 47.85 

27 47 19.97 

31.91614 

354 21 9.33 

5.18 

10.05 


14 

N. 

17 58 40.22 

1 58 41.70 

17 58 40.22 

27 43 56.15 

30.91757 

354 17 47.20 

5.06 

11.88 


15 

N. 

18 24.55 

1 56 29.84 

18 24.55 

27 40 7.95 

29.91910 

354 13 58.10 

5.19 

10.85 


16 

N. 

18 2 0.22 

154 9.34 

18 2 0.22 

27 35 45.83 

28.92072 

354 9 35.90 

5.23 

10.73 


17 

N. 

18 3 27.29 

1 51 40.27 

18 3 27.29 

27 30 55.13 

27.92245 

354 4 48.30 

5.48 

13.58 


18 

N. 

18 4 45.42 

1 49 2.27 

18 4 45.42 

27 25 36 .55 

26.92428 

353 59 31.23 

5.39 

15.18 


19 

N. 

18 5 54.46 

1 46 15.21 

18 5 54.46 

27 19 58.79 

25.92621 

353 53 52.43 

5.43 

14.10 


2U 

N. 

18 6 53.87 

1 43 18.55 

18 6 53.87 

27 13 47.94 

24.92826 

353 47 44.15 

5.65 

16.45 


21 

N. 

18 7 43.45 

1 40 12.08 

18 7 43.45 

27 7 11.85 

23.93042 

353 41 5.13 

5.72 

13.45 


23 

S. 

18 8 52.38 

1 33 29.01 

18 8 52.38 

26 53 22.88 

21.93508 

353 27 17.13 

5.99 

14.15 


26 

N. 

18 9 17.96 

1 21 6.78 

18 9 17.96 

26 27 5,68 

18.94377 

353 1 0.80 

6.28 

14.73 


27 

N.- 

18 9 5.15 

1 17 58.10 

18 9 5.15 

26 17 38.52 

17.94586 

352 51 33.05 

6.52 

13.90 


28 

N. 

- 18 8 40.99 

1 13 38.09 

18 8 40.99 

26 7 46.14 

16.94886 

352 41 38.45 

6.72 

11.48 


30 

N. 

18 6 21.70 

1 3 27.37 

18 6 21.70 

25 46 25.73 

14.95593 

352 20 24.73 

7.04 

17.85 


Dec. 2 

M. 

18 5 18.98 

54 32.99 

18 5 18.98 

25 23 7.48 

12.96212 

351 57 6.48 

7.36 

17.53 


4 

N. 

18 2 35.47 

43 58.11 

18 2 35,47 

24 57 51.47 

10.96947 

351 31 51.50 

7.77 

18.15 


5 

N. 

18 59.25 

38 26.24 

18 59.25 

24 44 28.02 

9.97331 

351 18 28.25 

7.94 

18.18 


8 

N. 

17 55 17.63 

20 57.82 

17 55 17.63 

24 1 29.42 

6.98544 

350 .35 20.88 

8.57 

8.78 


10 

N. 

17 50 52.46 

8 41.55 

17 50 52.46 

23 30 45.64 

4.99396 

350 4 36.78 

9.02 

8.02 


(12) 

N. 

17 46 5.19 

(11) 23 56 3.24 

17 46 5.19 

- 22 58 36.79 

— 3.00274 

• 349 32 30.13 

— 9.44 

— 9.83 


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OBSERVATIONS. 
Observations with the Santiago Meridian-Oircle— Continued. 


clxxix 



Date. 

Obs. part 

Santiago S.T. 

Washington M. T 

Observed 







a. 

8, 

- t—T. 

Circle-reading. 

Refr. 

Nadir. 




h. m. s. 

h. m. s. 

k. m. s. 

O f II 

d. 




1850. 

—Oct. (13) 

S. 

17 43 35.16 

(12)23 49 37.70 

17 43 35.16 

— 22 43 9.85 

— 2.00721 

349 17 2.25 

// 
— 9.59 

II 
— 8.70 


21 

s. 

17 2122.54 

22 52 5.52 

17 21 22.54 

20 14 2,1.15 

+ 6.95558 

346 48 36.73 

12.27 

13.20 


22 

s. 

17 19 8.98 

22 45 56.42 

17 

19 59 27.16 

7.94857 

346 33 27.22 

12.40 

13.55 


29 

s. 

17 8 4.90 

22 7 22.78 

17 8 4.90 

18 31 29.45 

14.92179 

345 5 20.53 

13.87 

3.10 


31 

s. 

17 6 19.63 

21 57 42.62 

17 6 19.63 

18 13 16.49 

16.91508 

344 47 8.75 

14.20 

3.95 

1851 

—•Jan. 5 

s. 

17 4 53.11 

21 36 40.12 

17 4 53.11 

17 41 51.79 

21.90046 

344 15 47.15 

14.85 

6.40 


6 

s. 

17 5 5.71 

21 32 56.78 

17 5 5.71 

17 37 56.73 

22.89788 

344 11 53.85 

14.63 

8.48 


7 

s. 

17 5 27 64 

21 29 22.74 

17 5 27.64 

17 34 46.03 

23.89540 

344 8 42.45 

14.81 

7.50 


8 

s. 

17 5 58.98 

21 25 58.08 

17 5 58.98 

17 32 16.93 

24.89303 

344 6 13.50 

14.78 

7.68 


9 

s. 

17 6 39.46 

21 22 42.54 

17 6 39.46 

17 30 29.83 

25.89077 

344 4 26.88 

14.74 

8.20 


10 

s. 

17 7 28.90 

21 19 35.94 

17 7 28.90 

17 29 19.80 

26.88861 

344 3 16.28 

14.74 

7.63 


11 

s. 

17 8 27.17 

21 16 38.13 

17 8 27.17 

17 28 48.40 

27.88655 

344 2 47.85 

14.84 

10.50 


12 

s. 

17 9 33.99 

21 13 48.85 

17 9 33.99 

17 28 46.54 

28.88459 

344 2 49.08 

14.68 

13.75 


13 

s. 

17 10 49.18 

21 11 7.93 

17 10 49.18 

17 29 21.51 

29.88273 

344 3 23.48 

14.78 

13.05 


14 

s. 

17 12 12.28 

21 8 34.90 

17 12 12.28 

17 30 25.68 

30.88096 

344 4 29.88 

14.69 

15.40 


15 

s. 

17 13 43.34 

21 6 9.80 

17 13 43.34 

17 31 57.25 

31.87928 

344 5 58.88 

14.64 

12.88 


16 

s. 

17 15 21.82 

21 3 52.10 

17 15 21.82 

17 33 55.61 

32.87769 

344 7 58.73 

14.63 

14.38 


17 

s. 

17 17 7.73 

21 1 41.89 

17 17 7.73 

17 36 16.86 

33.87618 

344 10 19.18 

14.78 

13.43 


20 

s. 

17 23 7.59 

20 55 52.95 

17 23 7.59 

17 45 18.41 

36.87214 

344 19 18.48 

14.63 

11.33 


21 

s. 

17 25 20.84 

20 54 9.93 

17 25 20.84 

17 48 53.62 

37.87095 

344 22 54.43 

14.30 

12.40 


22 

s. 

17 27 40.15 

20 52 32.95 

17 27 40,15 

17 52 41.51 

38.86982 

344 26 43.40 

14.28 

13.50 


23 

s. 

17 30 5.62 

20 51 2.11 

17 30 5.62 

17 56 36.81 

39.86877 

344 30 41.08 

14.18 

15.98 


24 

s. 

17 32 36.84 

20 49 37.01 

17 32 36.84 

18 44.42 

40.86779 

344 34 47.43 

14.25 

14.65 


25 

s. 

17 35 13.73 

20 48 17.56 

17 35 13.73 

18 4 56.79 

41.86687 

344 39 0.50 

14.27 

15.33 


26 

s. 

17 37 55.96 

20 47 3.44 

17 37 55.96 

18 9 18.20 

42.86601 

344 43 18.70 

14.24 

12.15 


27 

s. 

17 40 43.29 

20 45 54.40 

17 40 43.29 

18 13 38.97 

43.86521 

344 47 42.73 

14.22 

15.43 


28 

s. 

17 43 35.68 

20 44 50.41 

17 43 35.68 

18 18 3.58 

44.86447 

344 52 6,05 

14.13 

14.43 


Feb. 3 

s. 

18 2 25.00 

20 40 1,20 

. 18 2 25.00 

18 43 22.23 

50.86112 

345 17 20.78 

13.74 

—10.70 


5 

s. 

18 9 13.90 

20 38 57.16 

18 9 13.90 

18 50 48.16 

52.86038 

345 24 35.50 

13.61 

+ 0.38 
— 1.48 


6 

s. 

18 12 43.57 

20 38 30.35 

18 12 43.57 

18 54 12.44 

53.86007 

345 28 1.45 

13.42 


7 

s. 

18 16 16.99 

20 38 7.28 

18 16 16.99 

18 57 27.12 

54.85981 

345 31 17.00 

13.42 

2.35 


lb 

s. 

18 27 15.75 

20 37 16.51 

18 27 15.75 - 

- 19 5 35.59 - 

f-57.85922 

345 39 24.78 

—13.40 

— 1.68 


C.-OBSEEVATIONS OF VENUS I. WITH THE WASHINGTON EQUATORIAL. 
The re(iuisite corrections appear to be, for these observation, thus : 


Page 


391, 
392, 


395, 
397, 
399, 
400, 
401, 
402, 

403, 
404, 


October 


November 


22, 

28, 


January 


9, 
13, 
21, 
13, 

15, 

15, 

24, 


No. 18, A^ /or llr. 989 read 10.989 

I^e whole series of printed a a is evidently computed by the employment of the differences 

corresponding to the third and second threads, instead of the second and first ; and it has 

been taken for granted that the observation was made in ^his way. Otherwise the A(J must 

be increased by 3^^0 and 3'Ml respectively! 
No. 3, Ad fm- 21r. 736 read 21r. 734 
" 15 "> llr. 140 <* llr. 144 

The sign of aJ should be negative. 
No. 16, Aa /or '26r. 171 read 26r. 231 

Micr. perhaps 46r. 391, which has been adopted. 
No. 6-.9, Some error in the time must exist here, probably in the minutes ; as also between 

Nos. 33 and 41. 
No. 76, Micr. for 2 59. 631 read 2 57. 631 
The comparison-star is not in Taylor, 


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clxxx 


OBSERVATIONS, 


And for the deduced results we have- 


Insert page 


390, 
390, 


391, 


October 


21, 
21, 


lines 1, 2, 


22, line 


'' 392, 

(( 

28, 

(( 

7, 

" 395, 

November 

2, 

(( 

1, 

'* 396, 

<< 

9, 

ii 

5,7, 


*( 

10, 

11 

5, 

Insert page 396, 

u 

10, 



'* 398, 

(( 

14, 

11 

1,3 

" 399, 

(( 

21, 



** 404, 

January 

15, 

( ( 

7,8 


f(yr er. 132 =: 1^ 34^'. 26 read 6r. 198 =z V 35", 26 
The comparisons in declination with the second star give — 

Venus S — ^ (4 comparisons) =z -f- 23r. 045 =: 5' 54". 24,Ap == 2. "49 
a. N — ^ (4 " ) =: 4- 24 . 775 =: 6 20 . 83,Ap = 2. 89 

Mean Chron'r time for 5h. 57m. 9s. 72 read bh. 56w. 48s. 55 


Mean 

Chron' 

r 

A^ 

M 



2' 17" 22 

lln 135 == 2' 51". 16 

5' 24''. 35 

6h. 42m. 44s. 38 

21r.793 = 5"35".00 

two 


" 2' 17". 26 
llr. 315 =: 2' 53". 92 
5' 24'^ 25 
time 5h. 41m. 295.38 
21r. 797 = 6' 35". 06 
< ' three 

The comparisons in declination with the second star give — 

Venus S — ^ (2 comparisons) =: — 14r. 231 z= 3' 38". 74 Ap =: 1'^ 32 
a ]Sr — ^ (2 *' ) zz: — 11 . 367 = 2 54 . 73 Ap =: 1 . 05 

A^ for Ir. 948 =: 27'^ 94 read Ir. 815 — 21". 90 

The sign of A^ should be negative. 
AJ /or 6r. 879 = 1'45".74 read 67-. 900 == 1'46".06 

The comparison-star is Argel .391. 70. 


The observation of October 19 is excluded from the discussion. 


VEJVUS I. 

Observations with the Washington Equatorial. 


Date. 

Obs. part. 

Wash. S.T. 

Wash. M.T. 

t—T. 

Star N°. 

Star's d. 

Meas'd Dd. 

Refr. 

Obs'd 8, 

N"*. comp. 
N. S. 

1850. 


h. m. s. 

h. m. s. 



Q 

/ // 

1 II 

// 

1 II 


Oct. 19 

N. S. 

20 8 23.71 

6 16 6.61 

—56.738816 

110 

—26 

28 25.21 

—4 23.86 

1.78 

-26 32 50.85 

4 3 

21 

N.S. 

20 11 51.14 

6 11 41.66 

54.736182 

j 112 
I 113 

-{ 

52 17.85 
56 32.32 

+1 52.72 
+6 7.54 

0.70 
2.69 

26 50] 24.43 
t 22.09 

4 4 

' 4 4 

22 

N.S. 

20 1 25.02 

5 57 23.35 

53.751814 

114 

27 

1 14.74 

+2 34.19 

0.46 

26 58 40.09 

5 4 

28 

N.S. 

20 25 35.48 

5 57 52.40 

47.751478 

120 

27 

31 21.08 

—5 42.23 

2.01 

27 37 5.32 

3 3 

Nov. 1 

N.S. 

20 31 13.19 

5 47 45.55 

43.758501 

125 

27 

56 53.24 

+5 0.07 

1.47 

27 51 51.70 

4 4 

2 

N.S. 

20 30 26.21 

5 43 2.80 

42.761773 

125 

27 

56 53.29 

+2 38.23 

0.70 

27 54 14.36 

8 8 

9 

N.S. 

20 52 45.79 

5 37 47.36 

35.765424 

130 

28 

2 0.83 

+5 11.49 

1.54 

27 56 47.80 

3 3 

10 

N.S. 

20 58 58.72 

5 40 3.36 

34.763950 

131 

27 

51 53.45 

—3 16.74 

1.18 

27 55 11.37 

2 2 


N.S. 

20 36 45.51 

5 17 53.79 

34.779239 

130 

28 

2 0.78 

+6 47.88 

1.88 

27 55 11.02 

2 3 

13 

N.S. 

21 3 43.99 

5 33 0.13 

31.768748 

133 

27 

50 4.50 

+2 28.78 

0.80 

27 47 34.92 

4 4 

14 

N.S. 

20 59 54.68 

5 25 15.53 

30.774127 

135 

27 

44 56.48 

+ 50.52 

0.24 

27 44 5.72 

4 4 

21 

N.S. 

21 17 19.48 

5 15 6.11 

—23.781180 

140 

—27 

5 20.73 

—1 32.02 

0.44 

27 6 55.19 

10 11 

1851. 












Jan. 13 

N.S. 

14 12 19.71 

18 38 56.76 

+29.777047 

118 

17 

35 35.80 

+6 20.50 

6.13 

17 29 9.17 

12 12 

15 

N.S. 

13 54 26.81 

18 13 14.98 

31.759202 

122 

17 

33 2.17 

+1 21.56 

0.14 

17 31 40.47 

16 16 

24 

N.S. 

14 21 23.34 

18 4 43.90 

+40.753286 

126 

—17 

59 46.61 

— 27.22 

0.05 

—18 13.88 

4 4 


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OBSERVATIONS. clxxx l 

From the G-reenwich volumes we -obtain the meridian observations, 
D.— OBSEKVATIONS OF VENUS I. WITH THE GKEENWICH MURAL CIKCLE. 

VENUS I. 

Observations with the Greenwich Mural Circle, 


Date. 

Obs. 
part. 

Green. S.T. 

Wash. M.T. 

t-T. 

Circle-reading. 

Refr. 

Zenith Pt. corr. 

Observed 3, 

Semid. 








83° 31/ 





h. m. 8, 

h. m, s. 

d. 

// 

/ // 

// 

° 1 II 

II 

1850 — Oct. 15 

S. 

16 23 6.00 

— 2 20 12.3 

— •61.09736 

51.95 

4 9.91 

26.52 

— 25 44 43.06 

15.11 

16 

0. 

16 27 3.85 

2 20 11. 

60.09770 

25.13 

4 11.94 

26.52 

25 56 33.38 


21 

N. 

16 46 25.15 

2 20 32.4 

55.09760 

44.00 

4 31.43 

25,62 

26 47 29.23 

16.59 

Nov. 11 

N. 

17 52 15.24 

2 37 27.1 

34.10934 

39.30 

4 55.26 

24.28 

27 53 58.00 

24.88 

28 

N. 

18 8 48.90 

3 27 46.7 

17.14429 

52.23 

4 24.80 

23.03 

26 10 45.90 

29.07 

29 

N. 

18 8 16.68 

3 32 14.7 

16.14739 

37.60 

4 22.16 

23.03 

26 28.96 

29.38 

Dec. 6 

N. 

17 59 37.56 

— 4 8 23.8 

— 9.17250 

0.18 

3 53.97 

20.82 

24 34 30.09 

33.93 

27 

C. 

17 10 44.24 

17 36 20.9 

-f- 12.73358 

38.12 

2 46.44 

20.73 

+ 8' 
37.95 

18 55 26.65 


1851.— Jan. 8 

N. 

17 5 50.23 

16 44 16.7 

24.69742 

50.30 

2 32.83 

17 32 47.17 

24.30 

17 

N. 

17 16 44.89 

16 19 46.4 

33.68040 

55.52 

2 34.18 

39.05 

17 35 £2.32 

21.00 

22 

N. 

17 27 11.03 

16 10 31.3 

38.67397 

58.73 

2 38.70 

38.90 

17 51 59.34 

19.20 

29 

N. 

17 45 56.90 

16 1 42.7 

45.66786 

42.83 

2 37.03 

38.51 

18 21 37.90 

17.30 

Feb. 2 

N. 

17 58 26.66 

15 58 26.8 

49.66559 

38.19 

2 41.61 

38.51 

18 38 36.40 

16.30 

3 

S. 

18 1 44.91- 

15 57 48.6 

50.66515 

8.93 

2 43.58 

38.37 

18 42 35.73 

16.60 

5 

N. 

18 8 32.14 

15 56 42.9 

52.66439 

6.90 

2 42.94 

38.37 

18 60 5.68 

15.60 

7 

N. 

18 15 33.65 

15 55 51.4 

54.66379 

52.69 

2 41.79 

38.37 

18 56 49.90 

15.20 

16 

S. 

18 49 40.82 

15 54 29.8 

+ 63.66284 

39.59 

2 52.30 

38.13 

— 19 13 19.14 

13.50 


To which are added finally the two observations at Altona, (A.N. XXXIII, 23.) 
E.— OBSEEYATIONS OF VENUS I. WITH THE ALTONA MEEIDIAN-CIECLE. 

VENUS I. 

Observations with the Altona Meridian-Circle. 
Center. 


Date. 

Altona M.T. 

Wash. M.T. 

Obs'd a. 

Obs'd d. 

t—T. 

1851.— Jan. 27 
31 

h, m. s. 
21 12 3 
21 8 11 

k. m. s. 
15 M 6 
15 20 14 

h. m. s. 
17 40 4.08 
17 51 57.81 

1 It 

—18 12 27,9 
—18 29 52.6 

+43.641736 
+47.639051 


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clxXXii OBjSERVATIONS. 

IV. SECOND SEEIES OF OBSEEVATIONS OF VENUS. 
Apparent places of stars Gompared with Venus during the second series of observations. 


No. 

Date. 

Reduction in 

Apparent. 

No. 


Reduction in 

Apparent 





Date. 







«. 

d. 

a. 

d. 



a. 

d. 

«. 

8, 



s. 

II 

h, m. s. 

o 1 II 


■ x 

8. 

II 

h. m. s. 

1 II 

36 

1852.-.4.ug.ll 

—0.22 

+0.90 

7 26 52 ' 

+15 15 2.3 

59 

1852.— June 3 

-0.82 

+1.13 

7 59 14 

+22 50 46.5 


14 

0.16 

0.94 

26 52 

2.3 


7 

0.83 

1.15 

59 14 

46.6 

37 

Aug. 15 

—0.14 

+0,92 

7 29 28 

+15 24 43.1 

61 

Sept. 2 

+0.13 

+0.39 

8 5 27 

+16 4 21.1 


17 

0.10 

0.93 

29 28 

43.1 

'■^ 

4 

0.19 

0.^ 

5 27 

21.0 

38 

July 30 

-0.45 

+0.74 

7 29 29 

+14 40 7.6 

64 

Jan. 18 

+0.47 

—4.02 

8 11 44 

+24 28 59.3 


Au?' 1 

0.42 

0.80 

29 29 

7.7 


28 

0.57 

3.83 

11 45 

59.5 

39 
40 

Aug. 7 
9 

Aug. 3 
5 

—0.31 
0.27 

—0.38 
0.35 

+0.89 
0.90 

+0;82 

0.86 

7 30 38 
30 38 

7 30 58 
30 58 

+14 53 37.5 
37.5 

+14 47 39.9 
40.0 


Feb. 7 
17 
27 

Mar. 8 
18 

0.61 
0.60 
0.55 
0.45 
0.32 

3-42 
2.90 
2.27 
1.61 
0.92 

11 45 
11 45 
11 45 
11 44 
11 44 

59.9 

29 0.4 

1.0 

1.7 

2.4 

41 

Aug. 20 

—0.05 

+0.88 

7 32 44 

+15 40 22.9 

66 

Feb. 2 

+0.60 

—3.65 

8 13 11 

+24 29 18.8 


22 

0.00 

0.89 

32 44 

22.9 


4 

0.61 

3.57 

11 11 

18.9 

42 

July 29 

—0.47 

+0.70 

7 33 42 

—14 33 1.5 

68 

Jan. 31 

+0.59 

—3.77 

8 16 9 

+24 25 1.6 


31 

0.44 

0.76 

33 42 

1.6 


Feb. 3 

0.61 

3.66 

16 9 

1.7 

43 

Aug 21 

—0.03 

+0.85 

7 33 50 

+15 49 52.0 

70 

June 9 

—0.75 

+1.32 

8 19 28 

+21 38 17.2 


24 

+0.04 

0.84 

33 50 

51.9 


13 

0.76 

1.^ 

19 28 

17.2 

44 

Aug. 24 

+0.03 

+0.35 

7 38 58 

+15 53 1.0 

74 

June 11 

—0.75 

+1.31 

8 21 43 

+21 20 55.6 


28 

0.12 

0.27 

38 58 

0.9 


13 

0.75 

1.33 

21 43 

55.6 

45 

May 29 

—0.88 

+1.04 

7 41 51 

+24 9 13.7 

75 

July 8 

—0.69 

+0.68 

8 24 24 

+15 46 20.8 

• 

31 

0.89 

1.03 

41 51 

13.7 


10 

0.70 

0.71 

24 24 

20.9 

46 

Aug. 27 

+0.07 

+0.70 

7 44 53 

+15 58 41.1 

76 

July 5 

-0.70 

+0.70 

8 26 58 

+16 14 8.5 


30 

0.14 

0.65 

44 53 

41.1 


7 

0.69 

0.74 

26 58 

8.5 

50 

May 29 

—0.85 

+1.14 

7 47 14 

+24 39.0 

81 

June 14 

—0.71 

+1.35 

8 31 10 

+20 36 13.6 


June 2 

0.87 

1.12 

47 14 

39.0 


16 

0.72 

1.36 

31 10 

13.6 

61 

Aug. 27 

+0.06 

+0.62 

7 48 35 

+16 10 53,2 

83 

June 22 

—0.71 

+1.05 

8 32 24 

+18 46 15.7 


30 

0.13 

0.57 

48 35 

53.2 


24 

0.72 

1.07 

.32 24 

15.7 

53 

June 1 

—0.85 

+1.12 

7 50 52 

+23 34 51 .2 

84 

June 21 

—0.71 

+1.09 

8 32 35 

+19 44.1 


3 

0.86 

1.12 

50 52 

51.2- 


23 

0.72 

1.12 

32 35 

44.1 

56 

Sept. 1 

+0.15 

—0.54 

7 53 31 

+15 58 1.9 

86 

June 23 

—0.69 

+1.16 

8 39 24 

+18 35 43.9 


3 

0.20 

0.47 

53 31 

1.8 


25 

0.69 

1.18 

39 24 

43.9 


A.— OBSEKVATIONS OF VENUS II. WITH THE SANTIAGO EQUATOEIAL. 
The corrections to the observations are : 

The sign of A^ is to be reversed, except in the following cases : 


283, 

June 12 

Page 288, 

July 

6 

Page 299, August 

31 

284, 

15 

289, 

( c 

9 

303, September 

7 

285, 

22 

294, 

11 

13 



287, 

- ** 24 

299, 

11 

28 




Page 282, No. 12, Object for P. read S. P. 

291, /or H. C. 14861 '' W. VII. 905 

Remarks. Corrected diameter /or 56''. 63 read 56''. 33 


And then for the deduced results: 


The sign of AS is to be reversed, except in the following cases : 
Page 284, June 12 
295, August 16 
Page 284, June 12, line 6, for s. read" 

287, *' 23, *' 1,2, *' 3r. 102 = PO". 46 read 3r. 118 = 1' 0". 77 


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OBSERVATIONS. 
We thus have the accompanying groups of observations : 

viEBrirs ii. 
Observations with the Santiago Equatorial, 


clxxxiii 


Date. 

Obs. part. 

Sant, S.T. 

Wash. M.T. 

t—T. 

Star 

N°. 

Star's^. 

Meas'dl>5, 

Refr. 

Observed . 

N°. of 
comp. 

N. S. 

' 


h. m. s. 

A. m. s. 

d 







1852.— May 30 

N.S. 

11 11 30.38 

6 11 9.92 

—45.742246 

45 

+24 9 13.74 

-3 38.50 

II 
0.51 

+24 5 34.73 

5 5 

June 2 

N. S. 

11 7 55.99 

5 55 48.38 

42.752913 

53 

23 34 51.22 

—4 42.00 

.56 

23 30 8.66 

7 7 

3 

N.S. 

11. 11 38.91 

5 55 34.79 

41.753070 


23 15 2 

+2 46.81, 

.33 


2 2 

12 

N.S. 

11 44 24.90 

5 52 52.20 

32.754952 

74 

21 20 55.62 

-3 3.34 

.37 

21 17 51.91 

4 4 

15 

N.S. 

11 55 4.81 

5 51 42.63 

29.755757 

81 

20 36 13.59 

— 23.59 

.05 

20 35 49.95 

3 3 

22 

N.S. 

12 21 2.00 

5 50 4.18 

22.756897 

84 

19 44.10 

—2 20.57 

.30 

18 58 23.23 

5 5 

23 

N.S. 

12 32 36.03 

5 57 40.40 

21.751616 

83 

18 46 15.66 

—1 26.64 

.22 

18 44 48.80 

6 6 

24 I 

N.S. 

12 32 34.05 

5 53 42.52 

20.754370 

86 

18 35 43,87 

—4 14.98 

.66 

, 18 31 28.23 

3 3 

July 6 

N. 

13 7 23.71 

5 41 15.53 

8.763016 

76 

16 14 8.52 

—1 42.91 

.53 

16 12 25.08 

4 

9 

N. 

13 11 12.51 

5 33 15.97 

— 5.768565 

75 

15 46 20.84 

— 31.96 

.27 

15 45 48.61 

10 

30 \ 

N.S. 

2 56 14.32 

17 53 28.00 

+15.745462 

' 42 

14 33 1.53 

+3 33.12 

.96 

14 36 35.61 

2 3 

31 ' 

N.S. 

3 38.37 

17 53 55.42 

16.745779 

38 

14 40 7.67 

—1 56.67 

.45 

14 38 10.55 

2 2 

Aug. 4 

N.S. 

2 68 42.31 

17 36 16.04 

20.733518 

40 

14 47 39.94 

— 34.33 

0.10 

14 47 5,51 

1 3 

8 

N.S. 

2 52 21.58 

17 14 12.73 

24.718202 

39 

14 53 37,69 

+5 50.92 

1.28 

14 59 29.69 

1 1 

12 

N.S. 

3 17 33.80 

17 23 37.18 

28.724735 

36 

15 15 2.31 

—1 19.88 

0.16 

15 13 42.27 

5 4 

13 

N.S. 

3 22 15.73 

17 24 22.44 

29.725259 

36 

15 15 2.32 

+2 19.82 

.27 

15 17 22.41 

^ 3 

16 

N.S. 

3 24 55.50 

17 15 14.04 

32.718912 

37 

15 24 43.12 

+3 29.62 

.40 

15 28 13.14 

4 4 

3 4 

7 7 
1 3 

21 

N.S. 

3 6 13.47 

16 36 55.55 

37.692311 

41 

15 40 22.88 

+3 57.28 

.85 

15 44 21,01 


N.S. 

3 38 5.09 

17 8 41.94 

37.714374 

41 

15 40 22.88 

+4 1.88 

.44 

15 44 25.20 

22 

N.S. 

3 31 51.35 

16 58 33.32 

38.707331 

43 

15 49 51.95 

—2 41.89 

.34 

15 47 9.72 

23 

N.S. 

3 46 20.19 

17 9 53.87 

39.714628 

43 

15 49 51.94 

— 5.78 

.01 

15 49 46.15 

3 2 

28 

N.S. 

4 8 38.56 

17 11 39.04 

44.716423 

46 

15 58 45.08 

+24.31 

.03 

15 59 5.42 

3 4 

Sept. 1 

N.S. 

4 15 41.69 

17 2 57.39 

48.710386 

56 

15 58 1.89 

+3 2.50 

.28 

16 1 4.67 

3 3 

2 

N.S. 

4 11 1.23 

16 54 21.80 

49.704420 

56 

15 58 1.85 

+2 39.65 

.28 

16 41.78 

4 4 

3 

N.S. 

4 16 2.64 

16 55 26.47 

50.705168 

61 

16 4 21.05 

—4 27.58 

.42 

15 59 53.05 

5 5 

6 

N.S. 

4 21 54.04 

16 49 29.19 

53.701033 

65 

15 55 48.39 

— 21.54 

.03 

15 55 26.82 

5 5 

7 

N.S. 

4 18 53.28 

16 42 33.02 

54.696216 

65 

15 55 48.52 

—2 41.54 

.30 

15 53 6.68 

4 4 

8 

N.S. 

4 25 45.94 

16 45 28.66 

+55.698248 

67 

+15 44 33.78 

+5 52.63 

0.62 

15 60 27.03 

10 10 


B.— OBSERVATIONS OF VENUS II. WITH THE SANTIAGO MERIDIAN GIEOLE. 


A few corrections are here assurned. 


Page 328, No. 31, Observed transit f(yr 8h. 37 m. 29s. 71 read 

App. a ''8 36 31.93 

329, *' 37, The observed transit was probably 8 5 ' 46. 58 

*' 41, Object for S.L read N.L. 

Corr. for Semid. — 27''. 8 " -j_27'^8 


h. 36m. 295.71 
35 31. 93 


After which we have the following table: 


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clxxxiv 


OBSERVATIONS. 


VENUS II. 

Observations with the Santiago Meridian-Circle. 



Date. 

Obs. 
part. 

Sant. S.T. 

Wash. M.T. 

Obs'd a. 

Obs'd d. 

t—T. 

Refr. 

Nadir. 




A,, m. s. 

h, m. s. 

o / // 

o 1 II 

d 

/ // 

// 

1852 

—May 30 

S. 

7 42 40.12 

2 42 53.87 

302 27 35.1 

+24 6 59.74 

—45.886876 

—1 21.93 

+21.2 


31 

S. 

7 45 54 91 

2 42 12.22 

302 39 10.4 

23 55 27.82 

44.887359 

1 23.51 

19.4 


June 2 

N. 

7 52 10.03 

2 40 34.49 

303 2 21.8 

23 32 12.34 

42.888489 

1 22.13 

22.1 


3 

S. 

7 55 10.33 

2 39 38.40 

303 15 10.3 

23 19 21.69 

41.889140 

1 20.28 

22.4 


12 

N. 

8 18 12.13 

2 27 13.^ 

305 14 32.9 

21 20 12.09 

32.897765 

1 16.18 

5.3 


13 

S. 

8 20 15,90 

2-25 20.73 

305 29 4.0 

21 5 38.98 

31.899067 

1 14.97 

6.1 


22 

N. 

8 33 24.53 

2 3 4.00 

307 33 35.0 

19 57.79 

22.914538 

1 8.88 

10.2 


23 

S. 

8 34 12.56 

1 59 55.99 

307 47 45.9 

18 46 45.90 

21.916713 

1 7.49 

9.8 


24 

N. 

8 34 51.54 

1 56 38.96 

308 29.0 

18 34 6.34 

20.918993 

1 7.13 

5.9 


28 

N. 

8 35 56.65 

1 42 0.23 

308 61 51.4 

17 42 43.24 

16.929162 

1 5.93 

5.4 


29 

S. 

8 35 49.10 

1 37 56.80 

309 4 50.1 

17 29 48.13 

15.931981 

1 4.82 

0.7 


30 

N. 

8 35 31.93 

1 33 43.76 

309 16 0.2 

17 18 37.26 

14.934909 

1 3.70 

+ 0.3 


July 1 

N. 

8 35 5.05 

1 29 21.04 

309 27 39.5 

17 7 0.14 

13.937951 

1 3.73 

— 1.8 


5 

N. 

8 31 39.98 

1 10 12.89 

310 10 33.8 

16 24 2.34 

9.951240 

1 4.53 

+ 2.5 


6 

N. 

8 30 24.47 

1 5 1.67 

310 20 18.3 

16 14 14,01 

8.954841 

1 3.70 

5.5 


7 

N. 

8 28 59.90 

59 41.44 

310 29 40.8 

16 4 52.83 

7.958547 

1 2.92 

3.4 


8 

N. 

8 27 26.39 

54 12.26 

310 38 24.2 

15 55 52.84 

6.962358 

1 02.83 

19.9 


9 

N. 

8 25 43.98 

48 34.21 

310 46 52.7 

15 47 21.81 

5.966271 

1 2.00 

21.6 


10 

N. 

8 23 52.28 

42 46.90 

310 54 56.3 

15 39 24.11 

4.970290 

1 0.60 

14.3 


13 

N. 

8 17 36.67 

24 44.58 

311 16 16.9 

15 18 2.06 

— 1.982817 

1 1.35 

16.5 


(18) 

N. 

8 3 17.53 

(17)23 50 48.24 

311 42 20.8 

14 51 55.13 

+ 2.993613 

1 0.52 

18.7 


26 

N. 

7 42 24.78 

22 54 35.71 

311 59 48.3 

14 34 26.30 

11.954580 

1 0,09 

19.6 


29 

N. 

7 36 3.24 

22 36 27.49 

311 58 10.7 

14 36 5.93 

14.941985 

1 0.22 

17.7 


30 

N. 

7 34 11.60 

22 30 40.24 

311 56 53.3 

14 37 19.73 

15.937965 

59.92 

21.0 


31 

N. 

7 32 27.97 

22 25 0.98 

311 55 13.1 

14 39 2.22 

16.934040 

59.91 

18.7 


Aug. 4 

N. 

7 27 5.99 

22 3 56.24 

311 46 6.8 

14 48 7.91 

20.919400 

1 0.40 

19.8 


. 5 

N. 

7 26 9.88 

21 59 4.38 

311 43 16.4 

14 51 1.01 

21.916023 

1 0.20 

16.9 


6 

N. 

7 25 23.75 

21 54 22.46 

311 40 14.6 

14 54 2.60 

22.912761 

1 0.09 

17.0 


7 

N. 

7 24 47.53 

21 49 50.44 

311 37 5.4 

14 57 12.83 

23.909611 

59.82 

15.7 


8 

N. 

7 24 21.29 

21 45 28.36 

311 33 44.9 

15 35.02 

24.906579 

59.71 

13.9 


10 

N. 

7 23 58.59 

21 37 13.90 

311 26 48.3 

15 7 31.95 

26.9008.55 

1 1.24 

15.1 


12 

N. 

7 24 14.96 

21 29 38.40 

311 19 31.3 

15 14 47.17 

28.895583 

1 2.06 

17.7 


13 

N. 

7 24 37.18 

21 26 4.60 

311 15 53.7 

15 18 27.48 

29.893109 

1 1.07 

14.0 


14 

N. 

7 25 8.46 

21 22 39.94 

311 12 17.7 

15 22 4.38 

39.890740 

1 0.37 

12.4 


16 

N. 

7 26 38.08 

21 16 17.50 

311 5 12.6 

15 29 9.74 

32.885313 

1 1.03 

12.8 


21 

N. 

7 32 46.68 

21 2 45.55 

310 49 6.9 

15 45 15.06 

37.876917 

1 3.75 

15.9 


22 

N. 

7 34 23.22 

21 25.93 

310 46 22.0 

15 48 0.42 

38.875300 

1 2.61 

14.3 


23 

N. 

7 36 6.38 

20 58 12.89 

310 43 52.0 

15 50 30.75 

39.873760 

1 3.04 

14.4 


28 

N. 

7 46 23.79 

20 48 49.06 

310 34 48.3 

15 59 32.11 

44.867234 

1 3.00 

16.7 


31 

N. 

7 53 44.63 

20 44 20.98 

310 32 55.8 

16 1 25.02 

47.864132 

1 4.11 

17.4 


Sept. 1 

N. 

7 56 22.31 

20 43 2.33 

310 32 58.9 

16 1 20.70 

48.863220 

1 3.79 

18.3 


2 

N. 

7 59 4.68 

20 41 48.35 

310 33 23.8 

16 58.28 

49.862364 

1 3.47 

15.5 


3 

N. 

8 1 51.78 

20 40 39.08 

310 34 13.7 

16 9.87 

50.861563 

1 2.96 

13.5 


6 

N. 

8 10 39.66 

20 37 37.80 

310 38 57.6 

15 55 23.86 

53.8.59464 

1 3.75 

16.4 


7 

N. 

8 13 43.85 

20 36 45.58 

310 41 21.2 

15 52 59.95 

54.858860 

1 2.94 

15.9 


8 

N. 

8 16 51.87 

20 35 57.19 

310 44 9.8 

4-15 50 12.15 

+55.858300 

—1 2.34 

+14.5 


Q._OBSEEVATIONS OF VENUS II. WITH THE WASHINOTON EQUATOEIAL. 
The corrections to the printed observations here assumed and applied are these : 

Page 406, May 31, A^ No. 12, for 32r. 108 read 32r. 098 


407, 

June 

5, 

ii 

7, 

" 46 .597 

46.587 

409, 

a 

9, 

it 

25, 

.847 

.841 

410, 

u 

11, 

" 

2, 

" 29 .029 

30 .029 




Micr. ' ' 

17, 

" 4 26 . 181 

" 4 46 .181 

411, 

*' 

12, 

" 

6, 

'^ 19 . 295 

'^ —19 .195 

412, 

'' 

26, 

Micr. Nos. 

8 & 10 

3 & 4 

2 &3 

414, 

Aug. 

29, 

a 

6, 

" 43.216 

42.856 


Sept. 

5, 

'' 

2, 

" 42 .656 

' 4-41 .656 


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OBSERVATION!?. 

The results, therefore, become modified as follows : 


elxxxv 


Page 406, May 31, line 1, 2, /or 32r. 057 = 8' 12". 74 
408, June 5, '' 5, " 7A. 58w. 6s. 60 

>10, '* 11, ** 6, '' 9 16 7.80 

'* 5, 7, *V 30r.769ziz7' 62'. 81 
414, August 29, '' 5, *« g^F. 

'* 5,7, '* 42r. 749 — 10' 57M0 

8, - +.r.06 -...u 

The observations of Juna 14, 15, 16, 27, and September 5, seem affected by some unknown source of error, and so non 
axjcordant with each other, or with the ephemeris, that the attempt to employ them has proved hopeless. 


read 32r. 055 ~ 8' 12'^ 75 
*' 8A. 22wi. 6s. 60 

'' 9 14 57.70 

'* 30r. 959 = 7' 55^89 

N.F. 
" 427-. 660 1= 10' 55". 76 

- 1". 06 


VEJsrus II, 
Observations with the Washington Equatorial. 


Date. 

Obs. part. 

Wash. S. T. 

Wash. M. T. 

t~T. 

Star.N°. 

Star's ^, 

Meas'd D8, 

Hefr. 

Obs'd 5, 

N°. 
comp. 

N. S, 

1852. 

May 31 

June 5 

9 

11 

Aug. 26 

29 

N.S. 
N. S. 
N.S. 
N.S. 
N.S, 
N,S, 

h. nti s. 

12 51 29,63 

13 18 41.43 

13 34 47.65 

14 38 42.43 
2 9 3,27 
2 20 38.01 

h. m. s. 
8 12 45.94 
8 20 13,73 

8 20 33.66 

9 15 51.10 
15 46 4.69 
35 45 49.81 

— 44(^.657803 
39.652620 
35.652388 
— 33.613992 
+42.656998 
+ .45.658827 

50, 
59 
63 
70 
44 
51 

<» / // 
+24 39.03 
22 50 46.54 
2157 4.19 
21 38 17.24 
17 53 0.91 
+16 10 53.18 

1 II 

— 7 57.26 

— 0.80 
+ 22.53 ' 

— 8 17.20 
+ 4 7.28 
—11 16.36 

0.30 
0.01 
0.02 
1.80 
0.37 
1.09 

o / // 

+23 52 41.47 
22 50 45.73 
21 57 26.74 
21 29 58.24 
17 57 8.56 

+15 59 35.73 

7 8 

5 5 

6 6 
5 5 
4 4 
4 4 


We also have seventeen Greenwich determinations. 


D.-OBSEEVATIONS OF VENUS II WITH THE GKEENWICH TEANSir CIRCLE. 

VENUS II. 

Observations with the Greenwich Transit Circle. 


Date, 

Obs'd 
part. 

Qreeij. S, T. 

Wash. M. T. 

t^T. 

Circle-reading. 

Refr, 

Zenith pt. 

Observed u. 

Semid. 



h. m, s. 

h. m, s. 

d. 

// 

. 

+ 8' 



1852.— May 24 

S, 

7 21 3.03 

— 1 56 38.1 

— 52.08100 

9.26 

27.90 

II 
45.43 

25 10 36.30 

// 
13.40 

July 3 

s. 

8 33 53,39 

3 21 14.9 

12.13976 

40.58 

38,45 

45.75 

16 46 11.34 

24.60 

5 

s. 

8 31 55.55 

3 31 4.2 

10.14658 

40.81 

37.68 

45.75 

16 25 14.49 

25.40 

6 

s. 

8 30 41.94 

3 36 13.5 

9.15016 

29.19 

38.15 

45.75 

16 15 24.58 

25.70 


s. 

8 29 19.23 

3 41 31,9 

8.15384 

58.23 

39.08 

45.75 

16 5 56.33 

26.00 

§ 

s- 

8 27 47.30 

3 46 59,5 

7.15763 

0.23 

39.31 

45.75 

15 56 53.92 

26.30 

12 

s« 

8 20 15,96 

4 10 13.3 

3.17376 

33.97 

40.42 

46.50 

15 25 15,48 

27.40 


s. 

8 18 5,12 

4 16 19.7 

— 2.17801 

22.82 

40.45 

46.50 

15 18 28.96 

27 60 

16 

s. 

8 10 56.61 

— 4 35 14.8 

+ 0.80886 

42.99 

40.37 

46.50 

15 1 5,55 

28 20 

22 

N. 

7^41.90 

18 39 2.1 

7.77711 

44.64 

4U88 

45.39 

14 37 15,38 

28.54 

Aug, 4 
12 
24 

s. 

7 27 16.54 

17 22 34.1 

20.72401 

1.17 

41.22 

45.91 

14 46 51,08 

25.70 

s. 

7 24 10.03 

16 48 0.8 

28.70001 

26.17 

40.92 

45.91 

15 13 23.02 

22.90 

N, 

7 37 33.92 

16 14 11.6 

40.67652 

12,50 

40.25 

46.15 

15 51 49.39 

19.10 


N. 

7 50 41.79 

16 3 40.9 

40.66922 

33.15 

40.56 

46.49 

16 30.15 

17 30 

Sept. 1 

N. 

7 55 49.58 

16 57,0 

48.66733 

10.74 

40.77 

46.49 

16 53.37 

16.80 

2 

N, 

7 58 31.34 

15 59 42.5 

49.66646 

30.46 

40.54 

46.49 

16 32,73 

16.50 

13 

N. 

8 32 41.32 

15 50 31.9 

+60.66009 

56.75 

41.81 

46.50 

15 30 6.32 

14,30 


And lastly, a few at Cracow. 


Zo 


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clxxxvi 


OBSERVATIONS. 


E.— OBSERVATIONS OF VENUS II WITH THE CEACOW MERIDIAN CIRCLE. 

VENUS II. 

Observations ivith the Gracow Meridian- Circle. 

CENTER. 


Date. 

Cracow M. T. 

Wash. M, T. 

Obs'd a. 

Obs'd 8, 

t T. 


h. m. s. 

h. m. s. 

h. m. s. 

1 II 

d. 

1852.— June 2 

3 6 41.0 

20 38 38.6 

7 51 23.83 

-j-23 34 39.68 

-43.139831 

3 

3 5 46.3 

20 37 43.9 

7 54 25.48 

23 22 27.26 

42.140465 

4 

3 4 46.3 

20 36 43.9 

7 57 21.94 

23 9 58.81 

41.141159 

5 

3 3 42.0 

20 35 39.6 

8 13.98 

22 57 17.77 

40.141904 

7 

3 1 16.6 

20 33 14.2 

8 5 41.27 

22 31 6.57 

38.143586 

8 

2 59 55.2 

20 31 52.8 

8 8 16.23 

22 17 46.46 

37.144524 

11 

2 55 18.2 

20 27 15.8 

8 15 28.13 

21 36 55.44 

34.147734 

12 

2 53 33.2 

20 25 30.8 

8 17 39.51 

21 23 3.94 

33.148949 

14 

2 49 44.6 

20 21 42.2 

8 21 43.35 

20 55 16.91 

31.151596 

17 

2 43 10.0 

20 15 7.6 

8 26 57.27 

20 13 0.68 

28.156162 

18 

2 40 44.5 

20 12 42.1 

8 28 27.99 

19 59 8.04 

27.157847 

23 

2 26 36.9 

19 58 34.5 

8 34 0:84 

18 50 9.39 

22.167655 

26 

2 16 25.9 

19 48 23.5 

8 35 37.84 

18 10 31.48 

19.174728 

27 

2 12 44.2 

19 44 41.8 

8 35 52.07 

17 67 35.11 

—18.177293 

Aug. 17 

21 39 56.5 

15 11 54.1 

7 27 20.50 

15 31 1.83 

4-33.633265 

18 

21 37 3.9 

15 9 1.5 

7 28 24.00 

+15 34 32.56 

+34.631268 


These complete the collection of such determinations of the positions of Mars and Venus as 
have been found capable of employment for our purpose, extending from November 2, 1849, 
to Septmber 8, 1852. 


§7. OBSERVATIONS COMPARED WITH EPHEMEEIS. 

The next step to be taken is the computation of the tabular places for the moment of 
observation, and the comparison of these with the declinations observed. The course of this 
computation and comparison may readily be followed by means of the appended tables, which 
contain all those values which strictly depend upon the ephemeris, or upon computation ; the 
term ^^ computed place" being consideredasdenotingtheapparentplaceof that part of the planet 
which was actually observed (whether limb or center) deduced from the ephemeris for the point 
and moment of observation. The mean of a nearly equal number of determinations of the 
two limbs is, however, considered as an observation of the center, affected merely by the 
influence of defective illumination. This influence might, in fact, have been disregarded for 
Mars in every instance, although it has been brought into the computation as a matter of form. 
Consequently the tables of ^^Computation for observations'' afford for each observation the 
tabular right-ascension, declination, parallax, semidiameter, and resulting declination of the 
part observed ; and appended to these the residual error of the ephemeris, as indicated by the 
observations. 


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OBSERVATIONS COMPARED WITH EPHEMEKIS. 


clxxxvii 


MARS I. 

Computation for Santiago Equatorial Observations. 







Parallax. 

Semirl. 



1 



Date. 

Wash. M. T 
in dec. of da 

y Tab. a. 

Tab. d. 





- Def. ill 

Obs'd 
part. 

Comp. d. 

Ad. 










a. 

<?. 

a. 

d. 








h m. s. 

1 II 

s. 

II 

s. 

II 

II 




1849 

—Dec. 10 

.515529 

5 55 57.47 

-1-26 16^13.0 

—0.05 

+12.704 

0.54 

8.03 


C. 

+26 16 25.7 

+18.2 


11 

.427736 

54 22.20 

18 8.4 

+ .42 

12,214 

0.54 

8.03 


C, 

18 20.6 

20.8 



.464571 

54 18.37 

18 12.9 

+ .22 

12.550 

0.54 

8.03 


c. 

18 25.4 

21.3 



,,509299 

54 13.72 

18 17.7 

— .03 

12,712 

0.54 

8.03 


c. 

18 30.4 

19.5 


12 

.411837 

52 39.54 

20 4.7 

+ .48 

11.899 

0.54 

8.03 


0. 

20 16.6 

19.6 



.445221 

52 36.04 

20 8.4 

+ .31 

12.398 

0.54 

8.03 


c. 

20 20.8 

16,7 


13 

.491435 

50 46.06 

22 1.9 

+ .02 

12.713 

0.54 

8.03 


c. 

22 14.6 

19.0 


14 

.473089 

49 2.37 

23 39.3 

+ .11 

12.669 

0.53 

8.02 


0. 

23 52.0 

* 18.6 


15 

.415880 

47 22.53 

25 3.7 

•f .40 

12,142 

0.53 

8.01 


0. 

25 15.8 

18.5 



.489014 

47 14.78 

25 10.0 

— .01 

12.696 

0.53 

8.01 


c. 

25 22.7 

17.4 


16 

.410701 

45 37.12 

26 24.2 

+ .41 

12,106 

0.53 

8.00 


c. 

26 36.3 

18.3 


* 

.454176 

43 46.76 

27 38.4 

+ .15 

12,583 

0.53 

7 98 


c. 

27 51.0 

18.3 


18 

.431221 

42 3.88 

28 38.5 

+ .25 

12,412 

0.53 

7.96 


0. 

28 50.9 

18.7 


20 

.426719 

38 35.96 

30 13.3 

+ .23 

12,376 

0.53 

7.92 


0. 

30 25.7 

19.2 



.516089 

38 26.74 

30 16.7 

— .27 

12,311 

0.53 

7.92 


0. 

30 29.0 

17.4 


21 

.416486 

36 54.37 

30 46.9 

■f .27 

12.276 

0.53 

7.89 


c. 

30 59.2 

19.9 


22 

.445462 

35 10.13 

31 12.6 

+ .07 

12.448 

0.52 

7.86 


0. 

31 25.1 

18.8 


23 

.422466 

33 32.66 

31 28,8 

+ .19 

12.299 

0.52 

7.83 


c. 

31 41.1 

18.9 


24 

.431593 

31 53.73 

31 37.2 

+ .12 

12.320 

0.52 

7.79 


c. 

31 49.5 

18.4 


25 

.428879 

30 17.91 

31 37.8 

+ .11 

12.268 

0.52 

7.76 


c. 

31 50.1 

18.1 


26 

.429688 

28 43.84 

31 30.8 

+ .09 

12.223 

0.51 

7.72 


c. 

31 43.0 

17.8 


27 

.439454 

27 11.21 

31 16.6 

+ .01 

12.181 

0.51 

7.68 


c. 

31 28.8 

17.3 


30 

.400840 

22 54.27 

29 57.9 

+ .16 

11.879 

0.50 

7.55 


0. 

30 9.8 

15.5 


31 

.408113 

21 32.35 

29 20.0 

+ .10 

11.853 

0.50* 

7.50 

—0.01 

c. 

29 31.8 

13.4 

1850. 

-Jan. 1 

.402747 

20 14,38 

28 37.9 

+ .11 

11.766 

0.50 

7.45 

,01 

c. 

28 49.7 

15,8 


2 

.405376 

18 58.80 

27 51.1 

+ .07 

11.709 

0.49 

7.39 

.01 

c. 

28 2.8 

15,1 


4 

.408426 

16 37.38 

26 6.5 

+ .02 

11.547 

0.49 

7.29 

.01 

c. 

26 18.0 

16.0 


6 

.365404 

14 32.03 

24 13.2 

+ .20 

11.217 

0.48 

7.18 

.01 

c. 

24 24.4 

16.2 



.433114 

14 27.92 

24 9.2 

— .14 

11.287 

0.48 

7.17 

.01 

c. 

24 20.5 

15.9 


7 

.396962 

13 31.23 

23 10.3 

+ .02 

11.271 

0.47 

7.12 

.01 

c. 

23 21.6 

16.4 


8 

.398542 

12 35.78 

22 7.6 

.00 

11.178 

0.47 

7.06 

.01 

0. 

22 18.8 

16.1 


9 

.391292 

11 44.34 

21 4.4 

+ ,02 

11.082 

0.47 

7.00 

.01 

c. 

21 15.5 

16.0 


]0 

,40530§ 

10 55.46 

19 59.2 

— .07 

10.967 

0.46 

6.94 

.01 

0. 

20 10.2 

13.9 


11 

.393909 

10 11.41 

18 55.2 

— .03 

10.865 

0.46 

6.88 

.01 

c. 

19 6.1 

13.7 


12 

.385899 

9 30.81 

17 51 .2 

.00 

10.790 

0.45 

6.82 

,01 

c. 

18 2.0 

14.3 


13 

.376816 

8 .53.91 

16 47.9 

+ .03 

10.688 

0.45 

6.76 

.01 

c. 

16 58.6 

14.7 


14 

.387213 

8 19.91 

15 44.3 

— .02 

10.584 

0.45 

6.69 

.02 

c. 

15 54.9 

14.7 


15 

.382530 

7 50.14 

14 42.4 

— ,03 

10.486 

0.44 

6.63 

.02 

c. 

14 53.9 

16.0 



.436439 

7 48.63 

14 39,1 

— ,28 

10.161 

0.44 

6.62 

.02 

c. 

14 49.3 

13.2 


16 

.381733 

7 24.72 

13 41.9 

— ,04 

10.384 

0.44 

6.57 

.02 

c. 

13 52.3 

14.5 


17 

.380340 

7 1.38 

12 43.2 

— .05 

10.281 

0.43 

6.51 

.02 

c. 

12 53,5 

15.0 


18 

.380105 

6 42.45 

11 46.4 

— .06 

10.175 

0.43 

6.45 

,02 

c. 

11 56.6 

15.3 


19 

.359055 

6 27.41 

10 52.8 

+ .02 

10.089 

0.43 

6.38 

.02 

G. 

11 2.9 

9.5 


20 

.354745 

6 15.64 

10 0.5 

+ .03 

9.990 

0.42 

6.32 

.02 

0. 

10 10.5 

11.1 


21 . 

.357235 

6 7.27 

9 9.8 

— ,04 

9.886 

0.42 

6.26 

.02 

0. 

9 19.7 

10,8 


22 

.369468 

6 2.51 

8 22.2 

— .06 

9.778 

0.41 

6.20 

.02 

0. 

8 ^.0 

11,9 


23 

.351916 

6 1.22 

7 38.1 

.00 

9.697 

0.41 

6.14 

,02 

c. 

7 47.8 

12,4 



.407392 

6 1.24 

7 35,7 

— .24 

9.448 

0.41 

6.14 

.02 

c. 

7 45.1 

10.6 


24 

.373805 

6 3.36 

6 55.1 

— .10 

9.552 

0.41 

6.08 

.02 

c. 

7 4.6 

11.8 


2^5 

.364575 

6 8.77 

6 16.2 

— .07 

9.478 

0.40 

6,02 

.02 

c. 

6 25.7 

11.4 


26 

.365774 

6 17.51 

5 39.5 

— .09 

9.370 

0.40 

5.96 

.02 

c. 

5 48.9 

11.6 


27 

.348543 

6 29.26 

5 6.2 

— .03 

9.310 

0.39 

5,90 

.02 

c. 

5 15.5 

11.7 


28 

.362791 

6 34.61 

4 34.5 

— .10 

9.174 

0.39 

5.84 

.02 

0, 

4 43.7 

12.6 


29 

.349222 

7 2.64 

4 6.3 

— ,05 

9.113 

0.39 

5.78 

.02 

0. 

4 15.4 

11.6 


31 

.351182 

5 7 48.33 

+26 3 16.9 

—0.08 

+ 8.913 

0.38 

5.66 

-0.02 

0. 

+26 3 25.8 

+11,9 


Hosted by 


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clxXXViii OBSERVATIONS COMPARED WITH EPHEMERIS. 

JMARS I. 

Computation of observations with the Washington Equatorial. 







Parallax. 

Seraid. 





Date. 

Wash. M.T. in 
dec. of day. 

Tab. «. 

Tab. 8, 





Obs'd 
part. 

Comp'd 0, 

Jd. 

a. 

d. 

a. 

d. 




h. m. 8. 

/ // 

s. 

II 

s. 

II 


/ // 

II 

1849 

—Nov. 2 

.604822 

6 25 51.09 

+24 21 1.5 

+0.19 

—3.16 

0.44 

6.59 

0. 

+24 20 58.3 

+ 21.5 


4 

.554117 

6 26 25.52 

24 25 54.7 

0.38 

3.67 

0.45 

6.71 

C. 

24 25 51.0 

19.4 



.601903 

6 26 26.19 

24 26 2.1 

0.19. 

3.18 

0.45 

6.71 

c. 

24 25 58.9 

19.4 


6 

.550784 

6 26 46.81 

24 31 10.6 

0.38 

3.68 

0,45 

6.81 

c. 

S4 31 6.9 

18.8 


12 

.549888 

6 26 21.82 \ 

24 48 33.1 

0.33 

3.58 

0.47 

7.12 

c. 

24 48 29.6 

21.4 



.610775 

6 26 20.86 

24 48 44.4 

0.06 

3.15 

0.47 

7.12 

c. 

24 48-41.2 

21.4 


13 

.516646 

6 26 4.80 

24 51 33.6 

0.46 

3.96 

0.48 

7.17 

c. 

24 51.29.6 

22.9 


24 

.507357 

6 18 39.10 

25 28 20.3 

0.38 

3.75 

0.51 

7.67 

0. 

25 28 16.6 

20.8 


26 

.509567 

6 16 29.66 

25 35 11.5 

0,34 

3.66 

0.52 

7.74 

c. 

25 35. 7.9 

29.8 



.597951 

6 16 23.62 

25 35 29.6 

0.10 

3.26 

0.52 

7.74 

c. 

25 35 26.3 

18.4 


Dec. 6 

.506337 

6 2 36.75 

26 6 25.4 

0.18 

3.^ 

0,53 

7.99 

c. 

26 6 22.1 

23.8 



.491834 

6 2 38.11 

26 6 23.0 

0.18, 

3.44 

0.53 

7.99 

c. 

26 6 19.6 

21.1 


11 

.435642 

5 54 51.37 

26 18 9.4 

0.44 

3.90 

0.54 

8.03 

c. 

26 18 5.5^^ 17.3 


12 

.461928 

5 52 34.30 ! 

26 20 10.3 

0.29 

3.47 

0.54 

8.03 

c. 

26 20. 6.8 

22.1 


17 

.445164 

5 43 47.72 

26 27 37.8 

0.28 

3.39 

0.53 

7.98 

c. 

26 27.34.4 

18.4 


27 

.397642 

5 27 15.00 

26 31 17.3 

0.31 

3.34 

0.51 

7.68 

c. 

26 31 14.0 

18.2 


31 

.395237 

5 21 33.38 

26 29 20.6 

0.24 

3.14 

0.50 

7.50 

c. 

26 29 17.5 

17.3 

1850. 

—Jan. 5 

.383281 

5 15 33.31 

26 25 11.3 

0.21 

2.99 

0.48 

7.23 

c. 

26 25. 8.3 

15.6 


9 

.361203 

5 11 45.84 

26 21 6.3 

0.24. 

2.98 

0.47 

7.00 

c. 

26 21 3.3 

11.9 


12 

.341853 

5 9 32.53 

26 17 54.1 

0.27 

3.01 

0.45 

6.82 

c. 

26 17 51.1 

15.3 


14 

.370271 

5 8 20.45 

26 15 45.2 

0.12 

2.71 

0.45 

6.69 

0. 

26 15 42.5 

14.6 


22 

.338453 

5 6 2.61 

26 8 23.6 

0.14 

2.57 

0.41 

6.20 

0. 

26 8 21.0 

13.7 


29 

.275307 

5 7 1.18 

+26 4 8.3 

+0.28 

—2.73 

0.39 

5.78 

c. 

+26 4 5.6 

+ 13.6 


]»IARS I. 

Computation of observations with the Greenwich Equatorial. 





. 

Parallax. 

Semid. 




Date. 

Wash. M.T. in 

Tab. «. 

Tab. d. 





Obs'd 

Comp'd 0, 

Jd. 






dec. of day. 



«, 

d. 

a. 

d. 

part. 





h. m. s. 

o / // 

s. 

II 

s. 

II 


o 1 If 


1849.— Nov. 26 

.123480 

6 16 55.70 

+25 33 52.6 


—9.77 

0.51 

7.72 

C. 

+25 33 42.9 

+16". 1 

30 

.342963 

6 11 44,33 

25 47 58.0 


6.21 

0.52 

7.86 

C. 

25 47 51.8 

(27.3) 

Dec. 8 

.184993 

5 59 52.27 

26 10 46.6 

+0.51 

7.62 

0.53 

8.01 

0. 

26 10 39.0 


15 

,272244 

5 47 37.75 

26 24 51.4 

0.09 

6.22 

0.53 

8.01 

0. 

26 24 45.2 

17.4 

27 

.054511 

5 27 46.24 

26 31 22.8 

0.61 

8.45 

0.51 

7.70 

c. 

26 31 14.3 

15.8 

1850.— Jan. A 

.177475 

5 16 5^02 

26 26 19.6 

0.16 

5.74 

0.49 

7.30 

0. 

26 26 13.9 

13.2 

5 

.107174 

5 15 51.10 

26 25 27. a 

0.39 

6.40 

0.48 

7.24 

0. 

26 25 20.8 

13.9 

7 

.130159 

5 13 46.60 

+26 23 26.7 

+0.35 

—6.92 

0.48 

7.13 

c. 

+26 23 20.8. 

+ 13.1 


Hosted by 


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OBSiERVATIOXS COMPxlKED WITH EPHEMERIS. 


clxxxix 


MARS X. 

Oonfiputationfor Greenwich Meridian Observations. 


Date. 


1849.-NOV. 1 

(5 

16 

30 

Dec. 4 

8 
15 
17 
19 
27 


Wash. M.T. in 
dec. of dayi 


.438909 
.426201 
.397591 
.350261 
.335377 

.320051 


.276816 
.245890 

.242129 
.238397 
.216678 


Tabular 


a. 


A. m. s. 
6 25 24.24 

26 45.90 
24 52.91 
11 43.74 

6 6 0.55 

5 59 38.94 
47 35.59 
44 4.67 
40 35.34 

27 28.78 


5 

.213183 

15 44.27 

7 

.206315 

13 42.19 

23 

.157303 

6 1.22 

30 

.139089 

7 19.22 

Feb. 6 

.122584 

11 5.19 

7 

.120352 

11 48.52 

9 

.115982 

13 23.00 

13 

.107584 

17 1.76 

16 

.101565 

20 10.29 

21 

.092035 

26 6.98 

22 

.090193 

—5 27 24.22 


d. 


+24 18 13.0 

24 30 50 4 

25 48; 6 

25 47 59.3 

26 18i9 

26 11 16.7 
26 24 53^2 
26 27 27.1 
26 29 23.2 
26 31 19,9 

26 31 0,5 
26 30 35.0 
26 26 17a 
26 25 21,0 
26 23 22.0 

26 7 46.6 

26 3 45,6 

26 1 47.3 

26 1 38.7 

26 1 26.7 

26 1 18.7 

26 1 22.1 

26 1 32.0 

+26 1 32.9 


Parallax 
in ^, 


—5.45 
5.62 
5.93 
6.21 
6.24 

6.24 
6.18 
6.15 
6.11 
5.91 

5.87 
5.84 
5.62 
5.59 
5.50 

4.80 
4.48 
4.18 
4.14 
4.06 

3.90 

3.79 

3.61 

--3.58 


Semid. 


0.44 
0.45 
0.49 
0.52 
0.53 

0.53 
0.53 
0.53 
0.53 
0.51 

0.51 
0.51 
0.49 
6.48 
0.48 

0.41 
0.38 
0.36 
0.35 
0.35 

0.33 
0.32 
0.31 
0.31 


6.55 
6.80 
7.31 

7.86 
7.96 

8.01 
8.01 
7.98 
7.94 
7.69 

7.65 
7.61 
7.30 
7.24 
7.13 

6.15 
5.73 
5.35 
5.30 
5.19 

4.99 
4.85 
4.63 

4.58 


Comp. 8, 


+24 18 7.55 

24 30 44.78 

25 42.67 

25 47 53.09 

26 12.66 

26 11 10.46 
26 24 47.02 
26 27 20.95 
26 29 17.09 
26 31 13.99 

26 30 54.63 
26 30 29.16 
26 26 11.48 
26 25 15.41 
26 23 16.50 


26 
26 


7 41.80 
3 41.12 
26 1 43.12 
26 1 34.56 
26 1 22.64 

2iS 1 14.80 

26 1 18.31 

26 128.39 

+ 26 1 29.32 


Ad, 


+14.0 
18.0 
19.0 
19.9 
18.9 

18.3 
19.8 
18.9 
18.5 
15.1 

16.6 
16.1 
16.2 
15.5 
15.6 

13.6 
11.4 
9.8 
9.4 
8.9 

8.9 

8.2 

8.9 

+9.0 


Hosted by 


Google 


cxc 


OBSERVATIONS COMPARED WITH EPHEMERIS. 


MARS I. 


Computation of the Oape Equatorial Observations. 








Semid. 



Date. 


Wash. M.T. in 

Tab. a. 

Tab. 3. 

Parallax in 



Comp'd 0. 

J 3. 





dec. of day. 



d. 

a. 

d. 






h. m. s. 

// / 

II 

s. 

II 

o / // 

II 

1849. —Nov. 

21 

.307022 

6 21 36.23 

+25 17 20.0 

+ 11.80 

0.50 

7.53 

-f. 25 17 31.8 

+ 18,2 



.307022 

21 36.23 

17 20.0 

11.80 

0.50 

7.53 

17 31.8 

20,0 


22 

.363335 

20 41.89 

20 57.7 

11.81 

0.50 

7.57 

21 9.5 

19.2 


26 

.329572 

18 49.89 

27 43.6 

12.07 

0.51 

7.66 

27 55.7 

19.9 


25 

.317405 

17 48.46 

31 7.2 

12.15 

0.51 

7.69 

31 19.4 

20.0 



.317405 

17 48.46 

31 7.2 

12.15 

0.51 

7.69 

31 19.4 

19.9 


26 

.339021 

16 41.23 

34 36.8 

12.15 

0.52 

7.73 

.34 48.9 

18,6 


27 

.302096 

15 34.59 

37 52.8 

12.27 

0.52 

7.77 

38 5.1 

20.7 

« 

28 

.297948 

14 25.96 

41 13.6 

12.33 

0.52 

7.80 

41 26.0 

20.1 


29 

.332101 

13 4.11 

44 39.6 

12.25 

0.52 

7.83 

44 51.8 

18.8 


30 

.268942 

11 41.81 

47 43.4 

12.35 

0.52 

7.86 

47 55.7 

18,5 

Dec. 

1 

.290225 

10 26.76 

51 0.2 

12.49 

0.53 

7.89 

51 12.7 

19.8 


2 

.344352 

8 57.43 

54 18.7 

12.26 

0.53 

7.92 

54 31.0 

18.7 


3 

.285150 

7 35.13 

25 57 11.5 

12.58 

0.53 

7.94 

25 57 24.1 

21.2 


4 

.281160 

6 5.50 

26 9.4 

12.62 

0.53 

7.96 

26 22.0 

20.1 


5 

.271798 

4 33.94 

3 0.6 

12.65 

0.53 

7.98 

S 13,2 

20.4 


6 

.281303 

2 58.33 

5 48.8 

12.69 

0.53 

7.99 

6 1.5 

20.5 


7 

.263713 

6 1 23.22 

8 25.7 

12.71 

0.53 

8.00 

8 38.5 

18.8 


8 

.278387 

5 59 43.08 

11 0.5 

12.73 

0,53 

8.02 

11 13.2 

20.0 


9 

.283523 

58 2.17 

13 25.9 

12.72 

0.53 

8.02 

13 38.6 

19.3 



.281321 

58 2.39 

13 25.6 

12.73 

0.53 

8,02 

13 38,3 

19.4 


10 

.327447 

56 15.79 

15 48.3 

12.30 

0.54 

8.03 

16 0.6 ' 

18.6 


11 

.277968 

54 37.74 

17 49.9 

12.73 

0.54 

8.03 

18 2.6 

19 4 • 


14 

.247448 

49 26.24 

23 17.5 

12.77 

0.53 

8.02 

23 30.3 

17.9 


15. 

.230645 

47 42.16 

24 47.7 

12.75 

0.53 

8.01 

25 0.4 

17.9 


16 

.225483 

45 56.74 

26 9.9 

12.73 

0.53 

8.00 

26 22.6 

16.1 



.258560 

45 53.23 

26 12.5 

12.70 

0.53 

8.00 

26 25.2 

17.5 


17 

.262608 

44 7.00 

27 25.6 

12.63 

0.53 

7.98 

27 38.2 

17.9 


18 

.250296 

42 22.89 

28 28.1 

12.65 

0.53 

7.96 

28 40,8 

17.6 


20 

.228819 

39 56.40 

30 5.5 

12.62 

0.53 

7.92 

30 18.7 

19.0 


21 

.257289 

37 10.62 

30 42.0 

12.42 

0.53 

7.89 

30 54.4 

18.8 


22 

.241252 

35 30.69 

31 8.2 

12.46 

0.52 

7.86 

31 20.7 

18.3 


23 

.207219 

33 53.99 

31 25.9 

12.49 

0.52 

7.83 

31 38.4 

17.7 


24 

.247786 

32 11.60 

31 36.3 

12.24 

0.52 

' 7.80 

31 48.5 

17.9 


25 

.186950 

30 40.97 

31 38.3 

12,36 

0.52 

7.76 

31 50.7 

18.2 



.207914 

30 38.97 

31 38.3 

12.38 

0.52 

7.76 

31 50.7 

18.7 


26 

.169406 

29 8.09 

31 33.3 

12.23 

0.52 

7.73 

31 45.5 

18.5 



.202037 

29 5.04 

31 33.0 

12,32 

0.52 

7.73 

31 45,3 

17.3 


29 

.189040 

24 36.62 

30 36.3 

12.12 

0.51 

7.61 

30 48.5 

18.2 

1850.— Jan. 

7 

.176624 

13 43.91 

23 23.9 

11.31 

0.48 

7.13 

23 35.2 

16.4 


8 

.183802 

12 47.37 

22 21.2 

11.16 

0.47 

7.07 

22 32.4 

15.6 


9 

.149211 

11 56.55 

21 19.9 

11.16 

0.47 

7.01 

21 31.1 

17.1 


10 

.150057 

11 7.41 

20 15.6 

11.06 

0.46 

6.95 

20 26.7 

15.0 


11 

.159838 

10 21.51 

19 10.4 

10.93 

0.46 

6.89 

19 21.3 

15.2 


12 

.163640 

9 39.59 

18 5.5 

10.81 

0.46 

6.83 

18 16.3 

15.4 


14 

.149782 

8 27.48 

15 59.1 

10.64 

0.45 

6.71 

16 9.7 

14.9 


15 

130468 

7 57.34 

14 57.9 

10.57 

0.44 

6.64 

15 8.5 

15.5 


16 

.150427 

7 29.66 

13 55.7 

10.43 

0.44 

6.58 

14 6.4 

14.6 


17 

.127705 

5 7 6.73 

4-26 12 57.8 

+ 10.37 

0.43 

6.52 

+ 26 13 8.2 

+ 13.9 


Hosted by 


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OBSERVATIONS COMPARED WITH EPHI1.MERIS. 


CXCl 


MARS I. 

Computation for Cape Meridian Observations. 



Date. 

Wash. M.T. in 
dec. of day. 

Tabular. 

Parallax 

Semid 

Def. ill. 

Computed. 

Ja. 

J 3, 


d. 








«. 

in^ 

in^. 

«. 

d. 

«. 

d. 






h. m. s. 

° / // 

II 

II 

s. 

II 

h, m. s. 

1 II 



1849 

-Nov. 18 

.340171 

6 23 46.16 

+25 7 15.4 

+11.63 

7.40 

0.05 

0.00 

6 23 46.13 

+25 7 27.03 

—1.91 

II 

+19.03 
18.59 


19 

.336981 

23 6.25 

10 37.1 

11.71 

7.44 

0.05 

0.00 

23 6.23 

10 48.81 

1.91 


21 

.330466 

21 35.07 

17 24.8 

11.86 

7.53 

0.04 

0.00 

21 35.05 

17 36.66 

1.79 

19.53 


22 

.327144 

20 44.06 

20 50.1 

11.94 

7.57 

0.04 

0.00 

20 44.04 

21 2.04 


15.28 


24 

.320367 

18 50.50 

27 41.8 

12.08 

7.65 

0.03 

0.00 

18 50.48 

27 53.88 

(1.03) 

(37.03) 


25 

.316927 

17 48.47 

31 7.2 

12.15 

7.69 

0.03 

0.00 

17 48.45 

31 19.35 


24.08 


27 

.309915 

15 34.03 

37 54.5 

12.27 

1.11 

0.03 

0.00 

15 34.02 

38 6.77 

1.69 

19.15 


28 

.306351 

14 21.80 

41 15.4 

12.33 

7.80 

0.02 

0.00 

14 21.79 

41 27.73 

1.69 

19.31 


29 

.302750 

13 6.37 

44 33.8 

12.39 

7.83 

0.02 

0.00 

13 6.36 

44 46.19 


18.68 


30 

.299113 

11 47.84 

47 49.3 

12.45 

7.86 

0.02 

0.00 

11 47.83 

48 1.75 

1.63 

21.62 


Dec. 1 

.295442 

10 26.32 

51 1.3 

12.50 

7.89 

0.02 

0.00 

10 26.31 

51 13.80 


21.27 


2 

.291741 

9 1.96 

54 9.0 

12.54 

7.91 

0.02 

0.00 

9 1.95 

54 21.54 

1.96 

18.81 


3 

.288006 

7 34.87 

25 57 12.1 

12.59 

7.94 

0.02 

0.00 

7 34.86 

25 57 24.69 


19.89 


4 

.284242 

6 5.21 

26 9.9 

12.62 

7.96 

0.01 

0.00 

6 5.20 

26 22.52 


17.84 


6 

.276629 

2 58.77 

5 48.0 

12.69 

7.99 

0.01 

0.00 

2 58.76 

6 0.69 


19.73 


7 

.272786 

6 1 22.33 

8 27.2 

12.72 

8.00 

0.01 

0.00 

6 1 22.32 

8 39.92 


18.39 


8 

.268921 

5 59 44.03 

10 59.1 

12.74 

8.01 

0.01 

0.00 

5 59 44.03 

11 11.84 


18.76 


9 

.265037 

58 4.05 

13 93.5 

12.76 

8.02 

0.01 

0.00 

58 4.05 

13 36.26 


17.52 


10 

.261138 

56 22.60 

15 39.6 

12.77 

8.03 

0.01 

0.00 

56 22.60 

15 52.37 

2.45 

20.67 


11 

.257218 

54 39.89 

17 47.5 

12.78 

8.03 

0.00 

0.00 

54 39.89 

18 0.28 

2.11 

20.20 


12 

.253292 

52 56.13 

19 46.4 

12.78 

8.03 

0.00 

0.00 

52 56.13 

1959.18 

2.23 

20.40 


14 

.245410 

49 26.46 

23 17.3 

12.77 

8.02 

0.00 

0.00 

49 26.46 

23 30.07 

2.28 

18.32 


15 

.241461 

47 41.01 

24 48.8 

12.76* 

8.01 

0.00 

0.00 

47 41.01 

25 1.56 

2.13 

15.94 


16 

.237513 

45 55.47 

26 11.0 

12.74 

8.00 

0.00 

0.00 

45 55.47 

26 23.74 

2.13 

17.31 


17 

.233566 

44 10.07 

27 23.7 

12.72 

7.99 

0.00 

0.00 

44 10.07 

27 36.42 

2.16 

12.86 


18 

.229622 

42 25.05 

28 26.9 

12.69 

7.97 

0.00 

0.00 

42 25.05 

28 39.59 

2.11 

16.95 


20 

.221761 

,38 57.15 

30 5.2 

12.63 

7.92 

0.00 

0.00 

38 57.15 

30 17.83 

2.07 

17.54 


21 

.217849 

37 14.66 

30 40.9 

12.59 

7.89 

0.00 

0.00 

37 14.66 

30 53.49 

2.14 

17.03 


22 

.213950 

35 33.45 

31 7.7 

12.54 

7.86 

0.00 

0.00 

35 33.45 

31 20.24 


17.11 


23 

.210066 

33 53.71 

31 26.0 

12.49 

7.83 

0.00 

0.00 

33 53.71 

31 38.49 

1.88 

17.93 


24 

.206203 

32 15.65 

31 36.1 

12.44 

7.80 

0.00 

coo 

32 15.65 

31 48.54 

1.99 

19.25 


26 

.198547 

29 5.36 

31 33.1 

12,32 

7.73 

0,01 

0.00 

29 ^5.36 

31 45.42 

1.85 

18.35 


27 

.194754 

27 33.44 

31 20.8 

12.26 

7.69 

0.01 

0.00 

27 33.44 

33 33.06 

1.72 

17.11 


29 

.187256 

24 36.78 

30 36.5 

12.12 

7.61 

0.01 

0.00 

24 36.79 

30 48.62 

1.94 

17.20 


31 

.179190 

21 50.67 

29 29.0 

11.96 

7.51 

0.01 

0.00 

21 50.68 

29 40.96 

2.37 

17.26 

1850.-Jan. 3 j 

.169063 

18 3.37 

27 12.8 

11.71 

7.35 

0.02 

0.00 

18 3.38 

27 24.51 

1.89 

14.03 


4 

.165529 

16 53.84 

26 19.9 

11.63 

7.30 

0.02 

0.00 

16 53.85 

26 31.53 

1.81 

13.46 


7 

.155159 

13 45.16 

23 25.2 

11.35 

7.13 

0.02 

0.00 

13 45.17 

23 36.55 

1.80 

17.30 


8 

.151781 

12 49.11 

22 23.1 

11.26 

7.07 

0.02 

0.00 

12 49.12 

22 34.36 

1.74 

16.13 


9 

.148444 

11 56.60 

21 19.9 

11.16 

7.01 

0.03 

0.00 

11 56.61 

21 31.06 

1.72 

11.97 


10 

.145148 

11 7.65 

20 15.9 

11.06 

6.95 

0.03 

0.00 

11 7.66 

20 26.96 

1.65 

12.55 


11 

.141893 

10 22.30 

19 11.5 

10.97 

6.89 

0.03 

0.00 

10 22.31 

19 22.47 

1.60 

14.23 


12 

.138681 

9 40.59 

18 7.2 

10.87 

6.83 

0.03 

0.00 

9 40.60 

18 18.07 

1.62 

13.10 


14 

.132383 

8 28.13 

16 0.1 

10.67 

6.71 

0.03 

0.00 

8 28.15 

16 10.77 

1.56 

12.80 


15 

.129291 

7 57.38 

14 58.1 

10.57 

6.64 

0.03 

0.00 

7 57.40 

15 8.67 

0.95 

12.68 


16* 

.126255 

7 30.29 

13 57.3 

10.47 

6.58 

0.04 

0.00 

7 30.31 

14 7.77 

—1.60 

12.96 


17 

.123254 

5 7 6.83 

-f-26 12 58.1 

+10.37 

6.52 

0.04 

0.00 

5 7 6.85 

+26 13 10.47 


+13.25 


Hosted by 


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cxcu 


OBSERVATIONS COMPARED WITH EPHEMERIS. 
MARS I. 

Computation of observations with the Cambridge Equatorial. 







Semid. 




Date. 

Wash. M.T. in 

Tab. a. 

Tab. d. 

Parallax 



Obs. part. 

Comp'd d. 

Ad. 




dec. of day. 



in d. 

«. 

d. 






h. m. n. 

o 1 II 

II 

s. 

II 


o / // 

II 

1849.-NOV. 14 

.612020 

6 25 41.34 

,4-24 55 1.7 

—3.95 

0.48 

7.22 

c. 

+24 54 57.7 

+19.8 

15 

.739502 

6 25 12.21 

24 58 39.7 

5.51 

0.49 

7,28 , 

N. 

24 58 41.5 

17.5 


.748294 

6 25 11.96 

24 58 41.4 

5,70 

0.49 

7.28 

S. 

24 58 28.5 

20,6 

16 

.439826 

6 24 51.62 

25 56.9 

5.83 

0.49 

7,31 

c. 

25 51.1 

19.1 


.765942 

6 24 41.40 

25 2 1.2 

6,19 

0.49 

7,33 

s. 

25 1 47.7 

19.2 

21 

.463766 

6 21 28.92 

25 17 50.2 

5.31 

0.50 

7.54 

c. 

25 17 44.9 

19.8 


.741577 

6 21 9.86 

25 18 49.4 

6.11 

0,50 

7,55 

c. 

25 18 43.3 

20.5 

26 

,756899 

6 16 12.70 

25 36 2.0 

7. 10 

0,52 

7,75 

s. 

25 35 47.1 

20.5 

SK) 

.743146 

6 11 11.88 

25 49 15.3 

7.02 

0.53 

7,87 

c. 

25 49 8.3 

19.6 

Dec. 6 

.765770 

6 2 11.69 

26 7 7.1 

8,62 

0.53 

8,00 

0. 

26 6 58.5 


11 

.297944 

5 54 35.66 

26 17 52.4 

7.61 

0.54 

8.03 

c. 

26 17 44.8 

18.8 

12 

.339519 

5 52 47.11 

26 19 56.4 

6.34 

0,54 

8,03 

N. 

26 19 58.1 


17 

,333503 

5 43 59.51 

26 27 30.4 

5.93 

0,53 

7,98 

N. 

26 27 32.4 

18.1 

18 

.368690 

5 42 10.44 

26 28 34.9 

5.05 

0.53 

7,96 

s. 

26 28 21.9 


21 

.340698 

5 37 2.10 

26 30 44.6 

5.33 

0.513 

7,89 

s. 

26 30 31.4 


27 

.329415 

5 27 21.19 

26 31 18.5 

5 06 

0.51 

7,69 

N. 

26 31 21.1 

16.9 

Dpc. 28 

.285425 

5 25 55.29 

26 30 59.5 

5.80 

0.51 

7,65 

s. 

26 30 46.0 

12.4 


.345703 

5 25 50,16 

26 30 58.1 

4,57 

0.51 

7.65, 

0. 

26 30 53.5 

14.4 

29 

.721218 

5 23 51,18 

26 30 29.4 

9.42 

0.51 

7.5,8 

N. 

26 30 18.6 

(10.0) 

31 

.457302 

5 21 28,42 

26 29 1^.1 

3,80 

• 0,50 

7.50 

s. 

26 29 6.8 

16.2 

1850.— Jan. 1 

.281197 

5 20 23.71 

26 28 43,7 

5.44 

0.50 

7.45 

S. 

26 28 30.8 

18.0 

4 

.268358 

5 16 46,85 

26 26 14.2 

5,36 

0.49 

7.29 

N. 

26 26 16.1 

15.2 

6 

.388580 

5 15 32.97 

26 25 11.0 

3.65 

0.48 

7.23 

c. 

26 25 7.3 

+15.8 

6 

.254967 

5 14 38.75 

26 24 19.9 

5,42 

0.48 

7.18 

s. 

26 24 7.3 


10 

.279322 

5 11 1.33 

4-26 20 7.3 

—4.57 

0.46 

6.94 

s. 

+26 19 55.8 



Hosted by 


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OBSERVATIONS COMPARED WITH EPHEMERIS. 


CXCIU 


MARS !• 

Computation for Athens Meridian Observations, 


Date. 

Wash. M.T. in dee. 
of day. 

Tabular 8, 

Parallax. 

Semid. 

Def. ill. 

Comp. dt 

Ad. 



» / // 

// 

/' 

II 

• / // 

II 

1849.— Nov. 22 

.312581 

+25 20 47.2 

+3.04 

7.57 

0.00 

+25 20 42.7 

+28.1 

23 

.309213 

25 24 12.9 

3.04 

7.61 

0.00 

25 24 23.5 

23.3 

25 

.302362 

25 31 4.2 

3.05 

7.65 

o.oo 

25 31 14.9 

23.9 

26 

.298877 

25 34 28.5 

3.05 

7.69 

0.00 

25 34 23.9 

28.2 

28 

.291794 

25 41 12.4 

3.05 

7.77 

0.00 

25 41 7.7 

28.5 

29 

.288183 

25 44 30.9 

3.05 

7.80 

0.00 

25 44 41.7 

23.1 

30 

.284549 

25 47 46.4 

3.04 

7.85 

0.00 

25 47 38.6 

24.4 

Dec. 4 

.269675 

26 7.4 

3.03 

7.96 

0.00 

26 2.5 

26.8 

9 

.250475 

26 13 21.2 

3.00 

8.02 

0.00 

26 13 32.2 

23.7 

14 

.230845 

26 23 15.9 

2.96 

8.02 

0.00 

26 23 10.1 

27.5 

15 

.226897 

26 24 47.5 

2.95 

8.01 

0.00 

26 24 58.5 

23.2 

16 

.222951 

26 26 9.7 

2.94 

8.00 

0.00 

26 26 4.6 

26.8 

17 

.219005 

26 27 22.6 

2.93 

7.99 

0.01 

26 27 33.5 

22.8 

19 

.211123 

26 29 20.0 

2.90 

7.95 

0.00 

26 29 30.8 

23.0 

21 

.203287 

26 30 40.4 

2.88 

7.89 

0.00 

26 30 51.2 

22.0 

22 

.199387 

26 31 7.3 

2.87 

7.85 

0.00 

26 31 2.3 

25.2 

23 

.195498 

26 31 25.8 

2.8G 

7.83 

0.00 

26 31 36.5 

23.1 

24 

.191643 

26 31 36.0 

2.84 

7.80 

0.00 

26 31 31.0 

25.5 

28 

.176424 

26 31 2.0 

2.79 

7.65 

0.00 

26 30 57.1 

25.3 

29 

.172686 

26 30 36.8 

2.77 

7.61 

0.00 

26 30 47.2 

21.4 

1850.— Jan. 1 

.161678 

26 28 48.9 

2.73 

7.51 

0.00 

26 28 59.3 

21.8 

2 

.158067 

26 28 3.0 

2.71 

7.46 

0.00 

26 27 58.2 

24.2 

3 

,154491 

26 27 13.6 

2.70 

7.35 

0.00 

26 27 23.6 

17.9 

5 

.147465 

26 25 24.9 

2.66 

7.24 

0.00 

26 25 34.8 

17.6 

6 

.144005 

26 24 26.5 

2.64 

7.19 

0.00 

26 24 21.9 

21.8 

8 

.137210 

25 22 24.1 

2.61 

7.07 

0.00 

26 22 19.6 

22.4 

10 

,130579 

26 20 16.9 

2.57 

6.95 

0.00 

26 20 12.5 

23.3 

15 

,114733 

26 15 58.9 

2.48 

6.64 

0.00 

26 16 8.0 

18.4 

19 

.102812 

26 11 6.6 

2.40 

6.40 

0.00 

26 11 15.4 

16.5 

26 

.083507 

26 5 49.6 

2.26 

5.98 

0.00 

26 5 45.9 

18.9 

27 

,080903 

26 5 15.0 

2.24 

5.92 

0.00 

26 5 23.2 

13.9 

29 

.075811 

26 4 13.9 

2.19 

5.80 

0.00 

26 4 21.9 

15.1 

Feb. 1 

.068426 

26 3 1.6 

2.13 

5.63 

0.00 

26 2 58.1 

17.4 

2 

.066041 

26 2 42.6 

2.11 

5.57 

0.00 

26 2 39.1 

20.5 

3 

,063681 

26 2 25.6 

2.09 

5.51 

0.00 

26 2 33.2 

14.0 

4 

.061354 

25 2 11.0 

2.07 

5.46 

0.00 

26 2 7,6 

18.6 

5 

.059063 

26 1 58.4 

2.05 

5.40 

o.co 

26 2 5.8 

13.6 

10 

.048044 

+26 1 23.1 

+1,95 

5.35 

0.00 

+26 1 19.7 

+15.6 


Zio 


Hosted by 


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GXGIV 


OBSERVATIOKS COMPARED WITH EPHEMEBTB. 


II. SECOND OPPOSITION OF MARS. 

MARS II* 

Computation for Santiago Equatorial Observations, 







Parallax. 

Semidiameter in 





Date. 


Wash. M.T. 
in dec. of day. 

Tab. a. 

Tab. (?. 





Def. ill. 

Obs'd 
part. 

Comp. d. 

Ad. 


d. 


8. 






«. 

a. 








h. m. s. 

/ // 

s. 

II 

s. 

II 

s. 


o 1 II 

II 

1851.~Dec 

16 

.567110 

9 9 29.78 

-fl9 44 35.7 

+0.24 

+8.46 

0.39 

5.92 

0.02 

0. 

+19 44 44.2 

+19.6 



.610362 

9 29.69 

44 43.2 

.08 

8.66 

0.39 

5.92 

.02 

0. 

44 51.9 

20.8 


19 

.550150 

9 8.63 

54 19.8 

.27 

8.62 

0.40 

6.06 

.02 

c. 

54 28 4 

20.7 



.580303 

9 8.26 

54 26.3 

.16 

8.81 

0.40 

6.06 

.02 

c. 

54 35.1 

20.9 



.597202 

9 8.05 

54 30.0 

.09 

8.88 

0.40 

6.06 

.02 

c. 

54 38.9 

20.5 


20 

.558789 

8 54.73 

19 58 6.1 

.23 

8.78 

0.41 

6.11 

.03 

s. 

19 58 8.8 

22.3 


21 

.552871 

8 37.65 

20 2 3.4 

.24 

8.83 

0.41 

6.15 

.03 

s. 

20 2 6.1 

21.2 


22 

.546569 

8 17.19 

6 14.4 

.26 

8.88 

0.41 

6.20 

.03 

s. 

6 17.1 

20.2 


24 

.581977 

7 25.34 

15 25.2 

.18 

9.17 

0.42 

6.29 

.03 

s. 

15 28.1 

21.1 


25 

.560700 

6 54.49 

20 18.2 

.17 

9.26 

0.42 

6.33 

.03 

s. 

20 21.1 

20.4 


26 

.529457 

6 21.29 

25 14.8 

.29 

9.13 

0.43 

6.38 

.03 

s. 

25 17.6 

22.1 



.573891 

6 19.69 

25 28.7 

.10 

9.40 

0.43 

6.38 

.03 

s. 

25 31.7 

22.4 


27 

.537696 

5 43.33 

30 38.1 

.24 

9.30 

0.43 

6.42 

.03 

s. 

30 39.0 

22.9 


28 

.544789 

5 1.95 

36 9.4 

.20 

9.44 

0.43 

6.46 

.01 

c. 

36 18.8 

21.1 


29 

.523539 

4 18.46 

41 44.7 

.28 

9.38 

0.43 

6.51 

.01 

0. 

41 54.1 

20.4 


30 

.523620 

3 30.71 

47 38.3 

.27 

9.48 

0.44 

6.55 

.01 

c. 

47 47.8 

18.7 


31 

.516725 

2 40.02 

53 40.0 

.28 

9.51 , 

0.44 

6.59 

.01 

c. 

20 53 49.6 

19.4 

1852.--Jan 

1 

.530423 

1 45.25 

20 59 59.5 

.21 

9,72 

0.44 

6.63 

.00 

c. 

21 9.2 

19.5 


2 

.513620 

9 48.33 

21 6 16.8 

.27 

9.63 

0.44 

6.66 

.00 

c. 

6 26.5 

22.0 


4 

.507212 

8 53 44.18 

19 27.2 

.27 

9.82 

0.45 

6.74 

.00 

0. 

19 37.0 

18.7 


5 

.512962 

57 36.92 

26 17.4 

.23 

9.95 

0.45 

6.77 

.00 

c. 

26 37.3 

31.8 


6 

.519886 

56 26.54 

33 14.8 

.19 

10.09 

0.45 

6.81 

.00 

c. 

33 24.9 

20.6 


7 

.509736 

55 14.47 

40 10.8 

.22 

10.10 

0.46 

6.84 

.00 

c. 

40 20.9 

22.8 


8 

.470027 

54 1.91 

46 59.0 

.38 

9.81 

0.46 

6.86 

.00 

c. 

47 8.8 

21.6 



.520396 

53 58.03 

47 20.5 

.15 

10.25 

0.46 

6.87 

.00 

c. 

47 30.8 

21.1 


9 

.500697 

52 41.23 

21 54 21.4 

,23 

10.20 

0.46 

6.90 

.00 

c. 

21 54 31.6 

21.9 


10 

.500841 

51 20.30 

22 1 33.7 

.21 

10.28 

0.45 

6.92 

.00 

0. 

22 1 44.0 

20.6 


11 

.520035 

49 55.26 

8 56.6 

.11 

10.45 

0.46 

6.94 

.00 

c. 

9 7.0 

20.6 


12 

.478583 

48 33.03 

15 54.4 

.28 

10.26 

0.46 

6.96 

.00 

c. 

16 4.7 

19.4 



.521972 

48 29.24 

16 13.3 

.08 

10.52 

0.46 

6.96 

.00 

c. 

16 23.8 

19.0 


13 

.503665 

47 2.76 

23 21.4 

.15 

10.51 

0.47 

6.98 

,00 

c. 

23 31.9 

19.7 


14 

.489949 

45 33.83 

30 30.9 

.20 

10.49 

0.47 

7.00 

.00 

c. 

30 41.4 

21.7 


16 

.474718 

42 29.34 

44 49.4 

.23 

10.51 

0.47 

7.03 

.00 

c. 

44 59.9 

19.8 


17 

.464911 

40 54.85 

22 51 52.6 

.26 

10.49 

0.47 

7.04 

.00 

c. 

22 52 3.1 

20.1 


20 

.458899 

36 1.37 

23 12 41.3 

-f .24 

10.61 

0.47 

7.06 

.00 

c. 

23 12 52.0 

20.0 



.511188 

35 56.17 

13 2.6 

— .02 

10.81 

0.47 

7.07 

.00 

c. 

13 13.5 

19.9 


21 

.438-:255 

34 23.49 

19 16.5 

+ .32 

10.47 

0.47 

7.07 

.00 

c. 

19 27.0 

21.8 


22 

.483702 

32 38.32 

26 9.3 

.08 

10.82 

0.47 

7.07 

.00 

0. 

26 20.2 

18.0 


23 

.476347 

30 58.05 

32 32.1 

.10 

10.82 

0.47 

7.06 

,00 

c. 

32 42.9 

19.2 


24 

.473829 

29 17.07 

38 47.0 

.09 

10.83 

0.47 

7.06 

,00 

c. 

38 57.8 

19.2 


25 

.440744 

27 39.20 

44 40.2 

.23 

10.66 

0.47 

7.05 

.00 

c. 

44 50.9 

17.0 


27 

.446278 

24 17.06 

23 56 18.1 

.17 

10.74 

0.47 

7.03 

.00 

c. 

23 56 28.8 

19.1 


28 

.456985 

22 35.80 

24 1 51.0 

.10 

10.80 

0.47 

7.01 

.00 

c. 

24 2 1.8 

17.1 


29 

.460799 

20 56.49 

7 8.4 

.06 

10.80 

0.47 

6.99 

,00 

0. 

7 19.2 



30 

.463149 

19 18.15 

12 11.9 

.03 

10.79 

0.46 

6.97 

.00 

c. 

12 22.7 

16.1 


31 

.457368 

17 41.80 

16 59.2 

.04 

10.77 

0.46 

6.95 

.00 

c. 

17 10.0 

15.9 

Feb. 

1 

.418346 

16 9.47 

2i 23.6 

.21 

10.59 

0.46 

6.93 

.00 

c. 

21 34.2 

16.1 


3 

.451873 

14 32.84 

25 53.0 

+ .03 

10.71 

0.46 

6.91 

.00 

c. 

26 3.7 

15.5 


3 

.469467 

12 59.27 

30 3.1 

— .08 

10.66 

0.46 

6.88 

.00 

0. 

30 13.8 

16.4 


7 

.416667 

7 14.84 

43 48.3 

+ .11 

10.46 

0.45 

6.75 

.00 

0. 

43 58.8 

16.3 


8 

.398496 

5 54.78 

46 37.8 

.17 

10.34 

0.45 

6.71 

.00 

c. 

46 48.1 

14.4 


9 

.393666 

4 36.19 

49 15.1 

+ .18 

10.28 

0.44 

6.67 

.01 

c. 

49 25.4 

14.4 



.462760 

4 30.83 

49 25.4 

— .15 

10.31 

0.44 

6.67 

.01 

0. 

49 35.7 

14.1 


10 

.411493 

3 18.55 

51 40.9 

+ .08 

10.32 

0.44 

6.63 

.01 

0. , 

51 51.3 

14.5 


11 

.402675 

2 5.71 

53 48.5 

+ .10 

10.25 

0.44 

6.59 

.01 

c. 

53 58.7 

13.5 



.453969 

8 2 2.03 

53 54.7 

— .14 

10.21 

0.44 

6.59 

.01 

0. 

54 5.0 

13.6 


13 

.395952 

7 59 47.96 

+24 57 22.9 

+0.10 

+10.12 

0.43 

6.51 

0.01 

0. 

+24 57 33.0 

+13.5 


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OBSERVATIONS COMPARED WITH EPHEMERIS. 
Computation for Santiago Equatorial Observations — Continued. 


cxcv 






Parallax. 

Semldiameter in 






Date. 

Wash. M.T. 
in dec. of day. 

Tab. a. 

Tab. d. 





Def. ill. 

Obs'd 
part. 

Comp. u. 

Jd. 


a. 

8. 

a. 

d. 




h. m. s. 

» 1 II 

s. 

II 

s. 

II 

s. 


o 1 II 

II 


1852.— Feb. 13 

,443044 

7 59 44.79 

+24 57 27.3 

—0.12 

+10.10 

0.43 

6.51 

0.01 

C. 

+24 57 37.4 

+13.1 


14 

.404918 

58 42.74 

24 58 50.4 

+ .04 

10.09 

0.43 

6.46 

.01 

C. 

24 59 0.5 

14.4 


15 

.370468 

57 43.63 

25 1.1 

.18 

9.90 

0.43 

6.42 

.01 

c. 

25 11.0 

14.0 


16 

.387076 

56 44.08 

1 2.1 

.09 

9.93 

0.42 

6.37 

.01 

c. 

1 12.0 

13.2 


17 

.385869 

55 49.13 

1 49.0 

.08 

9.86 

0.42 

6.33 

.01 

c. 

1 .58.9 

12.7 


19 

.368313 

54 9.90 

2 44.5 

.13 

9.67 

0.42 

6.23 

.01 

c. 

2 54.2 

10.8 


20 

.368193 

53 24.90 

2 54.2 

.11 

9.61 

0.41 

6.19 

.01 

c. 

3 3.8 

10.9 


21 

.373930 

52 43.07 

2 52.1 

.07 

9.57 

0.41 

6.14 

.01 

c. 

3 1.7 

10.8 


22 

.356132 

52 5.60 

2 38.8 

.13 

9.44 

0.41 

6.09 

.01 

c. 

2 48.2 

10.6 


23 

.350987 

51 31.93 

2 14.3 

.14 

9.35 

0.40 

6.04 

.01 

0. 

2 23.6 

10.1 


24 

,346851 

50 59.85 

1 39;0 

.14 

9.27 

0.40 

5.99 

.01 

c. 

1 48.3 

10.4 


25 

.349256 

50 31.93 

25 52.8 

.12 

9.21 

0.40 

5.94 

.01 

c. 

1 2.0 

11.4 


26 

.348459 

. 50 7.53 

24 59 56.5 

+ .11 

9.14 

0.39 

5.89 

.01 

0. 

25 5.6 

11.6 


27 

.397964 

49 45.57 

58 46.8 

— .11 

9.06 

0.39 

5.84 

01 

0. 

24 58 55.9 

9.9 


28 

.329031 

49 29.22 

57 35 9 

+ .16 

8.92 

0.39 

5.79 

.01 

c. 

57 44.8 

10.4 



.384230 

49 28.34 

57 31.5 

- .06 

9.02 

0.39 

5.79 

.01 

c. 

57 40.5 

9.6 


29 

.320987 

49 15.00 

56 11.5 

+ .18 

8.81 

0.38 

5.74 

.01 

c. 

56 20.3 

9.7 


March 1 

.328774 

49 3.91 

54 36.5 

.14 

8.79 

0.38 

5.69 

.01 

c. 

54 45.3 

10.2 


2 

.337017 

48 56.16 

52 52.5 

.09 

8.76 

0.38 

5.64 

.01 

c. 

53 1.3 

10.8 


3 

.317069 

48 51.77 

51 3.1 

.16 

8.60 

0.37 

5.59 

.02 

0. 

51 11.7 

11.6 


4 

.334692 

48 50.47 

49 0.8 

.08 

8.61 

0.37 

5.54 

.02 

0. 

49 9.4 

8.1 


6 

.341147 

48 57.63 

44 35.1 

.03 

8.47 

0.36 

5.44 

.02 

c. 

44 43.6 

9.0 


7 

.324551 

49 5.38 

42 13.4 

.11 

8.34 

0.36 

5.39 

.02 

0. 

42 21.7 

7.5 


8 

.327363 

49 16.46 

39 41.3 

.06 

8.30 

0.36 

5.34 

.02 

c. 

39 49.6 

8.4 


9 

.319176 

49 30.34 

37 3.4 

.08 

8.21 

0.35 

5.30 

.02 

0. 

37 11,6 

8.6 


10 

.303105 

49 46.96 

34 19.6 

.13 

8.08 

0.35 

5.25 

.02 

0. 

34 27.7 

10.0 


11 

.3225ly 

50 7.10 

31 22.7 

.05 

8.07 

0.35 

5.20 

.02 

c. 

31 30.8 

4.9 


12 

.289046 

50 28.91 

28 28.2 

.16 

7.88 

0.34 

5.16 

.02 

0. 

28 36.1 

6.1 



.327335 

50 29.82 

28 21.2 

.03 

8.00 

0.34 

5.15 

.02 

0. 

28 29.2 

6.4 


13 

.311102 

50 54.68 

25 16.6 

.07 

7.90 

0.34 

5.11 

.03 

c. 

25*24.5 

6.6 


14 

.315716 

51 22.98 

22 1.1 

.05 

7.84 

0.34 

5.06 

.03 

0. 

22 9.0 

5.8 


15 

.312831 

7 51 53.63 

+24 18 40.6 

+0.05 

+ 7.77 

0.33 

5.02 

0.03 

c. 

+24 18 48.4 

+ 6.7 



Hosted by 


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CXCYI 


OBSERYATIOKS COMPARED WITH EPHEMERIS. 


Computation for Santiago Meridian Observations. 




Wash. M.T. 

Tabular 


Semid. 

Def. ill. 

Comp. 0. 

Ad, 

Date. 


in dec. of 



Parallax. 







day. 

a. 

d. 


a. 

d. 

a. 

d. 






h. m. s. 

o / // 

II 

s. 

II 

s. 

II 

/ // 

II 

1851.— Dec. 

19 

.618077 

9 9 7.80 

-f- 19 54 34.5 

-f. 8.89 

0.43 

6.06 

0.02 

0.03 

+ 19 54 37.4 

-f 22.9 


21 

.612255 

8 36.52 

20 2 18.0 

9.04 

.44 

6.15 

.02 

.02 

20 2 20.9 

22.4 


22 

.609284 

8 15.79 

6 30.7 

9.12 

.44 

6.20 

.02 

.02 

6 33.6 

23.9 


24 

.603229 

7 24.13 

15 37.0 

9.27 

.45 

6.29 

.02 

.02 

15 40.0 

21.3 


25 

.600144 

6 ,')3.20 

20 30.0 

9.35 

.45 

6.33 

.02 

.02 

20 33.0 

25.3 


26 

.597016 

6 18.85 

25 36.0 

9.42 

.46 

6.38 

.02 

.02 

25 39.1 

23.1 


27 

.593852 

5 41.11 

30 54.4 

9.50 

.46 

6.42 

.02 

.02 

30 57.5 

23.5 


28 

.590643 

4 59.99 

36 24.8 

9.57 

.46 

6.46 

.02 

.02 

36 23.0 

23.9 


30 

.584119 

3 27.71 

48 0.0 

9.72 

.47 

6.55 

.02 

.01 

48 3.2 

20.9 


31 

.580802 

2 38.63 

20 54 3.7 

9.80 

.47 

6.59 

.02 

.01 

20 54 7.C 

20.0 

1852.— Jan. 

1 

.577444 

1 42.30 

21 17.3 

9.87 

.47 

6.63 

.02 

.00 

21 33.9 

12.8 


2 

.574037 

9 44.75 

6 40.2 

9.94 

.48 

6.66 

a. 02 

.00 

6 56.8 

18.7 


4 

.567141 

8 58 40.26 

19 51.4 

10.07 

.48 

6.74 

.02 

.00 

20 8.3 

17.2 


5 

.563637 

57 33.44 

26 38.2 

10.14 

.49 

6.77 

.02 

.00 

26 55.2 

25.5 


6 

.560114 

56 23.53 

33 31.6 

10.20 

.49 

6.81 

.02 

.00 

33 35.0 

21,6 


7 

.556532 

55 10.98 

40 30.6 

10.27 

.49 

6.84 

.01 

.00 

40 34.0 

21.8 


8 

.552929 

53 55.63 

47 34.5 

10.32 

.49 

6.87 

.01 

.00 

47 51.7 

20.5 


9 

.549312 

52 37.35 

21 54 42.3 

10.38 

.50 

6.90 

.01 

.00 

21 54 45.8 

21.7 


10 

.545639 

51 16.61 

22 1 53.2 

10.43 

.50 

6.92 

.01 

.00 

22 2 10.5 

20.1 


11 

.541960 

49 53.39 

9 6.2 

10.49 

.50 

6.94 

.01 

.00 

9 23.6 

18.0 


12 

.538227 

48 27.81 

16 20.4 

10.54 

.50 

6.96 

.01 

.00 

16 24.0 

21.5 


33 

.534482 

47 0.00 

23 34.8 

10.59 

.50 

6.98 

.01 

.00 

23 52.4 

17.2 


14 

.530728 

45 30.11 

30 48.7 

10.63 

.51 

7.00 

.01 

.00 

30 52.1 

21.9 


15 

.526924 

43 58.30 

38 0.8 

10.67 

.51 

7.02 

.01 

.00 

38 18.5 

17.9 


16 

.523128 

42 24.74 

45 10.1 

10.71 

.51 

7.03 

.00 

.00 

45 13.8 

17.2 


18 

.519285 

40 49.62 

52 15.8 

10.73 

.51 

7.05 

.00 

.00 

52 33.6 

16.6 


.515455 

39 13.06 

22 59 16.8 

10.76 

.51 

7.06 

.00 

.00 

22 59 20.5 

21.7 


19 

.511581 

37 35.29 

23 6 12.3 

10.79 

.51 

7.06 

.00 

.00 

23 6 30.1 

22.8 


20 

.507730 

35 56.50 

13 1.3 

10.81 

.51 

7.07 

.00 

.00 

13 19.2 

16.0 


21- 

- .503830 

34 16.70 

19 42.6 

10.83 

.51 

7.07 

.00 

.00 

20 0.5 

16.0 


22 

.499963 

32 36.69 

26 15.7 

10.84 

.51 

7.07 

.00 

.00 

26 19.5 

23.1 


23 

.496053 

30 56.05 

32 39.6 

10.85 

.51 

7.06 

.00 

.00 

32 57.5 

14.3 


24 

.492171 

29 15.21 

38 53.8 

10.85 

.51 

7.06 

.00 

.01 

38 57.6 

16.5 


25 

.488247 

27 34.40 

44 57.2 

10.85 

.51 

7.05 

.CO 

.01 

45 15.1 

14.9 


27 

.480487 

24 13.62 

56 29.5 

10.84 

.51 

7.03 

.00 

.01 

23 56 47.4 

13.4 


28 

.476629 

22 34.07 

24 1 57.4 

10.83 

.51 

7.01 

.00 

.01 

24 2 1.2 

19.8 


29 

.472735 

20 55.32 

7 12.1 

10.80 

.51 

6.99 

.00 

.01 

7 29.9 

17.2 


30 

.468891 

19 17.58 

12 13.6 

10.79 

.51 

6.97 

.00 

.01 

12 17.5 

14.6 


31 

.465033 

17 41.07 

17 1.4 

10.77 

.51 

6.95 

.00 

.01 

17 19.1 

13.7 

Feb. 

1 

.461214 

16 5 92 

21 35.0 

10.74 

.51 

6.93 

.00 

.02 

21 38.8 

14.4 


2 

.457393 

14 32.32 

25 54.4 

10.71 

.51 

6.91 

.00 

.02 

26 12.0 

13.5 


3 

.453616 

13 0.43 

29 59.3 

10.67 

.50 

6.88 

.00 

.02 

30 3.2 

9.9 


4 

.449833 

11 30.40 

33 49.7 

10.64 

.50 

6.85 

.00 

.02 

34 7.2 

15.1 


7 

.438672 

7 12.99 

43 52.3 

10.49 

.50 

6.75 

.00 

.03 

43 56.1 

16.4 


8 

.435012 

5 51.85 

46 43.9 

10.44 

.49 

6.71 

.01 

.03 

46 47.7 

14.9 


9 

.431360 

4 33.27 

49 20.8 

10.39 

.49 

6.67 

.01 

.03 

49 37.9 

13.9 


10 

.427774 

3 17.33 

51 43.2 

10.33 

.49 

6.63 

•01 

.03 

51 46.9 

14.5 


11 

.424185 

8 2 4.17 

53 51.1 

10.27 

.49 

6.59 

.01 

.03 

54 8.0 

12.7 


13 

.417137 

7 59 46.50 

57 24.9 

10.15 

.48 

6.51 

.01 

.03 

57 41.6 

14.8 


14 

.413661 

58 42.19 

24 58 51.1 

10. C8 

.48 

6.46 

.01 

.03 

24 59 7.7 

15.1 


15 

.410224 

57 40.98 

25 3.7 

10.01 

.47 

6.42 

.02 

.03 

25 20.2 

13.6 


16 

.406836 

56 42.97 

I 3.2 

9.94 

.47 

6.37 

.02 

.03 

1 6.8 

11.9 


17 

.403463 

55 48.19 

1 49.7 

9.87 

.47 

6.33 

.02 

,03 

2 5.9 

11.2 


18 

.400148 

54 56.71 

2 23.4 

9.80 

.46 

6.28 

.02 

.03 

2 27.0 

12.4 


19 

.396866 

54 8.56 

2 44.8 

9.72 

.46 

6.23 

.02 

.03 

3 0.8 

7.5 


20 

.393612 

53 23.80 

2 54.3 

9.65 

.46 

6.18 

.03 

.03 

2 57.8 

10.7 


21 

.390395 

7 62 42.42 

+ 25 2 52.0 

+ 9.57 

.45 

6.14 

0.03 

0.03 

+ 25 3 7.7 

+ 9.7 


Hosted by 


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OBSERVATIONS COMPAKED WITH EPHEMERIS. 
Computation for Santiago Meridian Observations — Continued. 


cxcvii 



Date. 

Wash. M.T 
in dec. of 

Tabular 


Semid. 

Def. ill. 

Comp. 0, 

Ad. 




Parallax. 







day. 

a. 

d. 


a. 

8. 

a. 

8. 






h. m. s. 

f II 

// 

II 

s. 

II 


• ; '/ 

II 

1852 

—Feb. 22 

.3872'.22 

7 52 4.46 

+ 25 2 38.2 

+ 9.49 

0.45 

6.09 

0.03 

0.03 

+ 25 2 53.8 

+ 9.9 


23 

.384098 

51 29.94 

2 13.3 

9.41 

.45 

6.04 

.03 

.03 

2 28.7 

10.8 


24 

.381020 

50 58.84 

1 37.6 

9.33 

.44 

5.99 

.03 

.03 

1 40.9 

12.7 


25 

.377959 

50 31.18 

25 51.4 

9.25 

.44 

5.94 

.03 

.03 

25 1 6.6 

6.5 


26 

.374957 

60 6.93 

24 59 54.9 

9.17 

.43 

5.89 

.04 

.03 

24 59 58.2 

10.7 


27 

.371975 

49 46.07 

58 48.6 

9.09 

.43 

5.84 

.04 

.03 

59 3.5 

8.7 


28 

.369056 

49 28.58 

57 32.7 

9.01 

.43 

5.79 

.04 

.03 

57 35.9 

11.4 


29 

.366147 

49 14.43 

55 7.4 

8.93 

.42 

5.74 

.04 

.03 

55 22.1 

1.0 


March 1 

.363303 

49 3.59 

54 33.1 

8.85 

.42 

5.69 

.04 

.03 

54 36.3 

12.6 


2 

.360479 

48 56.02 

52 50.0 

8.77 

.42 

£.64 

.04 

.03 

63 4.5 

3.0 


3 

.357697 

48 51.67 

50 58.4 

8.69 

.41 

5.69 

.04 

.03 

51 12.7 

7.0 

■ 

4 

.354954 

48 50.47 

48 58.3 

8.61 

.41 

5.54 

.04 

.03 

49 12.4 

7.9 


6 

.349570 

48 57.50 

44 34.1 

8.44 

.40 

5.44 

.04 

.03 

44 48.0 

6.5 


7 

.346944 

49 5.59 

42 10.1 

8.36 

.40 

5.39 

.04 

.03 

42 13.1 

11.7 


8 

.344334 

49 16.67 

39 3^.7 

8.28 

.39 

5 34 

.04 

.03 

39 52.3 

6.5 


9 

.341774 

49 30.69 

36 59.7 

8.20 

.39 

5.30 

.05 

.03 

37 2.7 

8.5 


10 

.339231 

49 47.62 

34 13.4 

8.13 

.39 

5.25 

.05 

.03 

34 26.8 

9.1 


11 

.336734 

50 7.40 

31 20.2 

8.05 

.38 

5.20 

.05 

.03 

31 23.1 

8.7 


12 

.334258 

50 29.89 

28 19.9 

7.97 

.38 

5.15 

.05 

.03 

28 33.0 

5.2 


13 

.331830 

50 55.33 

25 12.6 

7.90 

.37 

5.11 

.05 

.03 

25 15.4 

6.6 


14 

.329414 

51 23.38 

21 58.4 

7.82 

.37 

5.06 

.05 

.03 

22 11.3 

5.6 


15 

.327043 

7 51 54.09 

+ 24 18 37.5 

+ 7.75 

0.37 

5.01 

0.05 

4- 0.03 

+ 24 18 40.3 

+ V.6 


In the Santiago meridian series for Mars II are a number of observations, which were made 
with the micrometer in the eye-piece of the meridian-circle, and which, in addition to the 
measurement of absolute declination, give a measurement of distance from some one of the 
regular comparison-stars. In such cases we are put in possession of two determinations made 
at the same time. The meridian observations may, in fact, be classed under three categories. 

1. Mars observed on fixed thread. 

2. Star observed on fixed thread, and Mars shortly after on the movable thread. 

3. Mars observed on fixed thread, and star on the movable thread. 
The first of these gives in each case one normal meridian observation. 

The second furnishes a determination of the star's place, and also a micrometric comparison 
of Mars with the star. 

The third affords both an absolute measurement of Mars belonging with the first series, and 
a micrometric determination like those included in the second division of the second category. 

In strictness, the Ifors-determinations of the second category, being micrometric, ought to be 
combined in the same series with those of the third ; but since the precise character of these 
determinations was only comprehended after study of the original manuscripts, at which time 
these cases had already been incorporated with the absolute determinations of the first category, 
a repetition of the computation has not appeared sufficiently important to call for a new distribu- 
tion and discussion. 

Consequently, ourseries, ^'Marsll^ Santiago meridian," contains the Jfars-observations of the 
first two divisions and the absolute determinations of the third ; the star-observations of the 
second being already included in our discussion of the comparison-stars, and the micrometric 
measurements of the third furnishing us the annexed new group. 


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excviii 


OBSERVATIONS COMPAKBB WITH BPHEMEEIS. 


Oofnputation for Santiago Meridian Supplementary Observations. 


Date. 

Limb. 

t—T. 

Star N* . 

Star's d. 

Meas'd DS, 

Refr. 

Obs»d 8. 

Ad, 



d. 


« / II 

1 II 

II 

9 1 II 

II 

I851.-Dec. 21 

S. 

- 40.387745 

108 

+ 20 2 22.84 

— 23.18 

0.01 

4- 20 1 59.65 

+ 22.2 

22 

S. 

39.390716 

108 

20 2 22.72 

4- 3 52.63 

0.17 

20 6 15.52 

18.1 

26 

s. 

35.402984 

105 

20 27 42.57 

— 2 25.22 

0.11 

20 25 17.24 

21.9 

27 

g. 

34.406148 

105 

20 27 42.49 

+ 2 56.50 

0.13 

20 30 39.11 

18.4 

30 

s. 

31.415881 

104 

20 41 5.98 

H- 6 36.13 

0.30 

20 47 42.41 

20.8 

31 

s. 

30.419198 

99 

20 57 18.14 

— 3 31.13 

0.17 

20 53 46.84 

20.2 

1852.-Jan. 1 

N. 

29.422556 

100 

21 1 43.43 

-- 1 21.27 

0.07 

21 22.09 

11.8 

4 

N. 

26.432859 

101 

21 16 47.71 

+ 3 1.53 

0.14 

21 19 49.38 

18.9 

5 

N. 

25.436363 

98 

21 29 17.95 

— 2 46.03 

0.13 

21 26 31.79 

23.4 

10 

N. 

20.454361 

95 

22 2 25.24 

— 36.58 

0.03 

22 1 48.63 

21.9 

16 

S. 

14.476872 

s. 

22 46 31.42 

— 1 38.02 

0.08 

22 44 53.32 

20.5 

17 

N. 

13.480715 

89 

22 51 33.75 

+ 40.49 

0.03 

22 52 14.27 

19.3 

25 

N. 

5.511753 

79 

23 45 33.88 

— 32.67 

0.03 

23 45 1.18 

14.0 

27 

N. 

— 3.519513 

77 

23 58 1.50 

— 1 33.00 

0.08 

23 56 28.42 

19.0 

Feb. 1 

S. 

4- 1.461214 

68 

24 25 1.60 

— 3 39.23 

0.19 

24 21 22.18 

16.6 

2 

N. 

2.457393 

68 

24 25 1.63 

+ 56.41 

0.05 

24 25 58.09 

13.9 

4 

N. 

4.449833 

64 

24 28 59.75 

+ 4 51.93 

0.23 

24 33 51.91 

15.3 

8 

S. 

8.435012 

62 

24 46 56.93 

— 24.02 

0.02 

24 46 32.89 

14.8 

9 

N. 

9.431360 

62 

24 46 56.98 

+ 2 26.06 

0.14 

24 49 23.18 

14.7 

18 

S. 

18.400148 

57 

25 18.36 

+ 1 53.10 

0.11 

25 2 11.57 

16.4 

19 

N. 

19.396866 

57 

25 18.42 

4- 2 30.34 

0.14 

25 2 48.90 

11.9 

20 

S. 

20.393612 

57 

25 18.48 

+ 2 27.83 

0.14 

25 2 46.45 

11.4 

21 

N. 

21.390395 

57 

25 18.54 

+ 2 42.54 

0.15 

25 3 J. 23 

6.5 

Mar. 12 

N. 

41.334258 

54 

24 28 25.93 

+ 2.23 

0.00 

24 28 28.16 

4.8 

13 

S. 

42.331830 

54 

24 28 26.00 

— 3 17.16 

0.18 

24 25 8.66 

6.7 

14 

N. 

43.329414 

55 

24 18 57.55 

+ 3 6.83 

0.17 

24 22 4.55 

6.8 

15 

S. 

+ 44.327043 

55 

+ 24 18 57.61 

— 24.30 

0.02 

+ 24 18 33.29 

+ 7.0 


MARS II. 

Computation for Washington Equatorial Observations. 






Parallax. 

Semid. 




Date. 

Wash. M.T. in 
dec. of day. 

Tab. a. 

Tab. d. 




Obs. part. 

Comp'd d. 

Jd. 

a, 

d. 

a. 

d. 



h.m, s. 

/ // 

8. 

/• 

s. 

II 


« / // 

II 

1852.--Jan.24 

.424491 

8 29 22.16 

+ 23 38 28.7 

+ 0.38 

— 3.94 

0.47 

7.06 

0. 

4-23 38 24.8 

416.6 

26 

.416910 

8 26 0.58 

23 50 25.9 

0.38 

3.89 

0.47 

7.04 

0. 

23 50 22.0 


30 

.450868 

8 19 19.35 

24 12 8.3 

oae 

3.31 

0.46 

6.97 

0. 

24 12 5.0 


Feb. 2 

.407664 

8 14 36.96 

24 25 41,8 

0.31 

3.52 

0.46 

6.91 

0. 

24 25 38.3 

15.9 

3 

.409033 

8 13 4.50 

+ 24 29 48.7 

+ 0.28 

— 3.41 

0.46 

6.88 

c. 

4-24 29 45.3 

4-16.7 


Hosted by 


Google 


OBSERVATIONS COMPARED WITH EPHEMERIS. 

MARS II. 

Computation for Greemuich Meridian Observations. 


CXCIX 















Tabular. 


Semid. 




Date. 

Wash. M.T. in 
dee. of day. 


Parallax. 



Comp. 8, 

Ad. 








«. 

d. 


«, 

d. 



1851 

—Dec. 8 

.451842 

h. m. s. 
9 8 3.30 

° 1 II 
+ 19 28 48.4 

— 5.36 

s. 
0.37 

II 
5.53 

-f 19 28 43.04 

II 

+ 14.84 


26 

.401578 

9 6 25.85 

20 24 35.0 

6.00 

0.42 

6.37 

20 24 29.00 

20.56 

3852 

— Jan. 5 

.368288 

8 57 46.79 

21 25 17.9 

6.18 

0.45 

6.76 

21 25 11.72 

21.59 


7 

.361191 

8 55 25.46 

21 39 7.9 

6.20 

0.46 

6.83 

21 39 1.70 

21.03 


9 

.353970 

8 52 52.88 

21 53 18.0 

6.20 

0.46 

6.89 

21 53 11,80 

22.40 


20 

.312426 

8 36 15.96 

23 11 41.5 

6.10 

0.47 

7.06 

23 11 35.40 

18.80 


22 

.304661 

8 32 56.38 

23 24 59.3 

6.06 

0.47 

7.07 

23 24 53.24 

19.18 


23 

.300771 

8 31 15.81 

23 31 25.2 

6.04 

0.47 

7.06 

23 31 19.10 

20.82 


28 

.281321 

8 22 53.52 

24 54.0 

5.90 

0.47 

7.01 

24 48.10 

18.91 


29 

.277449 

8 21 14.61 

24 6 11.4 

5.86 

0.47 

6.99 

24 6 5.54 

17.57 


30 

.273589 

8 19 36.67 

24 11 15.5 

5.83 

0.46 

6.97 

24 11 9.67 

17.54 


Feb. 3 

.258300 

8 13 18.31 

24 29 12.5 

5.69 

0.46 

6.88 

24 29 6.81 

15.95 


6 

.247046 

8 8 53.20 

24 40 8.0 

5.58 

0.45 

6.79 

24 40 2.42 

15. 15 


9 

.236031 

8 4 48.47 

24 48 51.1 

5.46 

0.45 

6.68 

24 48 45.64 

14.64 


10 

.2.32419 

8 3 32.01 

24 51 16.3 

5.42 

0.44 

6.64 

24 51 10.88 

14.65 


11 

.228840 

8 2 18.29 

24 53 27.2 

5.38 

0,44 

6.60 

24 53 21.82 

14.06 


14 

.218593 

7 58 54.55 

24 58 35.2 

5.26 

0.43 

6.47 

24 58 29.94 

12.85 


18 

.204739 

7 55 6.53 

25 2 17.8 

5.10 

0.42 

6.29 

25 2 12.70 

13.. 36 


20 

.198193 

7 53 32.30 

25 2 53 5 

5.02 

0.41 

6.19 

25 2 48.48 

10.49 


26 

.179490 

7 50 11.42 

25 6.8 

4.79 

0.39 

5.90 

25 2.01 

9.44 


28 

.173571 

7 49 31.75 

24 57 48.4 

4.72 

0.39 

5.80 

24 57 43.68 

9.72 


Mar. 9 

.164985 

7 48 57.24 

24 53 10.9 

4.61 

0.38 

5.65 

24 53 6.29 

9.62 


3 

. 162189 

7 48 52.26 

24 51 20.9 

4.57 

0.37 

5.60 

24 51 16.33 

9.89 


4 

.159435 

7 48 50.46 

24 49 22.5 

4.54 

0.37 

5.55 

24 49 17.96 

8.61 


5 

.156725 

7 48 51.81 

24 47 15.9 

4.50 

0.37 

5.50 

24 47 11.40 

9.67 


6 

.154047 

7 48 56.26 

24 45 1.3 

4.47 

0.35 

5.45 

24 44 56.83 

7.89 


8 

.148794 

7 49 14.25 

24 40 8.9 

4.40 

0.35 

5.35 

24 40 4.50 

7.62 


9 

.146214 

7 49 27.71 

24 37 31.5 

4.37 

0.35 

5.30 

24 37 27.13 

8.36 


12 

.138691 

7 50 25.34 

24 28 55.8 

4.27 

0.31 

5.16 

24 28 51.53 

7.65 


17 

.126778 

7 52 56.05 

24 12 18.7 

4.12 

0.33 

4.93 

24 12 14.58 

6.94 


18 

.124486 

7 53 33.96 

24 8 39.5 

4.09 

0.33 

4.89 

24 8 35.41 

5.34 


20 

.119983 

7 54 57.16 

24 1 1.9 

4.04 

0.^ 

4.81 

24 57.86 

6.16 


22 

.115593 

7 56 29.85 

23 52 58.9 

3.99 

0.31 

4.71 

23 52 54.91 

6.69 


23 

.113437 

7 57 19.62 

23 48 48.0 

3.96 

0.31 

4.66 

23 48 44.04 

7.29 


25 

.109200 

7 59 5.76 

23 40 7.5 

3.91 

0.30 

4.57 

23 40 3.59 

5.94 


27 

.104061 

8 1 0.35 

+ 23 31 2.3 

— 3.86 

0.30 

4.48 

+ 23 30 58.44 

+ 5.09 










-^ 


Hosted by 


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cc 


OBSEEVATIONS COMPAEED WITH EPHEMEEIS. 






MARS II 

• 






Computation for Cape Meridian Observations. 






Tabular 





Date. 


Wash. M.T. in dec. . 


Parallax. 

Def. ill. 

Comp. 0. 

Ad. 




of day. 

a. 

d. 








h. m. s. 

1 II 

// 

// 

/ // 

II 

1851.— Dec. 

22 

.362637 

9 8 21.2 

4- 20 5 23.9 

+ 9.17 

S. 0.02 

+ 20 5 38.08 

+ 19.07 


28 

.350404 

9 6 27.6 

24 19.2 

9.48 

.02 

24 28.69 

18.74 


29 

.340817 

9 4 26.8 

40 41.3 

9.70 

.01 

40 51.01 

18 52 


30 

.337546 

9 3 39.8 

46 31.8 

9.78 

.01 

46 41.59 

19.00 

1852.— Jan. 

1 

.330888 

9 1 56.0 

20 58 44.1 

9.92 

,01 

20 58 54.02 

19.49 


2 

.327503 

9 59.3 

21 5 4.7 

9.99 

.01 

21 5 14.69 

19.27 


3 

.324079 

8 59 59.3 

11 34.3 

10.06 

.01 

11 44.36 

17.97 


5 

.317128 

8 57 50.2 

24 57.1 

10.19 

.01 

25 7.29 

18.21 


9 

.302822 

8 52 56.9 

21 52 55.9 

10.44 

.00 

21 53 6.34 

17.62 


10 

.299167 

8 51 38.8 

22 6.2 

10.49 

.00 

22 16.69 

17.28 


12 

.291772 

8 48 49.2 

14 32.8 

10.59 

.00 

14 43.39 

17.76 


13 

.28S034 

8 47 21.9 

21 47.4 

10.64 

.00 

21 53.04 

18.34 


14 

.284271 

8 45 52.5 

29 1.5 

10.68 

.00 

29 12.18 

18.21 


15 

.280486 

8 44 21.2 

36 14.1 

10.72 

.00 

36 24.82 

17.35 


16 

.276682 

8 42 48.1 

22 43 24.3 

10.76 

.00 

22 43 35. G6 

17.52 


19 

.265161 

8 37 59.6 

23 4 33.1 

10.85 

.00 

23 4 40.95 

17.00 


20 

.261293 

8 36 21.0 

11 20.6 

10.87 

.00 

11 31.47 

16.47 


21 

.257415 

8 34 41.6 

18 3.9 

10.89 

.00 

18 14.79 

17.67 


22 

.25;i529 

8 33 1.5 

24 39.1 

10.90 

.00 

24 50.00 

15.18 


23 

.249639 

8 31 21.0 

31 5.5 

10.91 

.01 

31 16.41 

15.74 


24 

.245743 

8 29 40.2 

37 22.1 

10.91 

.01 

37 33.01 

15.13 


26 

.237958 

8 26 18.7 

49 23.2 

10.91 

.01 

49 34.12 

15.51 


27 

.234070 

8 24 38.4 

23 55 6.4 

10.90 

.01 

23 55 17.31 

14.37 


29 

.226314 

8 21 19.7 

24 5 .55.4 

10.88 

.01 

24 6 6.29 

14.67 

Feb. 

2 

.210958 

8 14 55.4 

24 51.5 

10.78 

.02 

25 2.29 

13.18 


3 

.2J7163 

8 13 23.0 

29 0.1 

10.74 

.02 

29 10.85 

14.11 


4 

.203386 

8 11 52.5 

32 54.0 

10.71 

.02 

33 4.72 

13.73 


5 

.199631 

8 10 24.0 

33 33.2 

10.66 

.02 

36 43.87 

13.03 


6 

.195906 

8 8 57.6 

39 57.8 

10.62 

.02 

40 8.43 

13.19 


7 

.192204 

8 7 33.5 

43 7.5 

10.57 

.02 

43 18.08 

12.83 


9 

.184884 

8 4 52.5 

48 43.1 

10.47 

.03 

48 53.58 

11.37 


10 

.181271 

8 3 35.9 

51 9.0 

10.41 

.03 

51 19.42 

11.16 


11 

.177687 

8 2 22.0 

53 20.7 

10.35 

.03 

53 31.06 

10.83 


12 

.174138 

8 1 11.0 

55 18.0 

10.29 

.03 

55 28.30 

11.73 


13 

.170620 

8 2.9 

57 1.3 

10.23 

.03 

57 11.54 

12.60 


14 

.367138 

7 58 57.8 

24 58 30.9 

10.16 

.03 

24 58 41.07 

12.23 


16 

.160234 

7 56 57.1 

25 49.6 

10.03 

.03 

25 59.64 

11.01 


17 

.156911 

7 56 1.5 

1 39.3 

9.95 

.03 

1 49.27 

10.04 


18 

.153578 

7 55 9.2 

2 16.1 

9.88 

.03 

2 26.00 

10.18 


19 

.150281 

7 54 20.2 

2 40.7 

9.81 

.03 

2 50.53 

9.91 


20 

.147025 

7 53 34.6 

2 53.1 

9.73 

.03 

3 2.85 

8.53 


21 

.143807 

7 52 52.4 

2 53.7 

9.66 

.03 

3 3.38 

11.12 


23 

.137488 

7 51 38.2 

2 20.5 

9.50 

.03 

3 30.02 

8.47 


24 

.134390 

7 51 6.2 

1 47.2 

9.42 

.03 

1 56.64 

7.67 


25 

.131330 

7 50 37.7 

25 1 3.5 

9.34 

.03 

25 1 12.85 

7.48 


28 

.122386 

7 49 32.6 

+ 24 57 52.3 

+ 9.10 

S. 0.03 

4- 24 58 1.42 

+ 6.96 


Hosted by 


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OBSERVATIONS COMPARED WJTII EPIIEMERIS. 


CCl 


MARS II. 

Computation for Kremsmilnster Meridian Observations. 





Tabular. 





Date. 


Wash.M.T. 
in dec. of day. 


Parallax. 

Def. ill. 

Comp'd 0, 

A 8, 






a. 

d. 





1852— Jan. 

20 

.273314 

h. m. s. 
8 36 19.84 

° 1 II 
+ 23 11 25.6 

/ 
+ 5.41 

II 
0.00 

II 1 

+ 23 11 31.0 

II 

+ 16.0 


24 

.257762 

8 29 38.95 

23 37 26.7 

5.32 

0.01 

23 37 32.0 

17.5 

Feb. 

8 

.200553 

8 6 10.72 

24 46 4.8 

4.84 

0.03 

24 46 9.7 

15.3 


9 

.196907 

8 4 51.53 

24 48 45.1 

4.80 

0.03 

24 48 49.9 

15.2 


10 

.193291 

8 3 34.96 

24 51 10.9 

4.76 

0.03 

24 51 15,7 

15.3 


24 

.146415 

7 51 5.85 

25 1 47.0 

4.27 

0.03 

25 1 51.3 

12.7 


25 

.143358 

7 50 37.38 

25 1 3.2 

4.24 

0.03 

25 1 7.4 

9.2 

Mar. 

26 

.140345 

7 50 12.33 

25 9.1 

4.20 

0.03 

25 13.3 

13.2 


6 

.114883 

7 48 56.04 

24 45 6.7 

3.93 

0.03 

24 45 10.7 

7.7 


7 

.112239 

7 49 3.43 

24 42 44.6 

3.90 

0.03 

24 42 48.5 

7.4 


8 

.109625 

7 49 13.80 

24 40 15.0 

3.87 

0.03 

24 40 18.9 

11.5 


14 

.094659 

7 51 16.54 

24 22 44.7 

3.71 

0.03 

24 22 48.4 

4.1 


16 

1 

.089923 

i 

7 52 19.33 

+ 24 15 59.7 

4- 3.66 

0.03 

-{- 24 16 3.4 

+ 7.4 


Z 20 


Hosted by 


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ecu 


OBSEEVATIONS COMPARED WITH EPHEMEEIS. 

III. FIEST CONJUNCTION OF VENUS. 


VENUS I. 


Computation for Santiago Equatorial Ohservations, 







Paral 

ax. 

Semidiameter. 





ate. 

/Vash. M.T. 
in dec. of 

Tab. a. 

Tab. d. 





Ob'dpart. 

Comp'd d. 

Ad, 

E 







day. 



a. 

8. 

a. 

8. 







h. m, s. 

1 II 

s. 

II 

s. 

II 


/ // 

II 

1850.- 

-Oct. 19 

.338449 

16 40 26.70 

— 26 ,32 40.3 

— 0.94 

+ 7.03 

1.14 

15.23 

N. 

— 26 32 18.0 

+ 3.9 


20 

.326075 

16 44 13.27 

26 41 56.1 

0.94 

6.67 

1.15 

15.44 

N. 

26 41 34.0 

2.9 


22 

.326958 

16 51 45.27 

26 59 2.9 

0.97 

6.87 

1.19 

15.86 

N. 

26 58 40.2 

1.9 


23 

.323271 

16 55 26.53 

27 6 44.6 

0.98 

6.82 

1.21 

16.08 

N. 

27 6 21.7 

4.0 


24 

.311141 

16 59 3.18 

27 13 50.1 

S8 

6.45 

1.22 

16.30 

N. 

27 13 27.3 

3.6 


25 

.329782 

17 2 42.57 

27 20 35.1 

1.02 

7.26 

1.24 

16.54 

N. 

27 20 11.3 

1.5 


26 

.313050 

17 6 13.25 

27 26 33.6 

1.02 

6.70 

1.26 

16.78 

N. 

27 26 10.1 

4- 4.0 


29 

.290132 

17 16 27.91 

27 41 27.4 

1.02 

6.08 

1.32 

17.52 

N. 

27 41 3.8 

— 1.3 



.350424 

17 16 40.02 

27 41 42.5 

1.09 

8.59 

1.32 

17.53 

N. 

27 41 16.4 

1.0 


30 

.326339 

17 19 54.06 

27 45 31.5 

1.10 

7.70 

1.34 

17.79 

N. 

27 45 6.0 

— 0.5 


31 

.328546 

17 23 8.92 

27 48 55.1 

1.12 

7.92 

1.36 

18.06 

N. 

27 48 29.1 

+ 1.2 


Nov. 1 

.313547 

17 26 16.87 

27 51 44.4 

1.12 

7.40 

1.39 

18.33 

N. 

27 51 18.7 

1.0 


2 

,323315 

17 29 24.60 

27 54 6.4 

1.15 

7.97 

1.41 

18.61 

N. 

27 53 39.8 

1.0 


4 

.300149 

17 35 17.83 

27 57 13.6 

1.15 

7.21 

1.45 

19.19 

N. 

27 56 47.2 

1.4 


6 

.311707 

17 40 56.03 

27 58 22.1 

1.21 

8.06 

1.50 

19.81 

N. 

27 57 54.2 

+ 0.9 


7 

.310076 

17 43 35.27 

27 58 11.4 

1.23 

8.16 

1.52 

20.13 

N. 

27 57 43.1 

— 1.2 


8 

.306848 

17 46 8.19 

27 57 31.4 

1.25 

8.31 

1.55 

20.45 

N. 

27 57 2.6 

— 0.5 


10 

.280189 

17 50 51.96 

27 54 47.0 

1.23 

7.24 

1.60 

21.13 

N. 

27 54 18.7 

+ 0.1 


11 

.315959 

17 53 10.18 

27 52 36.0 

1.33 

9.24 

1.62 

21.48 

N. 

27 52 5.3 

+ 0.4 


13 

.314107 

17 57 14.48 

27 46 57.5 

1.37 

9.15 

1,67 

22.20 

N. 

27 46 26.1 

— 0.3 


14 

.315130 

17 59 5.17 

27 43 25.9 

1.40 

9.91 

1.70 

22.57 

N. 

27 42 53.4 

+ 1.2 


15 

.281037 

18 44.20 

27 39 35.5 

1.36 

8.32 

1.73 

22.94 

N. 

27 39 4.2 

— O.l 



.312755 

18 47.32 

27 39 27.5 

1.43 

10.04 

1.73 

22.95 

N. 

27 38 54.5 

+ 0.2 


16 

.307103 

18 2 20.74 

27 35 2.4 

1.44 

9.99 

1.76 

23.33 

N. 

27 34 29.1 

+ 1.4 


17 

.292045 

18 3 44.74 

27 30 13.0 

1.44 
1.49 

9.43 

1.78 

23.72 

N. 

27 29 39.8 

— 0.7 


18 

.309470 

18 5 12.30 

27 24 45.9 

10.70 

1.81 

24.12 

N. 

27 24 11.1 

+ 1.2 


21 

.291491 

18 7 52.89 

27 6 3,1 

1.54 

10.58 

1.90 

25.34 

N. 

27 5 26.2 

1.5 


24 

.303418 

18 9 14.34 

26 42 57.9 

1.64 

12.36 

1.99 

26.60 

N. 

26 42 18.9 

+ 0.7 


25 

.308236 

18 9 20.28 

26 34 18.8 

1.66 

13.05 

2.02 

27.03 

N. 

26 33 S8.7 

— 0.4 


26 

.334374 

18 9 15.14 

26 24 58,7 

1.65 

15.11 

2.04 

27.46 

N. 

26 24 16.1 

+ 0.5 


28 

.304189 

18 8 33.25 

26 5 37.1 

1.73 

14.02 

2.10 

28.28 

N. 

26 4 54.8 

— 1.2 


29 

.312331 

18 7 55.47 

25 54 58.1 

1.75 

14.98 

2.13 

28.69 

N. 

25 54 14.4 

+ 3.4 


30 

.306782 

18 7 7.43 

25 43 58.1 

1.77 

15.06 

2.15 

29.09 

N. 

25 43 13.9 

— 0.7 


Dec. 3 

.302140 

18 3 39.41 

25 7 50.0 

— 1.83 

16.10 

2.23 

30.24 

S. 

25 8 4.1 

+ 0.7 

1851 

—Jan. 6 

.705480 

17 4 58.76 

17 38 19.2 

+ 1.52 

12.99 

1.85 

26.37 

S. 

17 38 32.6 

6.8 

1 
i 

7 

.705508 

17 5 19.04 

17 34 59.7 

1.49 

12.68 

1.82 

25.95 

s. 

17 35 13.0 

+ 6.6 


8 

.665513 

17 5 47.43 

17 32 28.5 

1.46 

12.33 

1.79 

25.54 

s. 

17 32 41.7 

— 1.7 


9 

.662595 

17 6 25.93 

17 30 31.5 

1.44 

12.16 

1.76 

25.13 

s. 

17 30 44.5 

2.3 


10 

.657680 

17 7 13.32 

17 29 13.7 

1.42 

12.07 

1.73 

24.72 

s. 

17 29 26.3 

2.8 


11 

.642953 

17 8 8.85 

17 28 33.0 

1.40 

12.35 

1.70 

24.31 

s. 

17 28 45.0 

4.3 

j 

12 

.657832 

17 9 14.79 

17 28 26.7 

1.37 

11.52 

1.67 

23.91 

s. 

17 28 39.1 

4.5 


14 

.662896 

17 11 50.21 

17 29 51.6 

1.31 

10.82 

1.62 

23.12 

s. 

17 30 3.9 

1.7 


15 

.658800 

17 13 19.37 

17 31 17.7 

1.29 

10.72 

1.59 

22.74 

s. 

17 31 29.8 

5.5 

1 

16 

.657134 

17 14 56.36 

17 33 10.4 

1.27 

10.55 

1.57 

22.37 

s. 

17 33 22.2 

3.1 


17 

.657131 

17 16 40.95 

17 35 27.2 

1.25 

10.32 

1.54 

22.00 

s. 

17 35 38.9 

2.2 


18 

.649177 

17 18 31.82 

17 38 4.7 • 

1.24 

10.36 

1.52 

21.64 

s. 

17 38 16.0 

4.5 


20 

.648941 

17 22 35.99 

17 44 19.2 

1.19 

9.94 

1.47 

20.93 

s. 

17 44 30.2 

3.3 


24 

.650433 

17 32 0.99 

17 59 37.4 

1.11 

9.10 

1.38 

19.63 

s. 

17 59 48.0 

4.5 


26 

.650814 

17 37 18.12 

18 8 8.6 

1.08 

8.74 

1.34 

19.01 

s. 

18 8 18.9 

2.6 


27 

.651362 

17 40 4.74 

18 12 30.5 

1.06 

8.. 56 

1.32 

18 72 

s. 

18 12 40.7 

4.7 


28 

.652529 

17 42 56.47 

18 16 54.3 

1.04 

8.36 

1.30 

18.44 

s. 

18 17 4.4 

3.7 


Feb. 5 

.651360 

18 8 28.42 

18 49 50.3 

0.92 

7.30 

1.15 

16.38 

s. 

18 49 59.4 

3.2 



.659449 

18 8 30.10 

18 49 52.0 

0.91 

7.08 

1.15 

16.38 

N. 

18 49 28.5 

5.3 


6 

.662710 

18 12 0.78 

18 53 22.4 

tt.89 

6.88 

1.14 


0. 

18 53 15.6 

4.7 


7 

.655149 

18 15 30.89 

18 56 35.0 

0.89 

6.97 

1.12 


0. 

18 56 28.0 

2.3 


10 

.658692 

18 26 28.67 

— 19 4 .52.3 

-f- 0.85 

+ 6.57 

1.08 


c. 

— 19 4 45.7 

— 5.0 


Hosted by 


Google 


OBSERVATIONS COMPARED WITH EPHEMERIS. 


CCUl 


VENUS I. 

Computation for Santiago Meridian Observations, 





Tabular. 


Semi-diameter. 




Date. 

Wash. M.T. in 
dec. of day. 



Parallax. 



Comp'd 0, 

^d. 








a. 

d. 


«. 

d. 



1850 

.—Oct, 19 

.098602 

h. m. s. 
16 39 30.96 

/ // 

— 26 30 20.4 

+ 1.77 

s. 
1.13 

II 
15.18 

/ // 

—26 30 3.5 

II 
+ 13.1 


20 

.C98524 

16 43 21.26 

26 39 50.9 

1.75 

1.15 

15.39 

26 39 33.8 

12.2 


21 

.098421 

16 47 8.90 

26 48 48.2 

1.73 

1.16 

15.59 

26 48 30.9 

6.0 


22 

.098294 

16 50 54.12 

26 57 12.3 

1.72 

1.18 

15.81 

26 56 54.8 

5.4 


23 

.098131 

16 54 36.76 

27 5 3.2 

1.71 

1.20 

16.03 

27 4 45.5 

7.0 


24 

.097921 

16 58 17,66 

27 12 21.0 

1.70 

1.22 

16.25 

27 12 3.0 

8.5 


25 

.097713 

17 1 53.64 

27 19 5.8 

1.69 

1.23 

16.48 

27 18 47.6 

6.4 


26 

.097453 

17 5 27.54 

27 25 17.7 

1.68 

1.25 

16.72 

27 24 59.3 

(22.1) 


27 

.097151 

17 8 58.17 

27 30 56.9 

1.68 

1.27 

16.96 

27 30 38.3 

5.7 


28 

.096810 

17 12 25.36 

27 36 3.6 

1.68 

1.29 

17.21 

27 35 44.7 

7.0 


30 

.096008 

17 19 8.61 

27 44 40.2 

1.68 

1.33 

17.73 

27 44 20.8 

3.2 


31 

.095535 

17 22 24.25 

27 48 10.5 

1.69 

1.35 

18.00 

27 47 50.9 

5.5 


Nov. 1 

.095015 

17 25 35.61 

27 51 9.5 

1.70 

1.38 

18.27 

27 50 49.5 

8.1 


2 

.094440 

17 28 42.49 

27 53 37.0 

1.71 

1.40 

18.55 

27 53 16.7 

3.7 


4 

.093128 

17 34 41.84 

27 56 59.6 

1.75 

1.44 

19.13 

27 56 38.7 

(44.5) 


5 

.092383 

17 37 33.70 

27 57 55.2 

1.77 

1.46 

19.43 

27 57 34.0 

2.6 


7 

.090897 

17 43 0.80 

27 58 16.3 

1.83 

1.51 

20.06 

27 57 54.4 

5.8 


8 

.089752 

17 45 35.41 

27 57 42.6 

1.86 

1.53 

20.38 

27 57 20.3 

6.2 


10 

.087637 

17 50 25.43 

27 55 8.0 

1.93 

1.59 

21.05 

27 54 45.0 

4.8 


11 

.086462 

17 52 40.22 

27 53 7.7 

1.98 

1.61 

21.40 

27 52 44.3 

6.3 


13 

.083861 

17 56 47.89 

27 47 42.2 

2.08 

1.66 

22.11 

27 47 18.0 

2.0 


14 

.082428 

17 58 40.15 

27 44 17.6 

2.14 

1.69 

22.48 

27 43 53.0 

3.1 


15 

.080901 

18 24.32 

27 40 25.4 

2.20 

1.72 

22.86 

27 40 0.3 

7.6 


16 

.079275 

18 2 0.09 

27 36 5.6 

2.27 

1.75 

23.24 

27 35 40.1 

5.7 


17 

.077551 

18 3 27.19 

27 31 18.3 

2.34 

1.77 

23.63 

27 30 52.3 

+ 2.8 


18 

.075722 

18 4 45.33 

27 26 3.6 

2.42 

1.80 

24.03 

27 25 37.1 

— 0.6 


19 

.073787 

18 5 54.22 

27 20 21.5 

2.50 

1.83 

24.43 

27 19 54.6 

+ 4.2 


20 

.071743 

18 6 53.60 

27 14 12.0 

2.58 

1.86 

24.84 

27 13 44.6 

, 3.3 


21 

.069585 

18 7 43.21 

27 7 35.1 

2.67 

1.89 

25.25 

27 7 7.2 

4.6 


23 

.064920 

18 8 52.27 

26 52 58.3 

2.87 

1.95 

26.08 

26 53 29.5 

1.4 


26 

.056229 

18 9 17.66 

26 27 33.6 

3.21 

2.03 

27.34 

26 27 3.1 

2.6 


27 

.054144 

18 9 4.73 

26 18 7.5 

3.33 

2.06 

27.72 

26 17 36.4 

2.0 


28 

.051136 

18 8 41.00 

26 8 12.7 

3.46 

2.09 

28.18 

26 7 41.1 

5.0 


30 

.044068 

18 7 21.16 

25 46 55.4 

3.73 1 

2.14 

28.99 

25 46 22.7 

3.0 


Dec. 2 

.037882 

18 5 18.58 

25 23 38.2 

4.02 1 

2.19 

29.77 

25 23 4.4 

3.1 


4 

.030533 

18 2 34.98 

24 58 22.0 

4.35 

2.24 

30.50 

24 57 47.1 

4.3 


5 

.026693 

18 58.61 

24 44 59.5 

4.51 

2.26 

30.84 

24 44 24.1 

3.9 


8 

.014558 

17 55 16.90 

24 2 3.1 

5.03 

2.32 

31.74 

24 1 26.3 

3.1 


10 

.006039 

17 50 51.83 

23 31 17.5 

5.38 

2.34 

32.19 

23 30 39.9 

5.7 


(12) 

.997259 

17 46 4.3.3 

22 59 8.6 

5.74 

2.36 

32.53 

22 58 30.3 

6.5 


(13) 

.992793 

17 43 34.61 

22 42 39.8 

5.91 

2.36 

32.65 

22 43 6.6 

3.3 


21 

.955584 

17 21 17.61 

20 14 6.6 

7.16 

2.28 

32.10 

20 14 31.6 

5.6 


22 

.948570 

17 19 8.96 

19 59 1.0 

7.24 

2.26 

31.87 

19 59 25.6 

1.6 


29 

.921792 

17 8 0.45 

18 31 3.6 

7.44 

2.08 

29.59 

18 31 25.7 

3.7 


31 

.915076 

17 6 15,32 

18 12 50.0 

7.39 

2.02 

28.79 

18 13 11.4 

5.1 

1851.- 

-Jan. 5 

.900464 

17 4 49.43 

17 41 32.2 

7.09 

1.87 

26.71 

17 41 51.8 

0.0 


6 

.897880 

17 5 1.92 

17 37 37.4 

7.00 

1.84 

26.28 

17 37 56.7 

0.0 


7 

.895402 

17 5 23.97 

17 34 26.7 

6.91 

1.81 

25.86 

17 34 45.6 

0.4 


8 

.893033 

17 5 55.41 

17 31 58.3 

6.82 

1.78 

25.44 

17 32 16.9 

0.0 


9 

.890770 

17 6 36.02 

17 30 10.3 

6.72 

1.75 

25.04 

17 30 28.6 

1.2 


10 

.888610 

17 7 25.57 

17 29 1.0 

6.62 

1.72 

24.63 

17 29 19.0 

0.8 


11 

.886552 

17 8 23.88 

17 28 28.3 

6.51 

1.69 

24.22 

17 28 46.0 

+ 2.4 
— 0.9 


12 

.884593 

17 9 30.71 

17 28 30.0 

6.40 

1.66 

23.82 

17 28 47.4 


13 

.882731 

17 10 45.85 

17 29 4.0 

6.29 

1.63 

23.43 

17 29 21.1 

+ 0.4 


14 

.880960 

17 12 9.07 

— 17 30 8.1 

+ 6.18 

1.61 

23.04 

—17 30 25.0 

+ 0.7 


Hosted by 


Google 


CCIV 


OBSERVATIONS COMPAEED WITH EPHEMERIS. 
VENUS I. 

Computaiion for Santiago Meridian Observations — Continued. 





Tabular. 


Semi-diameter. 



Date. 


Wash. M.T. in 
dec. of day. 



Parallax. 



Comp'd d. 

Jd, 








a. 

d. 


a. 

d. 





d. 

h, m. s. 

° 1 II 

// 

s. 

II 

1 II 

^, 

1851.— Jan, 

15 

.879281 

17 13 40.14 

~ 17 31 40.4 

+ 6.07 

1.58 

22.65 

— 17 31 57.0 

+ 0.3 


16 

.877686 

17 15 18.73 

17 33 38.6 

5.96 

1.56 

22.28 

17 33 54.9 

0.7 


17 

.876179 

17 17 4.83 

17 36 0.2 

5.84 

1.53 

21.91 

17 36 16.3 

+ 0.6 


20 

.872139 

17 23 4.89 

17 45 5.2 

5.51 

1.46 

20.85 

17 45 20.5 

— 2.1 


21 

.870948 

17 25 18.13 

17 48 39.5 

5.40 

1.43 

20.52 

17 48 54.6 

1.0 


22 

.869825 

17 27 37.65 

17 52 26.7 

5.29 

1.41 

20.19 

17 52 41.6 

0.1 


23 

,8C8774 

17 30 3.09 

17 56 24.8 

5.19 

1.39 

19.87 

17 56 39.5 

2.7 


24 

.867789 

17 32 34.39 

18 31.8 

5.08 

1,37 

19.56 

18 46.3 

1.9 


25 

.866870 

17 35 11.26 

18 4 45.8 

4.98 

1.35 

19.25 

18 5 0.1 

3.3 


26 

.866011 

17 37 53.54 

18 9 4.7 

4.88 

1.33 

18.95 

18 9 18.8 

6 


27 

.865213 

17 40 41.00 

18 13 26.8 

4.78 

1.31 

18.66 

18 13 40.7 

1.7 


28 

.864472 

17 43 33.46 

18 17 50.3 

4.69 

1,29 

18.38 

18 18 4.0 

— 0.6 

Feb 

3 

.861125 

18 2 23.07 

18 43 8.6 

4.17 

1.18 

16.80 

18 43 21.2 

+ 1.0 


5 

.860384 

18 9 11.84 

18 50 31.9 

4.02 

1.15 

16.33 

18 50 47.2 

+ 1.0 


6 

.860073 

18 12 41.61 

18 54 0.7 

3.95 

1.13 

16 10 

18 54 12.8 

— 0.4 


7 

.859807 

18 16 14.80 

18 57 13.2 

3.88 

1.12 

15.88 

18 57 25.2 

+ 1.9 


10 

.859218 

18 27 13.57 

— 19 5 20.2 

-f 3.69 

1.07 

15.46 

— 19 5 32.0 

+ 3.6 


VENtJS I. 

Computation for Wasliington Equatorial observations. 







Parallax. 

Semi-diameter. 




Date. 


Wash. M.T. in 
dec. of day. 

Tab. a. 

Tab. 0, 





Obs. 
part. 

Comp'd d. 

JS. 

«. 

d. 

a. 

d. 




h. m. s. 

o 1 II 

s. 

II 

s. 

II 


/ // 


1850.— Oct. 

19 

.261184 

16 40 8.67 

— 26 31 55.5 

— 0.69 

--11.63 

l.Ol 

15.21 

0. 

— 26 32 7.1 



21 
22 

.262813 
.248186 

16 47 46.32 
16 51 27.67 

26 50 13.9 
26 58 24.9 

0.70 
0.67 

12.04 
12.47 

1.04 
1.C6 

15.63 
15.84 

C, 

c. 

26 50 25.9 
26 58 37.4 

<- 1.5 
1 — 3.8 

+ 3.7 


28 

.248522 

17 12 56.49 

27 36 47.3 

0.75 

13.. 56 

1.15 

17.25 

c. 

27 37 0.9 

4.4 

Nov. 

1 

.241499 

17 26 3.29 

. 27 51 33.0 

0.77 

14.56 

1.22 

18.31 

c. 

27 51 47.6 

4.0 


2 

.238227 

17 29 7.89 

27 53 55.7 

0.77 

14.87 

1.24 

18.59 

c. 

27 54 10.6 

3.7 


9 

.234576 

17 48 24.84 

27 56 28.1 

0.87 

16.54 

1.38 

20.74 

c. 

27 56 44.7 

3.1 


10 

.236150 

17 50 45.92 

27 54 52.1 

0.90 

16.71 

1.41 

21.10 

c. 

27 55 8.9 

2.5 



.220761 

17 50 43.80 

27 54 53.6 

0.81 

17.22 

1.41 

21.10 

c. 

27 ,55 10.8 

0.2 


13 

,231252 

17 57 4.96 

27 47 13.7 

0.94 

17.62 

1.48 

22.17 

c. 

27 47 31.3 

3.6 


14 

.225873 

17 58 55.62 

27 43 45.9 

0.93 

18.02 

1.50 

22.54 

c. 

27 44 3.9 

+ 1.8 


21 

.218820 

18 7 49.78 

27 6 33.4 

-1.08 

19.94 

1.69 

25,31 

c. 

27 6 53.3 

— 0.1 

1851 .—Jan. 

13 

.777047 

17 10 37.51 

17 28 59.9 

+ 1.12 

17.70 

1.56 

23.47 

c. 

17 29 17.6 

8.2 


15 

.759202 

17 13 28 78 

17 31 27.9 

0.93 

16.78 

1.51 

22.70 

c. 

17 31 44.7 

4.2 


24 

.753286 

17 32 16.76 

— 18 3.2 

+ 0.78 

—14.65 

1.31 

19.60 

c. 

— 18 17.8 

— 3.9 


Hosted by 


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OBSERVATIONS COMPARED WITH EPHEMERIS. 


CCV 


VEl^US I. 

Computation for Greemvicli Meridian Observations, 



Wash.M.T. 

Tabular. 




Date. 

in dec. of 
day. 

a. 

3, 

Parallax. 

Comp'd ^^ 

Ad, 

1850.-(Oct. 15) 

.902636 

h. m. s. 
16 23 5.15 

— 25 44 25.6 

// 
— 13.83 

° 1 II 
— 25 44 39.43 

II 

+ 3.63 

(16) 

.902303 

16 27 3.02 

25 56 15.0 

14.02 

25 56 29.02 

4.36 

(21) 

.902403 

16 46 24.46 

26 47 5.5 

15.03 

26 47 20.53 

8.70 

(Nov. 11) 

.890659 

17 52 14.35 

27 53 33.5 

20.69 

27 53 54.19 

3.81 

(28) 

.855710 

18 8 46.50 

26 10 11.7 

27.08 

26 10 38.78 

7.12 

(29) 

.852608 

18 8 14.07 

25 59 53.2 

27.46 

26 20.66 

8.20 

Dec. (6) 

.827501 

17 59 34.45 

24 33 53.5 

29.78 

24 34 23.28 ' 

6.81 

27 

.733575 

17 10 41.75 

18 54 48.3 

28.25 

18 55 16.55 

10.10 

1 1.— Jan. 8 

.697416 

17 5 48.51 

17 32 24.1 

23.51 

17 32 47.61 

0.44 

17 

.680398 

17 16 43.47 

17 35 30.6 

20.25 

17 35 50.85 

■f 1.47 

22 

.673973 

17 27 9.77 

17 51 41.2 

18.69 

17 51 59.89 

— 0.55 

29 

.657855 

17 45 55.58 

18 21 21.8 

16.80 

18 21 38.60 

0.70 

Feb. 2 

.665589 

17 58 25.84 

18 38 22.9 

15.86 

18 38 38.76 

2.36 

3 

.665146 

18 1 43.80 

18 42 22.6 

15,65 

18 42 38.25 

2.52 

6 

.664386 

18 8 31.12 

18 49 53.1 

15.21 

18 50 8.31 

2.63 

7 

.663789 

18 15 32.74 

18 56 36.5 

14.80 

18 56 51.30 

1.40 

16 

.662845 

18 49 40.37 

— 19 13 10.6 

— 13.16 

— 19 13 23.76 

— 4.62 


VEIVUS I. 

Computation for Altona Meridian Observations, 


Date. 

Wash.M.T. 

in dec. of 

day. 

Tubular. 

Parallax. Comp'd §^ 

J 3. 

a. 

d. 

1851.— Jan. 27 
31 

.641376 
.639051 

h. m. s. 
17 40 3.06 
17 51 56.90 

/ // 

— 18 12 28.0 

— 18 29 55.0 

II O 1 II 

+ 17.54 — 18 12 10.5 
+ 16. ,53 — 18 29 38.5 

11 
— 0.1 
-2.4 


Hosted by 


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CCVl 


OBSEltVATIONS COMPARED WITH EPHEMER18. 


IV. SECOND CONJUNCTION OF VENUS. 

VENUS II. 

Computation for Santiago Equatorial Observations, 







Parallax. 






Date. 

Wash. M.T. 
in dec. of day. 

Tab. a. 

Tab. d. 



Semidiameter. 

Obs'd 
part. 

Comp'd d. 

Ad. 

a. 

3. 




h. m. s. 

/ // 

s. 

II 

// 


° 1 II 

II 

1852 

.—May 30 , 

.257754 

7 43 10.58 

4-24 5 19.4 

—0.73 

+10.82 


C. 

+24 5 30.2 

—4.5 


June 2 

.247087 

7 52 36.54 

23 29 58.7 

0.73 

11.48 


c. 

23 30 10.2 

+1.5 


3 

.246930 

7 55 36.45 

23 17 36.9 

0.74 

11.62 


c. 

23 17 48.5 



12 

.245048 

8 18 33.12 

21 17 36.4 

0.86 

12.94 


c. 

21 17 49.3 

—2.6 


15 

.244243 

8 24 20.30 

20 35 35.2 

0.92 

13.41 


c. 

20 35 48.6 

—1.4 


22 

.243103 

8 33 35.14 

18 58 8.9 

1.07 

14.48 


c. 

18 58 23.4 

+0.2 


23 

.248384 

8 34 21.97 

18 44 32.7 

1.12 

14.46 


c. 

18 44 47.2 

—1.6 


24 

.245630 

8 34 59.60 

18 31 13.0 

1.14 

14.69 


c. 

18 31 27.7 

0.5 


July 6 

.236984 

8 30 12.03 

16 11 39.7 

1.45 

16.30 

27.07 

N. 

16 12 23.1 

2.0 


9 

.231435 

8 25 25.78 

15 45 2.7 

-1.52 

16.62 

28.03 

N. 

15 45 47.3 

—1.3 


30 

.745462 

7 34 31.34 

14 36 25.3 

+1.52 

16.97 


c. 

14 36 42.3 

+6.7 


31 

.745779 

7 32 45.68 

14 37 58.2 

1.49 

16.96 


c. 

14 38 15.2 

4.6 


Aug. 4 

.733518 

7 27 16.46 

14 46 57.9 

1.41 

16.29 


c. 

14 47 14.2 

8.7 


8 

.7] 8202 

7 24 24.30 

14 59 20.0 

1.35 

15.37 


c. 

14 59 35.4 

5.7 


12 

.724735 

7 24 10.81 

15 13 35.5 

1.21 

15.04 


c. 

15 13 50.5 

8.2 


13 

.725259 

7 24 31.55 

15 17 15.2 

1.18 

14.91 


0. 

15 17 30.1 

7.7 


16 

.718912 

7 26 28.08 

15 28 3.9 

1.12 

14.27 


c. 

15 28 18.2 

5.1 


21 

.692311 

7 32 28.40 

15 44 13.5 

1.10 

12.77 


c. 

15 44 26.3 

5.3 



.714374 

7 32 30.41 

15 44 17.3 

1.02 

13.35 


0. 

15 44 30.6 

5.4 


22 

.707331 

7 34 5.31 

15 47 3.4 

1.03 

13.01 


c. 

15 47 16.4 

6.7 


23 

.714628 

7 35 48.70 

15 49 39.6 

0.98 

13.03 


c. 

15 49 52.7 

6.6 


28 

.716423 

7 46 1.79 

15 58 56.2 

0.87 

12.27 


c. 

15 59 8.5 

3.1 


Sept. 1 

.710386 

7 55 56.66 

16 58.9 

0.83 

11.53 


0. 

16 1 10.4 

5.7 


2 

.704420 

7 58 37.51 

16 37.8 

0.84 

11.25 


c. 

16 49.0 

7.2 


3 

.705168 

8 1 24.20 

15 59 54.2 

0.82 

11.12 


0. 

16 5.3 

12.3 


6 

.701033 

8 10 9.70 

15 55 22.9 

0.79 

10.62 


c. 

15 55 33.6 

6.5 


7 

.696216 

8 13 12.50 

15 53 4.2 

0.79 

10.39 


c. 

15 53 14.6 

7.8 


8 

.698248 

8 16 20 35 

+15 50 19.2 

+0.77 

+10.29 


c. 

+15 50 29.5 

+2.6 


Hosted by 


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OBSERVATIONS COMPAKED WITH EPHEMERlS. 


ecvii 


VENUS II. 

Computation for Santiago Meridian Observations. 





Tabular. 


Semi diameter. 




Date. 

Wash. M.T. 
in dec. of day. 



Parallax. 



Comp'd 0. 

Ad, 








a. 

d. 


a. 

d. 



1852 

—May 30 

.113124 

h. m. 8, 

7 42 41.87 

/ // 

+24 G 57.7 

// 
+ 12.80 

s. 
1.12 

II 
15.37 

° / // 
+24 6 55.1 

II 

— 4.6 


31 

.112G41 

7 45 56.47 

23 55 28.5 

12.95 

1.14 

15.59 

23 55 25.9 

1.9 


June 2 

.111511 

7 52 11.79 

23 31 38.1 

13.27 

1.16 

16.04 

23 32 7.5 

4.8 


3 

.110860 

7 55 12.25 

23 19 18,7 

13.43 

1.18 

16.28 

23 19 15.8 

5 8 


12 

.102235 

8 18 13.95 

21 19 35.7 

15.03 

1.33 

18.65 

21 20 9.4 

2.7 


13 

.100933 

8 20 17.51 

21 5 39.5 

15.22 

1.35 

18.95 

21 5 35.8 

3.2 


22 

.085462 

8 33 27.00 

19 17.7 

17.12 

1.54 

21.90 

19 56.7 

1.1 


23 

.083287 

8 34 7.56 

18 46 46.1 

17.34 

1.57 

22.26 

18 46 41.2 

4.7 


24 

.081007 

8 34 54.00 

18 33 24.3 

17.57 

1.59 

22.62 

18 34 4.5 

— 1.8 


28 

.070838 

8 35 59.16 

17 42 1.1 

18.50 

1.68 

24.10 

17 42 43.7 

+ 0.5 


29 

.068019 

8 35 51.82 

17 29 47.8 

18.74 

1.71 

24.47 

17 29 42.1 

— 6.0 


30 

.065091 

8 35 34.78 

17 17 52.1 

18.95 

1.73 

24.85 

17 18 36.0 

1.3 


July 1 

.062049 

8 35 7.96 

17 6 15.0 

19.19 

1.76 

25.21 

17 6 59.4 

— 0.7 


5 

.048760 

8 31,42.92 

16 23 17.0 

20.08 

1.85 

26.67 

16 24 3.7 

+ 1.4 
3.2 


6 

.045159 

8 30 27.60 

16 13 29.9 

20.30 

1.87 

27.00 

16 14 17.2 


7 

.041453 

8 29 3.01 

16 4 7.7 

20.50 

1.90 

27.34 

16 4 55.5 

2.7 


8 

.037642 

H 8 27 29.39 

15 55 11.1 

20.69 

1.92 

27.66 

15 55 59.4 

6.6 


9 

.033729 

8 25 47.09 

15 46 40.9 

20.88 

1.94 

27.97 

15 47 29.7 

7.9 


10 

.029710 

8 23 56.50 

15 38 37.5 

21.04 

1.96 

28,26 

15 39 26.8 

2.7 


13 

.017183 

8 17 39.74 

15 17 14.1 

21.49 

2.00 

29.00 

15 18 4.6 

2.5 


18 

.993613 

8 5 21.09 

14 51 8.7 

21.91 

2.05 

29.77 

14 52 0.4 

5.3 


25 

.954580 

7 42 23.71 

14 33 41.3 

21.45 

2.02 

29.28 

14 34 32.0 

5.7 


29 

.941985 

7 36 2.33 

14 35 24.8 

20.98 

1.97 

28.62 

14 36 14.4 

8.5 


30 

.937965 

7 34 10.34 

14 36 41.7 

20.79 

1.95 

28.37 

14 37 30.9 

11.2 


31 

.934040 

7 32 26. 81 

14 38 17.8 

20.59 

1.93 

28.08 

14 39 6.5 

4.3 


Aug. 4 

.919400 

7 29 4.87 

14 47 28.7 

19.72 

1.85 

26.82 

14 48 15.2 

7.3 


5 

.916023 

7 26 8.68 

14 50 21.1 

19.48 

1.82 

26.48 

14 51 7.1 

6.1 


6 

.912761 

7 25 22.47 

14 53 24.6 

19.24 

1.80 

26.13 

14 54 10.0 

7.4 


7 

.909611 

7 24 46.29 

14 56 37.5 

18 99 

1.78 

25.77 

14 57 22.3 

9.5 


8 

.906579 

7 24 20.12 

14 59 58.5 

18.74 

1.75 

25.41 

15 42.6 

7.6 


10 

.900855 

7 23 57.50 

15 6 58.5 

18.24 

1.70 

24.68 

15 7 41.4 

9.5 


12 

.895583 

7 24 13.69 

15 14 13.0 

17.73 

1.65 

23.96 

15 14 54.7 

7.5 


13 

.893109 

7 24 35.95 

15 17 52.0 

17,49 

1.63 

23.60 

15 18 33.1 

5.6 


14 

.890740 

7 25 7.39 

15 21 30.4 

17.24 

1.60 

23.24 

15 22 10.9 

6.5 


16 

.886313 

7 26 36.92 

15 28 39.1 

16.75 

1.56 

22.54 

15 29 18.4 

8.7 


21 

.876917 

7 32 45.44 

15 44 45.2 

15.58 

1.44 

20.85 

15 45 21.6 

6.5 


22 

.875300 

7 34 22.07 

15 47 30.3 

15.33 

1.42 

20.53 

15 48 6.2 

5.8 


23 

.873760 

7 36 5.78 

15 50 3.1 

15.10 

1.40 

20.21 

15 50 38.4 

7.7 


28 

.867234 

7 46 22.65 

15 59 6.5 

14.02 

1.30 

18.73 

15 59 39.2 

7.1 


31 

.864132 

7 53 45.58 

16 1 0.1 

13.42 

1.24 

17.91 

16 1 31.4 

6.4 


Sept. 1 

.863220 

7 56 21.08 

16 57.1 

13 22 

1.22 

17.65 

16 1 28.0 

7.3 


2 

.862364 

7 59 3.51 

16 32.4 

13.03 

1.20 

17.39 

16 1 2.8 

4.5 


3 

.861563 

8 1 50.66 

15 59 45.3 

12.85 

1.19 

17.14 

16 15.3 

5.4 


6 

.859464 

8 10 38.57 

15 55 2.5 

12.30 

1.14 

16.49 

15 55 31.3 

7.4 


7 

.858860 

8 13 42.74 

15 52 39.2 

12.12 

1.12 

16.21 

15 53 7.5 

7.6 


8 

.858300 

8 16 50.70 

+ 15 49 50.5 

+ 11.94 

1.11 

15.99 

+ 15 50 18.4 

+ 6.3 


Hosted by 


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CCVlll 


OBSERVATIONS COMPARED WITH EPIIEMERIS. 

VENUS II. 

Computation for Washington Equatorial observations. 


Date. 

Wash.M.T. in 
dec. of day. 

Tab. a. 

Tab. d. 

Parallax. 

Semi-diameter. 

Obs. 
part. 

Comp'd 8, 

J 8. 

«. 

d. 

a. 

8. 

1852.— May 31 

June 5 

9 

11 

Aug. 26 

29 

d. 

.342197 
.347380 
.347612 

.386008 
.656998 
.656827 

h. m. s. 

7 46 40.52 

8 1 37.88 
8 12 0.17 
8 16 41.33 
7 41 30.31 
7 48 14.05 

1 II 

4- 23 52 47.8 
22 50 52.4 
21 57 34.7 
21 29 32.6 
15 55 55.5 

+ 15 59 53.5 

s, 

— 0.85 
0.92 
0.97 

— 1.01 
-1- 1.03 
-f 0.98 

II 

— 1.G7 

8.64 

9.39 

11.11 

11.02 

—10.44 

1.04 
1.12 
1.19 
1.23 
1.29 
1.23 

II 
15.65 
16.82 
17.87 
18.44 
19.36 
18.51 

C. 

c. 
c. 
c. 
c. 

c. 

o / // 

+ 23 52 40.1 
22 50 43.8 
21 57 25.3 
21 29 21.5 
15 55 44.5 

+ 15 59 43.1 

1' 

— 1.4 
1.9 

— 1.4 

+ 7.4 


VENUS II. 

Computation for Greenwich Meridian observations. 





Tabular. 


m 


Date. 


Wash. M.T. 



Parallax. 

Comp'd 0, 

A 8. 





in dec. of day. 

a. 

8, 







h. m. s. 

o / // 

// 

# 

o / // 

II 

^1852.— (May 

24) 

.919003 

7 21 2.33 

4- 25 10 32.1 

— 6.15 

4- 25 10 25.95 

— 4.20 

(July 

3) 

.860244 

8 33 54.77 

16 46 8.9 

14.48 

16 45 54.42 

— 2.44 


(5) 

.853424 

8 31 56.57 

16 25 15.0 

15.01 

16 24 59.99 

4- 0.51 


( 6) 

.849844 

8 30 43.11 

16 15 23.1 

15.27 

16 15 7.83 

— 1.48 


( 7) 

.846159 

8 29 20.32 

16 5 55.9 

15.52 

16 5 40.38 

— 0.43 


(8) 

.842367 

8 27 48.44 

15 56 54.2 

15.76 

15 56 38.44 

4- 0.28 


(12) 

.826235 

8 20 17.47 

15 25 15.4 

16.62 

15 24 58.78 

— 0.08 


(13) 

.8211994 

8 18 6.22 

15 18 30.3 

16.80 

15 18 13.50 

4- 1.34 


(16) 

.808856 

8 10 58.01 

15 1 6.9 

17.25 

15 49.65 

1.35 


22 

.777107 

7 52 43.02 

14 .37 18.4 

17.58 

14 37 0.82 

3.02 

Aug, 

4 

.724006 

7 27 17.05 

14 46 56.4 

15.79 

14 46 40.61 

5.32 


12 

.700009 

7 24 10.42 

15 13 30.0 

13.97 

15 13 16.03 

6.98 


24 

.676523 

7 37 34.14 

15 51 56.4 

11.42 

15 51 44.98 

7.01 


30 

.669224 

7 50,41.95 

16 36.1 

10.40 

16 25.70 

5.95 

Sept 

1 

.667:^7 

7 55 49.80 

16 59.3 

10.09 

16 49.21 

5.93 


2 

.666464 

7 58 31.28 

16 39.0 

9.95 

16 29.05 

6.27 


13 

.660091 

8 32 41.41 

+ 15 30 12.5 

— 8.66 

4- 15 30 3.84 

4- 6.18 


Hosted by 


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OBSERVATIONS COMPAEED WITH EPHEMERIS. 


CCIX 


VENUS II. 

Computation for Cracow Meridian Observations, 





Tabular 




Date. 


Washington M.T. 
in dee. of day. 



Parallax. 

Comp'd ^, 

Ad, 

a. 

8. 




h. m. s. 

o 1 II 

II 

/ // 

11 

1852.— June 

2 

.860169 

7 51 25.64 

+ 23 34 41.7 

+ 6.99 

+ 23 34 48.7 

-f 2.0 


3 

.859535 

7 54 27.33 

23 22 26.1 

7.15 

23 22 33.3 

— 1.2 


4 

.858841 

7 57 24.08 

23 9 55,6 

7.30 

23 10 2.9 

3.2 


5 

.858096 

8 15.73 

22 57 11.4 

7.47 

22 57 18.9 

6.4 


7 

.856414 

8 5 43.15 

22 31 5.4 

7.81 

22 31 13.2 

1.2 


8 

.855476 

8 8 18.62 

22 17 46.1 

7.99 

22 17 54.1 

— 0.4 


1] 

.852266 

8 15 30.14 

21 36 55.6 

8.55 

21 37 4.2 

+ 0.2 


12 

.851051 

8 17 41.79 

21 23 5.4 

8.75 

21 23 14.2 

+ 1.5 


14 

.848404 

8 21 45.71 

20 55 11.4 

9.17 

20 55 20.6 

— 5.5 


17 

.843838 

8 27 0.27 

20 13 5.9 

9.83 

20 13.15.7 

+ 5.2 


18 

.842153 

8 28 30.60 

19 59 5.3 

10.06 

19 59 15.4 

— 2.7 


23 

.832.345 

8.34 3.66 

18 50 9.3 

11.29 

18 50 20.6 

0.1 


26 

. 825272 

8 35 40.79 

18 10 29.8 

12.07 

18 10 41.9 

— 1.7 


27 

.822707 

8 35 54.86 

17 57 41.5 

12.34 

17 57 53,8 

+ 6.4 

Aug. 

17 

.633265 

7 27 19.27 

15 31 15.4 

12.41 

15 31 27.8 

13.6 


18 

.631268 

7 28 23.13 

4- 15 34 38.9 

+ 12.20 

* + 15 34 51.1 

+ 6.3 


§8. SOLAE PARALLAX FROM CORRESPONDENT OBSERVATIONS. 

The fewness and insufficiency of the correspondent observations have already been shown and 
commented upon. Ilf is nevertheless proper to deduce such resultant values as they afford, and 
this the preceding computations now enable us readily to do. 

The comparisons in these cases having been made with the same star and nearly at the same 
time, the corrections of the ephemeris and of the semidiameter may be regarded as constant 
for the interval which may have elapsed between the northern and the southern observation. The 
paucity of material renders any attempts to eliminate the influence of irradiation or of personal 
equation altogether futile, and the formula thus assumes a very simple shape. 

The comparison of the planet with a fixed star gives the equation — 

8 — d=d^ — d+ {Ad^):^r — h-^ + fiAmAi (\ k + i + <1^ 

or Dm =: d^ — c? + (^^o) ^ ^ + A — ^^^ + ^ 
in which the notation of § 3 is retained, p^ being substitued for k ^^, the parallax as computed 
with the adopted Enckian value. 

The results of the correspondent observations thus computed are appended, and arranged in a 
form which will explain itself. The northern observations are first given, then the southern 
ones, and lastly, the values deduced from the combination of the two, together with the determi- 
nation of w from the equation 

S= (Ic, — \) hzr — 2&D,d — (Am, — Am,) ± (r, — r,) + (p, —p,) 


Z3 o 


Hosted by 


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ccx 


SOLAE PARALLAX FROM CORRESPONDENT OBSERVATIONS. 


I, Correspondent Observations in Northern Latitudes. 


A. MARS I. 


Place. 

Date. 

Time. 

Wash. M.T. 

Dm^ 

^1 

Pi 

h 


1849. 

h. TO. s. 


II 


II 

II 

Washington 

Dec. 12 

4 32 6.82 

.461928 

— 67.49 

— 

— 3.47 

— 0.405 

it 

12 

4 32 6.82 

.461928 

— 67.49 

_ 

3.47 

0.405 

Greenwich 

15 

5 18 15 

.272244 

—131.81 

— 

6.22 

0.725 

Washington 

17 

4 27 37.13 

.445164 

4- 36.33 

— 

3.39 

0.395 

Cambridge 

17 

2 10 4.80 

.333503 

+ 34.68 

+ 7.98 

5.93 

0.692 

Washington 

27 

3 58 25.54 

.397642 

— 26.82 

— 

3.34 

0.390 

Greenwich 

27 

51 10 

.054511 

— 24.11 

— 

8.45 

0.986 

Cambridge 

27 

2 43 36.12 

.329415 

— 18.42 

4- 7.69 

5.06 

0.591 

Washington 

31 

4 10 43.34 

.395237 

+ 80.66 

— 

3.14 

0.366 

Cambridge 

31 
1850. 

6 4 1.98 

.457302 

-f 71.05 

— 7.50 

3.80 

0.443 

Cambridge 

Jan. 1 

1 53 41.4 

.281197 

+ 33.25 

— 7.45 

5.44 

0.623 

Greenwich 

4 

4 20 15.5 

.177475 

— 46.24 

— 

5.74 

0.670 

Cambridge 

4 

1 46 58.82 

.268358 

— 46.07 

+ 7.29 

5.36 

0.625 

Greenwich 

7 

3 23 46 

.130159 

—219.40 

— 

5.92 

0.690 

Washington 

9 

3 57 3.80 

.361203 

—355.73 

— 

2.98 

0.348 

iC 

12 

3 40 57.14 

.341853 

+ 82.67 

_ 

3.01 

0.351 

n 

14 

4 29 52.31 

.370271 

— 45.30 

— 

2.71 

0.315 

a 

22 

4 15 28.06 

.338453 

+144.67 

— 

2.57 

0.300 

u 

29 

3 16 54.06 

.275307 

—110.86 

— 

— 2.73 

— 0.318 


B. MARS II 


Place. 

Date. 

Time. 

Wash. M.T. 

Dm^ 

^1 

Pi 

h 

Washington 

1852. 
Jan. 24 
Feb. 2 

h. TO. s. 
6 25 40.24 
6 36 51.43 

.424491 
.407664 

II 

—445.63 

+ 20.73 

- 

II 

— 3.94 

— 3.52 

II 

— 0.460 

— 0.411 


C. VENUS I. 


Place. 

Date. 

Time. 

Wash. M.T. 

Dm^ 

^1 

Pi 

^1 


1850. 

h. TO. s. 


II 


II 

// 

Washington 

Oct. 19 

20 8 23.71 

.261184 

—265.64 

— 

— 11.63 

— 1.357 


22 

20 1 25.02 

.248186 

+154.65 

— 

12.47 

1.455 


Nov. 1 

20 31 13.19 

.241499 

+301.54 

— 

14.56 

1.699 


2 

20 30 26.21 

.238227 

+158.93 

— 

14.87 

1.735 


10 

20 58 58.72 

.236150 

—197.92 

— 

16 71 

1.950 


13 

21 3 43.99 

.231252 

+149.58 

— 

17.62 

2.056 


14 

20 59 54.68 

.225873 

+ 50.76 

— 

18.02 

2.102 


21 
1851. 

21 17 19.48 

.218820 

— 92.46 

— 

19.94 

2.327 


Jan. 15 

13 54 26.81 

.759202 

+ 81.70 

— 

— 16.78 

— 1.958 


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SOLAR PARALLAX FROM CORRESPONDENT OBSERVATIONS, 


CCXl 


II. Correspondent Observations in Southern Latitudes, 


A. MARS I» 


Place. 

Date. 

Time. 

Wash. M.T. 

Dm^ 

^2 

i>2 

h. 

Santiago 

1849. 
Dec. 12 

h. m. s. 
3 45 40.36 

.411837 

II 

— 55.21 


// 
+ 11.90 

+ 1.388 

u 

12 

4 33 52.53 

.445221 

48.09 

— 

12.40 

1.446 

a 

15 

4 3 20.25 

.415880 

—102.30 

^ 

12.14 

1.417 

U 

17 

5 6 31.16 

.454176 

+ 53.11 

«. 

12.58 

1.468 

" 

27 

5 24 41.28 

.439454 

~ 11.12 

_- 

12.18 

1.421 

a 

31 

4 55 12.18 

.408113 

•f 98.89 

— 

11.85 

1.383 


1850. 







" 

Jan. 1 

4 51 23.94 

.402747 

4- 54.37 

.-™ 

11.77 

1.373 

" 

4 

5 11 25.58 

.408426 

— 44.91 

— 

11.55 

1.347 

a 

7 

5 6 42.04 

.396962 

221.93 

«_ 

11.27 

1.315 

n 

9 

5 6 23.99 

.391292 

—347.62 

_ 

11.08 

1.293 

it 

12 

5 10 26.38 

.385899 

+ 94.50 



10.79 

1.259 

{( 

14 

5 20 13.40 

.387213 

— 33.01 

-- 

10.58 

1.235 

a 

22 

5 26 8. .50 

.369468 

+157.41 



9.78 

1.138 

(I 

29 

5 24 30.34 

.349222 

— 99.13 

— 

+ 9.11 

+ 1.063 


B. MARS II. 


Place. 

Date. 

Time. 

Wash. M.T. 

Bm^ 

r. 

Vi 

,. ^^ 

Santiago 

1852. 
Jan. 24 
Feb. 2 

h. m. s. 
8 2 48.04 

8 6 34.80 

.473829 
.451873 

II 

^415.06 ) 
—415.48 f 

+ 46,58 



II 
-f 9.17 

-f 10.71 

// 
+ 1.263 

+ 1.250 


C. VENUS I. 





Wash. M.T. 





Place. 

Date. 

Time. 

h 

Dm^ 

^2 

P2 

h 


1850. 

h. m. s. 


II 

II 

If 

II 

Santiago 

Oct. 19 

22 25 50.70 

.338449 

—236.83 

+15.23 

+ 7.03 

+ 0.820 


22 

22 21 4.80 

.326958 

+152.67 

15.86 

6.87 

0.685 


Nov. 1 

22 41 8.48 

.313547 

333.59 

18.33 

7.40 

0.863 


2 

22 59 11.28 

,323315 

+192.42 

18.61 

7.97 

0.930 


10 

22 28 27.40 

.280189 

—145.35 

21.13 

7.24 

0.845 


13 

23 29 15.60 

.314107 

+218.67 

22.20 

9.15 

1.067 


14 

23 34 40.74 

.315130 

+121.84 

22.57 

9.91 

1.156 


21 

1851. 

23 28 8.62 

.291491 

— 6.96 

+25.34 

10.58 

1.235 

<c 

Jan. 15 

11 55 21.72 

.658800 

+ 97.80 

—22.74 

+ 10.72 

+ 1.251 


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CCXll 


SOLAR PARALLAX FROM CORRESPONDENT OBSERVATIONS, 


III. Parallax deduced from Correspondent Observations, 


1. WASHINGTON AND SANTIAGO. 


Obs. 

Date. 

t. 

2^. 

A^. 

2§D,d. 

Bm^—Dm^, 

r—r^ 

V2—P1 

s. 

^2 \ 

h-zs-. 


1849. 


d. 

// 

II 

II 


II 

II 

II 

n 

Mars I 

Dec. 12 

.436883 

—0.050091 

+113.3 

— 5.68 

—12.28 

— 

+15.37 

— 2.59 

+1.793 

+1.445 


12 

.453575 

—0.016707 

+113.1 

— 1.89 

—19.40 

— 

+15.87 

— 5,42 

+1.851 

+2.928 


17 

.449670 

+0.009012 

+ 66.2 

+ 0.60 

—16.78 

— 

+ 15.97 

— 0.21 

+1.863 

+0.113 


27 

.418548 

+0.041812 

— 17.2 

— 0.72 

—15.70 

— 

+ 15. .52 

— 0.90 

+ 1.811 

+0.497 


31 

.401675 

+0.012876 

— 39.9 

— 0.51 

—18.23 

— 

+14.99 

— 3,75 

+1.749 

+2.444 


1850. 












Jan. 9 

.376248 

+0.030089 

— 63.5 

— 1.91 

— 8.11 

— 

+14.06 

+ 4.04 

+1.641 

—2.462 


12 

.363876 

+0.044046 

— 64. 2> 

— 2.83 

—11.83 

— 

+13,80 

— 0.86 

+1.610 

+0.534 


14 

.378742 

+0.016942 

— 62.5 

— 1.06 

-12.29 

— 

+13.29 

+ 0.04 

+ 1.550 

—0.026 


22 

.353961 

+0.031015 

— 46.1 

— 1.43 

—12.74 

— 

+12.35 ■ 

— 1.82 

:+1.438 

+1.266 


29 

.312265 

+0.073915 

— 27.4 

— 2.03 

—11.73 

— 

+11.84 

— 1.92 

+1.381 

+1.390 


1852. 





. . -. : 






Mars II 

Jan. 24 

.449160 

+0.049338 

+370.7 

+18.29 

— 30.15-)' 

- 

+13.11 

+ 0.83 i 
+ 1.25 i 

+1.723 

-0.482 


Feb. 2 

1850. 
Oct. 19 

.429769 

+0.044209 

+253.5 

+ 11,21 

-25 85 

- 

+14.23 

— 0.41 

+1.661 

+0.247 

Venus I 

,299817 

+0.077265 

—580.4 

—44.84 

—28,81 

+15.23 

+18.66 

-39.76 

+2.177 

+18.264 


22 

.287572 

+0.078772 

—481.3 

—37.91 

+ 1,98 

+15.86 

+19.34 

— 0.73 

—2.140 

+0.341 


Nov. 1 

.277523 

+0.072048 

—157.6 

—11.35 

—32.05 

+18.33 

+21.96 

— 3.11 

+2.562 

+1.214 


2 

.280771 

+0.085088 

-126.4 

—10.76 

-33.49 

+18.61 

+22.84 

— 2.80 

+2.665 

+1.051 


10 

.258170 

+0.044039 

+111.1 

+ 4.89 

-52.57 

+21.13 

+23.95 

-2.60 

+2.795 

+0.930 


13 

.272b80 

+0.082855 

+196.2 

+16.26 

—69.09 

+22.20 

+26.77 

— 3.86 

+3.123 

+1.236 


14 

.270502 

+0.089257 

+223.9 

+19.98 

—71.08 

+22.57 

+27.93 

— 0.60 

+3.258 

+0.184 


21 

.255156 

+0.072671 

+416.8 

+30.29 

-85.50 

+25.34 

+30.52 

+ 0.65 

+3.562 

—0.182 


1851. 












Jan. 15 

.709001 

—0.100402 

—100.9 

+10.13 

—16.10 

—22.74 

+27.50 

— 1.21 

+3.209 

+0.377 


2. CAMBRIDGE AND SANTIAGO. 


Obs. 

Date. 

t. 

2&, 

n.d. 

2^D,d. 

Dmj^ — Drn^ 

r—r. 

P2—P1 

S. 

h^ — ^1 

h-zT, 




d. 

II 

II 

" 

II 

II 

II 

II 

II 

Mars I 

Dec. 17 

.393840 

+0.120673 

+ 66.7 

+ 8.05 

—18.43 

—7.98 

+18.51 

+0.15 

+2.160 

—0.069 


27 

.334435 

+0.110039 

— 17.0 

— 1.87 

— 7.30 

—7.69 

+ 17.24 

+0.38 

+2.012 

—0.189 


31 

,432708 

—0.049189 

— 40.1 

+ 1.97 

—27.84 

- +7.50 

+15.65 

—2.72 

+ 1.826 

+0.148 


Jan. 1 

.341972 

+0.121550 

— 44.2 

— 5.37 

—21 . 12 

+7.45 

+17.21 

—1.83 

+1.996 

+0.917 


4 

.338392 

+0.140068 

— 55.1 

- 7.72 

- 1.16 

—7.29 

+16.91 

+0 74 

+1.972 

—0.375 


3. GREENWICH AND SANTIAGO. 


Obs. 

Date. 

t. 

2d: 

DA 

2^D,d. 

Dm^ — Dm^ 

r^ — r^ 

Vi Pi 

S, 

*.-, 

^^. 

IMars I 

Dec. 15 
27 

.344062 
.246983 

d. 

+0.143640 
+0.384943 

II 
+ 86.2 
— 16.1 

II 

+12.38 
— 6.20 

II 

—29.51 
—12.99 

- 

II 
+ 18.36 
+20.63 

II 
+1.23 
+ 1.44 

// 
+2.142 
+2.407 

II 
—0.574 
—0.598 


Jan. 4 

7 

.292951 
.263561 

+0.231951 
+0.266803 

— 55.0 

— 61.6 

—12.76 
—16.44 

- 1.33 
+ 2.53 

- 

+17.29 
+17.19 

+3.20 
+3.28 

+2.017 
+2.0C5 

-1.587 
—1.636 


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EQUATIONS OF CONDITION. CCXIII 

§9. EaUATIONS OF CONDITION. 

We have now the means of forming our equations of condition for each series, as proposed in 
§ 3 ; and the coefficients of the unknown quantities in each equation of the several sets, heing 
computed as there described and arranged in tabular form, are given in the present section ; 
the equations being numbered for convenience of reference to the observations from which they 
are respectively derived. The values of a and d being always unity, it is of course unnecessary 
to include them in the tables, for no confusion or embarrassment can arise on account of their 
signs, inasmuch as a is always positive, and d has the same sign as e. The quantity s denotes, 
as usual, the sum of all the coef3ficients, and^ the weight, computed as hereafter to be explained. 
The unknown quantity v, which is the correction to the adopted value of a revolution of the 
micrometer-screw, has only been introduced in the equations derived from observations at 
Santiago and the Cape,— these being the only ones, excepting the Washington series, in which 
the number of comparisons and fullness of detail render the determination practicable with 
sufficient accuracy. At Washington, there were a number of declination-threads upon the 
diaphragm carried by the micrometer-screw, so that the interval actually traversed in measuring 
a difference of declination was in every case small. 

To the groups of equations of condition, as given by the comparison of each observation with 
the place of the planet derived from computation, are to be added still other series resulting 
from the comparison of the measurements of the respective limbs, and capable of serving to 
some extent as aids toward freeing our equations from the influence of the two unknown 
quantities which affect the apparent diameters. These unknown quantities, which have been 
denoted by the letters t and u, measure, respectively, the error of the normal semidiameter 
added to such irradiation as may be inversely proportional to the distance, and that portion 
of the irradiation which is peculiar to the observer and the instrument, with which last is 
inseparably merged the personal equation of a limb-pointing and any error in the assumed 
thickness of the threads. 

Each^ measurement of a diameter furnishes an equation containing these two unknown 
quantities t and u ; and, in addition to the direct measurements, each of those obser stations, 
which consist of comparisons of the limbs of the planet, affords a measurement of the diameter' 
We thus obtain a large number of additional equations which may be directly incorporated with 
the others. They comprise two classes : the one consisting of direct measurements of diameters, 
for which the differential refraction is utterly insensible; and the other, which includes the great 
majority of cases, being affected by the motion of the planet during the interval, often very con- 
siderable, between the means of these poiu tings for the different limbs, and also by the change 
of the refraction during the same interval. 

To the regular equations of condition are appended these additional ones, arranged like the 
others in tabular form, the two classes being separately given. 

To form the equations of condition for these last mentioned cases, let us retain the former 
notation,* affixing one or two accents to the symbols, according as they refer to the first or second 
observation. 

For the first observed limb, we shall then have — 
and for the second — 

--- To avoid unnecessary complication, the factors 20 and 1000, which are combined with y and z in the numerical solution 
are here disregarded. ' 


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CCxiv EQUATIONS OF CONDITION. 

in which equations the signs are respectively correspondent. Thus, if the time t^ belong to a 
comparison or mean of comparisons of the north limb, and the upper sign is consequently to 
be taken, the upper sign will also hold in the other equation, which will belong to a comparison 
of the south limb; and so in the reverse case. 

The sum and difference of the foregoing equations give, after halving — 

+ z . ^ { {t" - Tf - it'- 2^)' } =F i (^/ + ^) {^P + ^*o) + \ {^m"— M) fi - 4 (¥-1') ^- 

Let us now, slightly varying the notation of § 3, denote the middle time i (t'^ + t')^J t, and 
the half-interval i (t"—t^) by r,and consider the unaccented symbols as pertaining to the instant t. 
We shall then have,* omitting all terms of the third and higher powers — 

Am!' = {d' — d) = {d — d)+i {d'' — d') Am' — {&— d) = (d — d) — i (d"— d') 

^t"—Tf={t—Tf + 2T{t — T) + T'' (t' - Tf- {f — Ty — 2T {t—T) + z^ 

The substitution of these expressions in the preceding equations gives us — 


1 


+ ¥'\ A'^0 - A'/^.-o + 2^ - A'^^- f 

-^¥W:^^\p, + {^P + io)\ 

in both which formulas the upper sign is to be taken if the north limb was first observed, and 
the lower sign if the observation of the south limb preceded. 

By reason of the smallness of r, all consideration of many of the terms may be dispensed 
with. Not only do all the terms of the second order become negligible, but the quantities 

^ Dt X j P(i+ {^P + %) \ in the first, and r DJc. U in the second equation are likewise inap- 
preciable. And we shall moreover find that y, the daily change of the correction to the tabular 
declination, as also z (t—T) which is of about the same order, are so small that their products 
withr are never sensible 

The only terms of the first order remaining in the first equation and containing r will then 

be rD— o=:rD,£^ or the variation of tabular semidiameter during the interval t, Ke- 

^A A 

curring to the ephemerides, we find the maximum amount of this variation in one day to be 

0"M for Mars I. 0'^43 for Venus I. 

.05 for 31ars II. .38 for Venus II. 

*The term Am. is strictly = J — c?±/„ the quantity /, denoting the distance of the thread used from the standard or 
zero thread of the movable diaphragm. But this coefficient is only employed in the present discussion, for instruments 
provided with a single movable thread. 


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EQUATIONS OF CONDITION. CCXV 

All these '' Additional Equations'^ are numbered like the rest, the same number being prefixed 
to those equations which are derived from the same observations. 

It is thus rendered manifest that the term under consideration could not, even for Venus I, 
amount to so much as 0/' 01 for r zz: 33^, an interval many times exceeding the largest value of r! 

In the second equation there remain the terms zD.d, and r.DJc,^, — tB^z-^, = zD.p, or 
the variation of the parallax during the interval. 

Our equations thus assume the form — 

^— K — ^^0 — ^+^ + 1 {t—T)+x(t—Tf-\-liAm — B^, 

o = ±|K-^^'-^0--Ao\ + ^Apj+g + (^\ + g) + ^(V + g 

the upper sign holding when the north limb is first observed. 

Let us now develop the term D,^, the first difi'erence of the parallax in declination for an 
interval of one day. 

We have for the time t, 

P — '^o'^'p jsiiKp' cos d — cos ^' sin 3 cos (6 — a) I 
and for the time j5 zh 1% 

p±i =^^-^-p j sin ^' cos ^ — cos ^' sin (? cos (^ — «) cos 15« i cos ^^ sin ^ sin (/? — «) sin 15« I 

The mean of the deduced variations for the hours immediately preceding and following the 
middle time t gives us the hourly variation corresponding to that instant, 

Jp = ^, sin 15V cos (p^ ^~ sin (d — a,) 
The quantity ^^ varies between narrow limits during each series of observations, and p cos cp' 
is also not very difl*erent for the several places of observation. Substituting, then, in the expression 
for Jp the maximum value of the compound factor p cos cp^ ^^for each series, we readily obtain 

closely approximate values for the maximum hourly variations of the parallax in declination. 
These are thus seen to be 

for 3Iars I., + V'Al sin (6 — a) for Venus I., — 2^^77 sin (d—a) 

MarslL, + 1 .14 sin {d — a) Venus II., + 1 .64 sin {6 — a) 

This term will conseqiiently be sensible for Venus, and in some cases also for 3Iars, although 
this planet was almost uniformly observed within two hours of the meridian, exceptinp; at 
Cambridge. 

Inasmuch as r seldom exceeds 3°^, and only once or twice amounts to 5^, we shall find it con- 
venient to introduce the entire interval tr — t'=2T, and to express it in decades of minutes as 
units. Then putting D,p= the variation of the parallax in declination during 10^ we have, 

lD,p= + l^, sin 2^5 p cos ^'?^f sin (^ _ «) = ^ !HL^ sin (6 — a) 

and shall find for the several observations which have contributed extra-meridional observations 
the following values of the constant ^. ^ 

Place. o iQg^ 

Santiago + 0^M56 9.1935 


Washington . 
Cape of Good Hope 
Greenwich 
Cambridge . . 


.146 9.1634 

.155 9.1910 

.117 9.0669 

+ .138 9.1408 

and the following maxima of o ?^ for the Santiago series. 


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CCXVl 


EQUATIONS OF CONDITION 


Series. 

sin (5 
* A • 

logi. 

K 

Mars I. 
Mars II. 
Venus I. 
Venus II. 

+ 0".119 
+ .096 
+ .233 
+ .138 

9.076 
8.981 
9.368 
9.140 

14°. 85 1 
18 .17 
7 .23 
12 .33 


The last column, H, shows the hour-angle at which the maximum value of rD^p attains the 

limit 0."03. 

Denoting similarly by D^^ the variation of the planet's declination m 10"", we may prepare 
an ephemeris for ^ D, d, and our formulas assume the shape, 

= ±U(^"-o")-2riA^o + 2^<i>'-^sin(^-«)|+g+(ti + g) + ^(V + *'«) 

in which the upper sign is to he used when the observation of the north limb precedes. 

The first term of the second equation will ordinarily be negative, since t is usually so small 
that 2t^DJ, the planet' s motion during the interval, is much less than ^ (d"—d'.) A convenient 
form of the equation will therefore be— - 

= _ 1 (5" — a') + J =F 27. 1 Z* A ±2T.^I),p + (i, + q)+^k + i) 

in which we may avoid all need of attention to the signs of d" - d' and g ; and use, as before, the 

upper sign when the north limb has been first observed. 

The correction for defective illumination has, for simplicity's sake, not been introduced mto 
these formulas. When appreciable, it is to be applied with reversed sign to the value of the 
computed apparent semidiameter g, with which our formula assumes it to be merged. 
We have now the equations of condition, represented like those of § 3. 
= w + a.x + 6.y + c.z +/.V + g.-vr. 
= n-{-d.t-{- e. . 

n representing in each equation the numerical value (c — o.) 

The equations derived from direct measurements of diameters are obtained m the same form, 
simply by making t = o; so that for these cases, 

= _ 1 (o-'-aO + J+ {i, + q) + ^ (^? + O 

= w + c?.t+ e-u- 
The " Additional Equations" of condition, derived from the differences of limb-measurements, 
are given for each series and each observatory, and immediately follow the regular equations, 
from which the quantities depending upon the apparent diameter have been entirely or chiefly 
eliminated. They are arranged in the form of tables, which likewise contain the principal 
auxiliary quantities employed in the formation of the coefiicients. It will be borne m mind 
that the declinations d' and 8" are supposed to be already corrected for refraction and the_ tabular 
apparent semidiameter to be corrected for defect of illumination The quantity D,p is taken 
into account in the computation of n. Those equations deduced from direct measurement of 
diameter are given by themselves. 


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EQUATIONS OF CONDITION. 


CCX\11 


FORMATION OP EQUATIONS OF CONDITION. 

MARS I. 

Equatorial y Santiago. 
(both limbs observed throughout.) 


3 

4 
5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 
13 
14 
15 

16 
17 
18 
19 
2? 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 

26 
27 


30 

31 
32 
33 
34 
35 

36 
37 
38 
39 
40 

41 
42 
43 
44 
45 

46 
47 
48 
49 
50 

51 
52 
53 
54 
55 


Date. 


1849— Dec. 10 
11 


13 
14 
15 

16 
17 
18 
20 

21 
22 
23 
24 
25 

26 
27 
30 
31 
1850 Jan. 1 

2 
4 
6 


8 
9 
10 
11 
12 

13 
14 
15 

16 

17 
18 
19 
20 
21 


24 
25 


leg. b. 


27 


29 
31 


nO. 01040 
n9. 99061 
n9. 98979 
n9. 98880 
719.96821 

n9. 96743 
n9. 94223 
w9. 91716 
n9. 89165 
n9. 88961 

n9. 86300 
n9. 83077 
n9. 79827 
n9. 72818 
n9. 71950 

n9. 68050 
n9.63117 
n9. 57850 
n9. 51643 
n9. 44491 

n9. 35892 

n9. 25048 

n8. 47647 

8.a0974 

8.84594 

9.08016 
9.34325 
9.50279 
9.50739 
9.56803 


9.67169 
9.71622 
9.75564 
9.79190 

9.83532 
9.85695 


9.88752 
9. 9 J 332 

9.93903 
9.96334 
9.98586 
0.00763 
0.02871 

0.04863 
0.06730 
0.06821 
0.08590 
0.10320 

0.12002 
0.13591 
0.15173 
0.16657 
0.19522 


log. C. 


9.62286 
9.58328 
9.58164 
9.57966 
9.53848 

9.53692 
9,48652 
9.43638 
9.38536 
9.38128 

9.32806 
9.26360 
9.19860 
9.04842 
9.04106 

8.96306 
8.86440 
8.75906 
8.63492 

8.49188 

8.31990 
8.10302 
6.55500 
6.23154 
7.29393 

7.76238 


8.60764 
8.61684 
8.73812 

8.84842 
8.94544 
9.03450 
9,11334 
9.18586 

9.25270 
9.31596 
9.37406 
9.37710 
9.42870 

9.48012 
9.52874 
9.56358 
9.61732 
9.65948 

9.69932 
9.73666 
9.73848 
9.77386 
9.80846 

9.84210 
9.87388 
9.90552 
9.93520 
9.99250 


log./. 


n9. 17493 
wO. 23586 
nO. 22212 
wO. 20707 
w9. 74147 

719.66160 
9.80106 
710.26951 
710.00932 
7x9.97^2 

719.34321 

9.72321 

0.05030 

719.88053 

719.84942 

719.63488 

7i9. 21511 

7.69897 

8.92117 

8.96848 

8.37840 
719.04454 
0.12902 
9.99432 
9.73448 

8.89818 
719.65292 
nO. 20082 
710.21021 
7x0,34467 

710.46367 

710.54067 

0.34796 

0.20132 

9.97442 

9.48657 
719.51786 
719.97918 
7»9. 98704 
7i0. 19153 

710.33199 

710.43433 

0.49203 

0.40971 

0.31377 

0.19634 
0.05119 
0.04793 
9.84553 
9,49748 

718,73878 
719.59184 
719.85522 
719.99577 
7i0. 17131 


log.^. 


0.17090 
0.15382 
0.16560 
0.17118 
0.14247 

0.16031 
0.17121 
0.16971 
0.15125 
0.17062 

0.14996 
0.16675 
0.16080 
0.15954 
0.15726 

0.15596 
0.16206 
0.15683 
0.15767 
0.15573 

0.15414 
0.15256 
0.14174 
0.14079 
0,13759 

0.13548 
0.12943 
0.11684 
0.11954 
0.11892 

0.11532 
0.11158 
0.10706 
0.10399 
0.09998 

0.09586 
0.09161 
0.08757 
0.07389 
0.08333 

0.07899 
0.07459 
0.07081 
0.06653 
0.06198 

0.05621 
0.05360 
0.04200 
0.04705 
0.04368 

0.03870 
0.03591 
0.02952 
0.02662 
0.01698 


log. S, 


Z40 


0.23754 
9.03423 
9.30384 
9.44342 
0.09791 

0.14070 
0.40601 
8.81224 
9.93379 
0.00260 

0.22409 
0.39846 
0.49144 
0.10295 
0.11893 

0.20774 
0.28639 
0.32601 
0.34938 
0.3B730 

0.35072 
0.33139 
0.56846 
0.53027 
0.47531 

0.41015 
0.32986 
0.03326 
0.02420 
9.72280 

718.67943 

719.79386 

0.71065 

0.65866 

0.59927 

0.53165 
0.4S204 
0.35715 
0.34733 
0.24172 

0.08736 
9.86082 
0.82060 
0.79001 
0.75875 

0.72662 
0.69631 
0.69340 
0.66538 
0.63667 

0.60766 
0.58103 
0.55345 
0.53171 
0.49231 


log. n. 


0.5051 
0.7634 
0.7993 
0.6532 
0.6628 

0.2304 
0.6021 
0.5563 
0.5441 
0.3802 

0.4771 
0.5185 
0.5683 
0.623S 
0.3802 

0.6902 
0.5798 
0.5911 
0.5315 
0.4914 

0.4314 
0.3617 
9.6990 
710.2041 
9.9031 

9.0000 
0.0000 
0.0792 
9.9543 
0,1461 

0.0414 

0.0000 

710.0414 

7x0.1139 

7x9.8451 

7x9.4771 
7x9.^71 
0.0000 
7x0.2553 
7x9.6990 

9.4771 
7x0.7404 
7x0.5911 
7x0.6232 

7x0.4914 
7x0.4150 
7x0.6435 
7x0.5051 
7x0.5563 

7x0.5315 
7x0.5185 
7x0.3802 
7x0.5315 
7x0.4914 


F. 


8, 


2.197 
2.031 
2.144 
2.200 
1.927 

2.092 
2.200 
2.185 
2.007 
2.194 

1.995 
2.155 
2.097 
2.085 
2.063 

2.051 
2.109 
2.059 
2.066 
2.049 

2.034 
2.019 
1.921 
1.912 

1.884 

1.866 
1.815 
1.713 
1.734 
1.729 

1.701 
1.672 
1.637 
1.607 
1.585 

* 1.555 
1.525 
1.497 
1.405 
1.468 

1.439 
1.410 
1.386 
1.358 
1.330 

1.295 
1.280 
1.213 
1.242 
1.223 

1.195 
1.180 
1.146 
1.130 
1.081 


+ 1.7280 
0.1082 
0.2013 
0.2776 
1.2529 

1.3826 
2.5469 
0.0649 
0.8586 
1.0060 

1.6763 
2.5030 
3.1006 
1.2675 
1.3150 

1.6134 
1.9337 
2.1184 
2.2355 
2.2767 

2.2424 
2.1448 
3.7022 
3.3905 
2.9875 

2.5713 
2.1373 
1.0796 
1.0573 
+ 0.5282 

— 0.0478 

— 0.6221 
+ 5.1363 

4.5568 
3.9744 

3.4013 
2.8317 
2.2759 
2.2250 
1.7447 

1.2228 
0.7258 
6.6160 
6.1662 
5.7378 

5.3287 
4.9694 
4.9362 
4.6279 
4.3318 

4.0519 
3.8109 
3.5764 
3.4018 
+ 3.10e8 


p. 


4.53 
3.89 
4.58 
3.76 
3.89 

3.62 
5.07 
4.94 
4.52 
4.96 

S.44 
5.25 
4.10 
4.33 
3.63 

3.22 
4.85 
6.02 
5.20 
5.25 

5.39 
5.18 
f.Ol 
5.11 
5.23 

5.11 
5.29 
4.14 
2.89 
4.92 

4.68 
4.68 
4.60 
4.60 
4.69 

4.60 
4.85 
4.75 
1.70 
4.91 

5.02 
4.85 
1.70 
4.13 
4.57 

4.82 
4.13 
3.21 
4.75 
4.75 

4.57 i 

4.66 

4.79 

4.75 

4.90 


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CCXVIU 


EQUATIONS OP CONDITION. 


FORMxiTION OP ADDITIONAL EQUATIONS OP CONDITION. 

MARS I. 

Equatorial^ Santiago, 


N°. 

Date. 

Wash. M.T. 

Obs'd.r. 

2r. 

ID.K 

TrA^o 

^0 

n. 

log. e. 

log. S. 

log. 71. 

p. 

1 

1849.— Dec. 10 

.5155 

II 
9,19 

0.329 

II 
4-0.443 

// 

4-0.15 

II 
8.03 

II 
-1.01 

0.23602 

0.43488 

710.0043 

3.77 

2 

11 

.4277 

11.14 

0.020 

0.426 

0.01 

8.03 

3.10 

0.23609 

0.43493 

n0.4914 

1.95 

3 


.4646 

10.49 

0.296 

0.425 

0.13 

8.03 

2.59 

0.23609 

0.43493 

710.4133 

3.86 

4 


.5093 

10.24 

0.004 

0.424 

0.00 

8.03 

2.21 

0.23609 

0.43493 

710.3444 

2.83 

5 

12 

.4118 

11.04 

0.014 

0.395 

0.01 

8.03 

3.00 

0.23604 

Q. 43490 

710.4771 

1.95 

6 


.4452 

10.04 

0.388 

0.394 

0.13 

8.03 

2.12 

0.23604 

0.43490 

7i0.3263 

2.67 

7 

13 

.4914 

10.31 

0.025 

0.360 

0.01 

8.03 

2.27 

0.23581 

0.43475 

710.3560 

4.60 

8 

14 

.4731 

10.08 

0.011 

0.328 

0.00 

8.02 

2.06 

0.23543 

0.43451 

7x0.3139 

4.37 

9 

15 

.4159 

10.45 

0.038 

0.297 

0.01 

8.01 

2.45 

0.23491 

0.43417 

710.3892 

3.77 

10 


.4890 

10.30 

0.259 

0.295 

0.08 

8.01 

2.37 

0.23486 

0.43414 

7t0.3747 

4.42 

11 

16 

.4107 

9.70 

0.107 

0.264 

0.03 

8.00 

1.67 

0.23423 

0.43374 

710.2227 

5.24 

12 

17 

.4542 

9.10 

0.355 

0.230 

0.08 

7.98 

1.04 

0.23333 

0.43318 

710.0170 

4.91 

13 

18 

.4312 

9.52 

1.003 

0.198 

4-0.20 

7.96 

1.33 

0.23234 

0.43256 

710.1239 

4.28 

14 

20 

.4267 

9.32 

1.168 

0.133 

—0.16 

7.92 

1.60 

0.22986 

0.43099 

710.2041 

3.50 

15 


.5161 

8.72 

2.914 

0.131 

0.38 

7.91 

1.09 

0.22973 

0. 43091 

710.0374 

2.67 

16 

21 

.4165 

10.52 

1.148 

0.103 

0.12 

7.89 

2.79 

0.22840 

0.43007 

7x0.4456 

2.25 

17 

22 

.4455 

10.04 

0.790 

0.072 

0.06 

7.86 

2.24 

0.22673 

0.42903 

710.3502 

4.24 

18 

23 

.4225 

9.73 

0.530 

0.044 

0.02 

7.83 

1.92 

0.22500 

0.42794 

7x0.2833 

4.50 

19 

24 

.4316 

10.02 

0.531 

4-0.015 

—0.01 

7.79 

2,44 

0.22307 

0.42673 

7x0.3874 

4.80 

20 

25 

.4289 

9.63 

0.239 

—0.011 

4-0.00 

7.76 

1.87 

0.22102 

0.42545 

7x0.2718 

4.88 

21 

26 

.4297 

9.99 

0.322 

0.036 

0.01 

7.72 

2.26 

0.21883 

0.42409 

7x0.3541 

5.14 

22 

27 

.4395 

9.96 

0.350 

0.060 

0.02 

7.68 

2.26 

0.21649 

0.42262 

7x0.3541 

4.77 

33 

30 

.4008 

9.86 

0.275 

0.121 

0.03 

7.55 

2.28 

0.20887 

0.41790 

7x0.3579 

4.53 

24 

31 

.4081 

9.55 

0.405 

0.139 

0.06 

7.50 

1.99 

0.20602 

0.41614 

7x0.2989 

4.70 

25 

1850. -Jan. 1 

.4027 

10.02 

0.019 

0.155 

0.03 

7.44 

2.55 

0.20312 

0.41436 

7x0.4065 

4.91 

26 

2 

.4054 

9.90 

0.604 

0.169 

0.10 

7.39 

2.41 

0.20008 

0.41249 

7x0.3820 

4.70 

27 

4 

.4084 

9.73 

0.338 

0.192 

0.07 

7.29 

2.37 

0.19370 

0.40859 

7x0.3747 

5.00 

28 

6 

.3654 

9.82 

0.714 

0.209 

0.15 

7.18 

2.51 

0.18708 

0.40457 

7x0.3997 

3.27 

29 


.4331 

9.65 

1.039 

0.209 

0.22 

7.17 

2.23 

0.18685 

0.40443 

7x0.3483 

1.95 

30 

7 

.3970 

9.82 

0.019 

0.215 

0.00 

7.12 

2.70 

0.18347 

0.40238 

7x0.4314 

4.37 

31 

8 

.3985 

10.09 

0.731 

0.220 

0.16 

7.06 

2.82 

0.17986 

0.40021 

7x0.4502 

4.00 

32 

9 

.3913 

9.75 

0.883 

0.223 

0.20 

7.00 

2.55 

0.17623 

0.39803 

7x0.4065 

4.00 

33 

10 

.4053 

9.79 

1.045 

0.224 

0.23 

6.94 

2.62 

0.17241 

0.39574 

7x0.4183 

3.86 

34 

11 

.3939 

9.38 

0.935 

0.224 

0.21 

6.88 

2.29 

0.16864 

0.39343 

7x0.3598 

3.86 

35 

12 

.3859 

9.30 

0.952 

0.223 

0.21 

6.82 

2.27 

0.16479 

0.39121 

7x0.3560 

4.00 

36 

13 

.3768 

10.25 

0.853 

221 

0.19 

6.76 

3.30 

0.16089 

0.38889 

7x0.5185 

3.86 

37 

14 

.3872 

9.25 

0.734 

0.217 

0.16 

6.69 

2.40 

0.15686 

0.38651 

n0.3802 

4.24 

38 

15 

.3825 

9.44 

0.672 

0.212 

4-0.14 

6.63 

2.67 

0.15283 

0.38413 

7x0.4265 

4.13 

39 


.4364 

7.80 

0.797 

0.212 

—0.17 

6.62 

1.35 

0.15261 

0.38400 

7x0.1303 

1.00 

40 

16 

.3817 

9.29 

0.088 

0.207 

4-0.02 

6.57 

2.70 

0.14873 

0.38173 

7x0.4314 

4.33 

41 

17 

.3803 

9.48 

0.656 

0.201 

0.13 

6.51 

2.84 

0.14460 

0.37932 

710.4533 

4.50 

42 

18 

.3801 

9.76 

0.465 

0.194 

0.09 

6.45 

3.22 

0.14042 

0.37689 

7x0.5079 

4.24 

43 

19 

.3591 

9.36 

2.364 

0.186 

0.44 

6.38 

2.54 

0.13631 

0.37451 

7x0.4048 

1.00 

44 

20 

.3547 

8.27 

0.614 

0.178 

0.11 

6.32 

1.84 

0.13208 

0.37208 

7x0.3096 

3.27 

45 

21 

.3672 

8.85 

0.795 

0.170 

0.13 

6.26 

2.46 

0.12776 

0.36959 

7x0.3909 

3.86 

46 

22 

.3694 

8.26 

0.664 

0.160 

0.11 

6.20 

1.95 

0.12345 

0.36713 

7x0.2900 

4.24 

47 

23 

.3519 

8.33 

0.800 

0.151 

0.12 

6.14 

2.07 

0.11921 

0.36471 

7x0.3160 

3.27 

48 


.4074 

7.93 

0.144 

0.150 

0.02 

6.14 

1.77 

0.11897 

0.36457 

7x0.2480 

2.25 

49 

24 

.3738 

8.23 

0.793 

0.142 

0.11 

6.08 

2.04 

0.11478 

0.36220 

7x0.3096 

4.13 

50 

25 

.3646 

7.74 

0.676 

0.132 

0.09 

6.02 

1.63 

0.11047 

0.35977 

7x0.2122 

4.13 

51 

26 

.3658 

8.92 

1.518 

0.123 

0.19 

5.96 

2.76 

0.10610 

0.35732 

7x0.4393 

3.86 

52 

27 

.3485 

7.45 

1.015 

0.114 

4-0.12 

5.90 

1.43 

0.10179 

0.35490 

7x0.1553 

3.99 

53 

28 

.3628 

8.02 

0.008 

0.104 

-0.00 

5.84 

2.18 

0.09734 

0.35242 

7x0.3385 

4.18 

54 

29 

.3492 

7.55 

0.629 

0.095 

4-0.06 

5.78 

1.71 

0.09302 

0.35002 

7x0.2330 

4.13 

55 

31 

.3512 

7.85 

0.516 

—0.077 

4-0.04 

5.66 

—2.05 

0.08423 

0.34519 

7x0.3118 

4.33 


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EQUATIONS OF CONDITION. 

FORMATION OF EQUATIONS OF CONDITION. 

MARS I, 

Equatorial^ Washington, 

(BOTH LIMBS OBSERVED THROUGHOUT.) 


CCXIX 


N°. 

Date. 

log. 6. 

log. C. 

log. g. 

log. S, 

log. n. 

F. 

s. 

p. 

1 

1849.— Nov. 2 

710.46535 

0.53276 

n9, 56709 

0.05022 

0.8129 

0.1362 

+ 1.1226 

2.57 

2 

4 

wO. 45060 

0.50326 

n9. 63127 

9.97128 

0.6435 

0.1830 

0.9360 

3.43 

3 


nO. 45023 

0.50252 

«9. 56947 

9.99550 

0.6435 

0. 1377 

0.9897 

3.73 

4 

6 

nO. 43496 

0.47198 

n9. 63292 

9.90993 

0.5798 

0.1844 

0.8127 

3.84 

5 

12 

nO. 38426 

0.37058 

n9. 62111 

9.70492 

0.8062 

0.1747 

0.5069 

3.87 

6 

^ 

nO. 38372 

0.36950 

n9. 56528 

9.74453 

0.8062 

0.1351 

0.5553 

3.27 

7 

13 

nO. 37551 

0.35308 

n9. 66434 

9.62201 

0.8976 

0.2131 

0.4188 

3.79 

8 

24 

wO, 26117 

0.12440 

?z9. 64391 

8.82317 

0.7634 

0.1940 

0.0666 

3.60 

9 

26 

nO. 23667 

0.07540 

n9. 63064 

8.57864 

0.6812 

0.1825 

0.0379 

4.83 

10 


wO. 23555 

0.07316 

n9. 58044 

8.91803 

0.5315 

0.1448 

+ 0.0828 

4.34 

11 

Dec. 6 

nO. 08828 

9.77862 

n9. 60374 

718.42160 

0.9445 

0.1612 

— 0.0264 

4.57 

12 


nO. 08803 

9.77812 

n9. 58829 

718.08636 

0.7853 

0.1502 

0.0122 

4.49 

13 

11 

n9. 99044 

9,58294 

719.65828 

718.70501 

0.3617 

0.2073 

— 0.0507 

4.03 

14 

12 

w9. 96704 

9.53614 

n9.60719 

8.07918 

0.8513 

0.1638 

+ 0.0120 

4.39 

15 

17 

n9. 83106 

9.26418 

n9. 59666 

9.04493 

0.5315 

0.1561 

0.1109 

5.15 

16 

27 

n9. 25556 

8.11.318 

n9. 59061 

9.64670 

0.5051 

0.1518 

0.4433 

5.22 

17 

31 

8.29509 

6.19224 

719.56366 

9.81544 

0.3617 

0.1341 

0,6538 

4.82 

18 

1850.— Jan. 5 

9.43002 

8.46210 

n9, 54320 

9.97722 

9,7782 

0.1220 

0.9469 

4.83 

19 

9 

9.67030 

8.94266 

719.54162 

0.08196 

710.4914 

0.1211 

1.2077 

4,32 

20 

12 

9.79036 

9.18278 

719.54531 

0.15183 

9.4771 

0.1232 

1.4185 

4.30 

21 

14 

9.85644 

9.31494 

719.49884 

0.20672 

n9.6021 

0.0995 

1.6096 

2.64 

22 

22 

0.04802 

9.69810 

n9. 47696 

0.36474 

710.1139 

0.0900 

2.3160 

4.71 

23 

29 

0.16545 

9.93296 

n9. 50285 

0.47749 

710.1461 

0.1013 

+ 3.0025 

3.21 


FORMATION OF ADDITIONAL EQUATIONS OF CONDITION. 

MARS I. 

Equatorial, Washington, 


N°. 

Date. 

Wash. M.T. 

Obs'd r. 

2r. 

IDA- 

^rDA- 

^\ 

n. 

log. e. 

log. S. 

log. n. 

i). 

1 

1849.— Nov. 2 

.8189 

It 
10.43 

1.976 

-f 0.510 

It 
— 0.99 

II 
6.60 

II 

—4.84 

0.15127 

0.38322 

nO.6849 

2.25 

2 

4 

.7681 

11.45 

0.240 

0.536 

+ 0.13 

6.71 

4.56 

0.15778 

0.38705 

710.6590 

3.00 

3,4 


.8159 

9.26 

0.002 

0.536 

— 0.00 

6.71 

2.57 

0. 15794 

0,38714 

n0.4099 

3,50 

5 

12 

.7639 

13.90 

0.002 

0.642 

0.00 

7.11 

6.83 

0.18349 

0.40269 

710.8344 

4.75 

6 


.8248 

12.65 

0.002 

0.643 

0.00 

7.11 

5.55 

0.18367 

0.40250 

710.7443 

3.27 

7 

13 

.7307 

10.83 

0,002 

0.654 

— 0.00 

7.16 

3.73 

0.18643 

0.40417 

710.5717 

4.50 

8 

24 

.7214 

10.02 

0.504 

0.716 

+ 0.36 

7.66 

1.95 

0.21352 

0.42078 

n0.2900 

3.00 

9 

26 

.7236 

11.01 

0.002 

0.708 

— 0.00 

7.74 

3.31 

0.22001 

0.42482 

7^0.5198 

5.12 

10 


.8120 

11.23 

0.002 

0.708 

— 0.00 

7.74 

3.50 

0.22018 

0.42492 

710.5441 

4.13 

11,12 

Dec. 6 

.4918 

11.17 

0.989 

0.566 

-f- 0.56 

7.99 

2.60 

0.23418 

0.43371 

710.4150 

3.77 

13 

11 

.4356 

11.96 

0.080 

0.425 

0.04 

8.03 

3.83 

0.2.3611 

0,43494 

710.5832 

3.13 

14 

12 

.4619 

11.55 

0.571 

0.395 

+ 0.23 

8.03 

3.25 

0.23604 

0.43490 

710.5119 

3.59 

15 

17 

.4452 

9.80 

1.311 

■f 0,230 

— 0.30 

7.98 

2.16 

0.23334 

0.43318 

nO.3345 

4.71 

16 

27 

.3976 

9.20 

0.032 

— 0.059 

+ 0.00 

7.68 

1.56 

0.21659 

0.42569 

710.1931 

4.85 

17 

31 

.3952 

12.18 

0.297 

0.139 

— 0.04 

7.50 

4.69 

0.20608 

0.41618 

»i0.6712 

4.24 

18 

1850.— Jan. 5 

.3833 

10.11 

2.317 

0.201 

0.47 

7.23 

3.31 

0.19044 

0.40661 

710.5198 

4.24 

19 

9 

.3612 

7.73 

0.661 

0.223 

0.15 

7.00 

0.85 

0. 17632 

0.39808 

719.9294 

3.50 

20 

12 

.3419 

8.45 

0.159 

0.223 

0.04 

6.82 

1.63 

0.16497 

0.39130 

710.2122 

3,42 

21 

14 

.3703 

9.59 

0.783 

0.217 

0.17 

6.69 

3.05 

0.15693 

0.38655 

710.4843 

].71 

22 

22 

.3385 

7.46 

0.527 

0.161 

0.08 

6.20 

1.32 

0.12358 

0.36720 

n0.1206 

4.06 

23 

29 

.2753 

8.54 

0.600 

— 0.096 

- 0.06 

5.78 

—2,78 

0.09335 

0.35021 

710.4440 

2.25 


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ccxx 


EQUATIONS OF CONDITION. 


FOEMATION OP EQUATIONS OP CONDITION. 

MARS I. 

Equatorial^ Cape of Good Hope. 
(both limbs observed throughout.) 


N°. 

Date. 

log. &. 

log. C. 

log./ 

log.^. 

log. 5. 

log. n. 

F. 

S. 

p. 

1 

1849.— Nov.21 

710.29768 

0.19742 

0.78061 

0.13902 

0.90320 

0.5051 

1.8969 

4-8.0021 

2.58 

2 


nO. 29768 

0.19742 

9.72933 

0.13902 

0.39868 

0.6990 

1.8969 

2.5043 

2.66 

3 

22 

wO. 28597 

0.17400 

0,43476 

0.13916 

0.66838 

0.6232 

1,^981 

4.6599 

2.66 

4 

24 

wO. 26328 

0.12862 

0.50742 

0.14864 

0.71064 

0.6902 

1.9828 

5.1361 

2.56 

5 

25 

nO. 25142 

0.10490 

719.86314 

0.15139 

0.07060 

0.6990 

2.0081 

+ 1.1765 

3.11 

6 


nO. 25142 

0.10490 

710.36882 

0.15139 

719.63518 

0.6902 

2.0081 

— 0.4317 

2.94 

7 

26 

nO. 23881 

0.07968 

0.13975 

0.15143 

0.51391 

0.5563 

2.0085 

+ 3.2652 

3.11 

8 

27 

nO. 22657 

0.05520 

710.44438 

0.15572 

719.95434 

0.7559 

2.0485 

— 0.9002 

3.83 

9 

28 

n0.21355 

0.02916 

719.88497 

0.15779 

0.04340 

0.7076 

2.0681 

+ 1,1051 

3.69 

10 

29 

710.19959 

0.00124 

0.11535 

0.15501 

0.49866 

0.5798 

2.0418 

3.1525 

2.94 

11 

30 

nO. 18655 

9.97516 

0.49782 

0.15858 

0.69853 

0.5441 

2.0757 

4.9949 

2.44 

12 

. Dec. 1 

wO. 17187 

9.94580 

0.41987 

0.16361 

0.65169 

0.6812 

2.1243 

4.4842 

2.58 

13 

'' 2 

nO. 15618 

9.91442 

0.66500 

0.15552 

0.80907 

0.5682 

2.0466 

+ 6.4427 

2.42 

14 

3 

nO. 14168 

9.88542 

710.48352 

0.16680 

710.07696 

0.7924 

2.1557 

— 1.1939 

3.20 

15 

4 

nO. 12579 

9.85364 

710.09861 

0.16813 

9.77517 

0.7076 

2.1690 

+ 0.5959 

3.60 

16 

5 

nO. 10938 

9.82082 

9.65753 

0.16912 

0.36288 

0.7324 

2.1789 

2.3061 

3.89 

17 

6 

nO. 09200 

9.78606 

0.32990 

0.17038 

0.60130 

0.7404 

2.1916 

3.9930 

4.65 

18 

7 

nO. 07438 

9.75082 

0.57108 

0.17105 

0.74694 

0.5798 

2.1983 

5.5839 

4.65 

19 

8 

nO. 05541 

9.71288 

0.72084 

0.17177 

0.85269 

0.6990 

2.2056 

7.1235 

4.65 

20 

9 

nO. 03576 

9.67358 

0.82755 

0.17147 

0.93412 

0.6335 

2.2026 

8.5927 

2.00 

21 


nO. 03580 

9.67366 

1.02548 

0.17175 

1.09604 

0.6435 

2.2054 

+ 12.4750 

2.62 

22 

10 

nO. 01436 

9.63078 

7x0.63601 

0.15696 

710.39724 

0.5563 

2.0602 

-2.4960 

2.94 

23 

11 

n9. 99392 

9.58990 

710.49322 

0.17184 

710.08814 

6435 

2.2064 

— 1.2250 

1.77 

24 

14 

n9. 92305 

9.44816 

9.25115 

0.17323 

0.32457 

0.4624 

2.2206 

+ 2.1114 

3.13 

25 

15 

n9. 89678 

9.39562 

0.03318 

0.17241 

0.48100 

0.4624 

2.2122 

3.0269 

3.13 

26 

16 

n9. 86848 

9.33902 

0.28292 

0.17175 

0.58917 

0.0414 

2.2054 

3.8830 

3.13 

27 


n9. 86751 

9.33708 

0.28565 

0.17062 

0.59015 

0.3979 

2.1940 

3.8918 

3.60 

28 

17 

n9. 83688 

9.27582 

0.42431 

0.16841 

0.66577 

0.4824 

2.1718 

4.6320 

3.60 

29 

18 

719.80447 

9.21100 

0.51655 

0.16903 

0.72313 

0.4150 

2.1780 

5.2860 

3.60 

30 

20 

719.73124 

9.06454 

710.02824 

0.16817 

9.99260 

0.6021 

2.1694 

0.9831 

3.54 

31 

21 

719.68765 

8.97736 

719.85034 

0.16112 

0.12985 

0.5798 

2.1001 

1.3485 

3.54 

32 

22 

n9. 64141 

8.88488 

719.64513 

0.16258 

0.21780 

0.5185 

2.1143 

1.6512 

3.54 

33 

23 

719.59G66 

8.78338 

719.41095 

0.16366 

0.27212 

0.4314 

2.1248 

1.8712 

3.68 

34 

24 

719.52841 

8.65888 

719.20412 

0.15464 

0.29572 

0.4624 

2.0384 

1.9757 

3.15 

35 

25 

719.46338 

6.52882 

719.15045 

0.15897 

0.31042 

0.5051 

2.0794 

2.0437 

3.82 

36 


719.46181 

8.525C8 

719.16584 

0.15969 

0.31004 

0.5682 

2.0863 

2.0419 

3.82 

37 

26 

719.38297 

8.36800 

719.29358 

0.15452 

0.30374 

0.5441 

2.0372 

2.0125 

3.82 

38 


n9. 38003 

8.36212 

8.73159 

0.15760 

0.35683 

0.3617 

2.0663 

2.2742 

3.93 

39 

29 

718.95689 

7.51584 

719.88372 

0.15033 

0.19346 

0.5051 

1.9983 

1.5612 

2.81 

40 

1850.— Jan. 7 

9.55489 

8.71184 

0.79161 

0.12026 

0.95028 

0.1461 

1.7399 

8.9183 

2.59 

41 

8 

9.61193 

8.82592 

0.74582 

0.11451 

0.92155 

9.7782 

1.6945 

8.3474 

2.59 

42 

9 

9.66035 

8.92276 

0.69383 

0.11467 

0.89124 

0.3222 

1.6957 

7.7846 

3.55 

43 

10 

9.70544 

9.01294 

0.63510 

0.11079 

0.85838 

— 

1.6657 

7.2173 

3.55 

44 

11 

9.74662 

9.09530 

0.56367 

0.10576 

0.82085 

9.3010 

1.6275 

6.6198 

2.59 

45 

12 

9.78403 

9.17012 

0.47820 

0.10071 

0.77993 

9.6021 

1.5901 

6.0246 

2.59 

46 

14 

9.81789 

9.23784 

0.24239 

0.09.388 

0.68297 

719.0000 

1.5408 

4.8191 

3.16 

47 

15 

9.84913 

9.30032 

0.05258 

0.09095 

0.63020 

9.6990 

1.5202 

4.2678 

3.16 

48 

16 

9.90715 

9.41636 

9.71299 

0.08528 

0.57997 

719.6021 

1,4810 

3.8016 

3.16 

49 

17 

9.93267 

9.46740 

718.76641 

0.08254 

0.51861 

710.0414 

1.4624 

+ 3.3007 

2.14 


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EQUATIONS OF CONDITION. 


CCXXl 


FORMATION OP ADDITIONAL EQUATIONS OP CONDITION. 

MA»S I. 

Equatorial^ Gape of Good Hope. 


N°. 

Date. 

Wash. M.T. 

Obs'd r. 

2r 

T^A«„ 

^'o 

n 

log. e. 

log. S, 

log. n. 

p. 

1,2 

1849.'-Nov. 21 

.3070 

It 
9.49 

2.74 

+ 1.96 

ii 
7.53 

n 
+ 0.02 

0.20817 

0.41747 

8.3010 

1.71 

3 

22 

.3634 

6.38 

1.76 

— 1.26 

7.57 

— 0.05 

0.21078 

0.41908 

n8.6990 

1,71 

4 

24 

.3296 

10.08 

2.06 

+ 1.47 

7.66 

— 0.94 

0.21536 

0.42192 

n9.9731 

1.71 

5,6 

25 

* .3174 

6.49 

1,53 

— 1.09 

7.69 

+ 0.11 

0.21753 

0.42327 

9.0414 

2.25 

7 

26 

.3390 

7.14 

1.31 

0.93 

7.73 

— 0.30 

0.21966 

0.42460 

w9,4771 

2.25 

8 

27 

.3021 

8.04 

0.67 

0.47 

1,11 

0.75 

0.22157 

0.42579 

n9.8751 

3.50 

9 

28 

.2979 

7.52 

0.68 

0.47 

7.80 

0.20 

0.22343 

0.42696 

n9.3010 

3.27 

10 

29 

.3321 

7.30 

0.85 

0.58 

7.83 

0.03 

0.22526 

0.42810 

W8.4771 

2.25 

11 

30 

.2789 

7.58 

1.00 

— 0.67 

7.86 

0.37 

0.22676 

0.42905 

n9.5682 

1.71 

12 

Dec. 1 

.2902 

8.28 

0.04 

+ 0.03 

7.89 

— 0.36 

• 0.22836 

0.43005 

n9.5563 

1.95 

13 

2 

.3444 

6.43 

1.70 

— 1.10 

7.92 

-f 0.39 

0.22984 

0.43098 

9.5911 

1.71 

14 

3 

.2852 

7.31 

0.88 

0.55 

7.94 

0.08 

0.23103 

0.43173 

8.9031 

2.25 

15 

4 

.2812 

7.08 

0,71 

0.43 

7.96 

0.45 

0.23215 

0.43243 

9.6532 

2.67 

16 

5 

.2718 

7.54 

0.55 

0.32 

7.98 

0.11 

0.23316 

0.43307 

9.0414 

3.00 

17 

6 

.2813 

6.03 

0.17 

0.10 

7.99 

+ 1.86 

0.23402 

0.43361 

0.2695 

4,00 

18 

7 

.2637 

8.36 

0.27 

0.15 

8.00 

— 0.52 

0.23472 

0.43406 

719.7160 

4.00 

19 

8 

.2784 

7.49 

0.30 

0.15 

8.01 

-f 0.38 

0.23530 

0.43442 

9.5798 

4.00 

20,21 

9 

.2824 

6.57 

1.64 

0.80 

8.02 

0.66 

0.23573 

0.43470 

9.8195 

1.48 

22 

10 

.3274 

7.16 

1.68 

0.77 

8.03 

+ 0.08 

0.23600 

0.43487 

8.9031 

2.67 

23 

11 

.2780 

7.79 

1.17 

0.,50 

8.03 

— 0.44 

0.23611 

0.43494 

n9.6434 

1.26 

24 

14 

.2474 

7.68 

0.86 

0.29 

8.02 

-f 0.05 

0.23552 

0.43456 

8.6990 

3.00 

25 

15 

.2306 

7.38 

0.54 

0.16 

8,01 

+ 0.46 

0.23502 

0.43424 

9,6628 

3.00 

26 

16 

.2255 

9.09 

0.43 

0.12 

8.00 

— 1.22 

23436 

0.43383 

n0.0864 

3.00 

27 


.2586 

8.43 

0.00 



8.00 

— 0.41 

0.23434 

0.43382 

n9.6128 

4,00 

28 

17 

.2626 

7.35 

0.24 

0.06 

7.98 

-f. 0.59 

0.23351 

0.43329 

9.7709 

4.00 

29 

18 

.2503 

6.83 

0.37 

0.07 

7.96 

+ 1.08 

0.23253 

0.43267 

0.0334 

4.00 

30 

20 

.2288 

7.99 

0.87 

0.12 

7.92 

— 0.19 

0,23013 

0.43116 

n9.2787 

2.67 

31 

21 

.2573 

7.81 

0.66 

0.07 

7.89 

+ 0.04 

0.22864 

0.43022 

8,6021 

2.67 

32 

22 

.2413 

7.62 

0.50 

0.04 

7.86 

0.22 

0.22707 

0.42924 

9.3424 

2.67 

33 

23 

.2072 

6.80 

0.35 

— 0.02 

7.83 

1.01 

0.22539 

0.42819 

0.0043 

1.00 

35,36 

25 

.1975 

7.42 

0.26 

+ 0.00 

7.76 

0.34 

0.22151 

0.42576 

9.5315 

3.00 

37,38 

26 

.1857 

7.44 

0.37 

0.02 

7.73 

0.30 

0.21938 

0.42443 

9.4771 

3.00 

39 

29 

.1890 

7.51 

0.04 

0.00 

7.61 

0.10 

0.21211 

0.41991 

9.0000 

1.95 

40 

1850.— Jan. 7 

.1766 

7.20 

2.14 

0.46 

7.13 

+ 0.40 

0.18424 

0.40285 

9.6021 

1.71 

41 

8 

.1838 

7.59 

1.82 

0.40 

7.07 

— 0.10 

0,18064 

0.40068 

n9.0000 

1.71 

44 

11 

.1598 

6.25 

1.76 

0.39 

6.89 

+ 1.04 

0.16954 

0.39402 

0.0170 

1.71 

45 

12 

.1636 

5.75 

1.61 

0.36 

6.83 

1.46 

0.16566 

0.39171 

0.1644 

1.71 

46 

14 

.1498 

6.27 

1.42 

0.31 

6.71 

0.76 

0.15781 

0.38706 

9.8808 

2.25 

47 

15 

.1305 

5.55 

1.41 

0.30 

6.64 

1.39 

0.15385 . 

0.38473 

0.1430 

2.25 

48 

16 

.1504 

6.33 

0.36 

0.07 

6.58 

0.33 

0.14968 

0.38228 

9.5185 

2.25 

49 

17 

.1277 

6.62 

1.32 

+ 0.27 

6,52 

-f 0.17 

6.14565 

0.37993 

9.2305 

2.25 


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CCXXll 


EQUATIONS OF CONDITION. 


FORMATION OF EQUATIONS OF CONDITION, 

MARS I. 

Meridian, Cape of Good Hope, 


3 

4 
5 

6 

7 
8 
9 
10 

11 
12 
13 
14 
15 

16 
17 
18 
19 
20 

21 
22 
23 
24 
25 

26 
27 
28 
29 
30 

31 
32 
33 
34 
35 

36 
37 
38 
39 
40 

41 
42 
43 
44 
45 
46 


1849. -Nov. 18 
19 
21 
22 
25 

27 


30 
Dec. 1 

2 
3 
4 


10 
11 
12 

14 
15 

16 
17 
18 

20 
21 
22 
23 

24 

26 
27 
29 
81 
1850.— Jan. 3 

4 
7 
8 
9 
10 

11 
12 
14 
15 
16 
17 


N. S. 
N. S. 
N. S. 
N. S. 
N. S. 

N. S. 
N. S. 
N. S. 
■ N. S. 
N. S. 

N. S. 

N. S. 
N. S. 
N. S. 
N. S. 

N. S. 
N. S. 
N. S. 
N. S. 
N. S. 

N. S. 
N. S. 
N. S. 
N. S. 
N. S. 

N. S. 
N. S. 
N. S. 
N. S. 
N. S. 

N. S. 
N. S. 
N, S. 
N. S. 
N. S. 

N. S. 

N. S. 

C. 

c. 
c. 

0. 

c. 
c. 
c. 

0. 

c. 


log. 6. 


wO. 32899 
nO. 31872 
nO, 29743 
710,28638 
wO. 25143 

nO. 22647 
n0.2L344 
wO. 19999 
nO. 18611 
nO. 17179 

nO. 15697 
nO. 14164 
nO. 12574 
nO. 09208 
nO. 07422 

nO. 05559 
nO. 03613 
710.01576 
729.99438 
719.97189 

719.92310 
719.89650 
719.86813 
719.83780 
719.80517 

719.73153 
719.68940 
719.64276 
7i9. 59050 
719.53108 

n9. 38034 

719.27935 

718.95874 

7.95228 

9.19990 

9.31864 
0.55359 
9.61023 
9.66032 
9.70523 

9.74593 
9.78314 
9.84918 
9.87878 
9.90650 
9.93256 


log. C. 


0.26004 
0,23950 
0.19692 
0.17480 
0.10492 

0.05500 
0.02894 
0.00204 
9.97428 
9.94564 

9.91600 
9.88534 
9.85354 
9.78622 
9.75050 

9.71324 
9.67432 
9.63358 
9.59082 
9.54584 


9.39506 
9.33833 
9.27766 
9.21240 

9.06512 
8.98086 
8.88758 
8.78306 
8.66422 

8.36274 
8.16076 
7.51954 
5.50662 
8.00181 

8.23934 
8.70924 
8.82250 
8.92270 
9.01252 

9.09392 
9.16834 
9.30042 
9.35964 
9.41506 
9.46718 


log. g. 


0.13244 
0.13538 
0.14107 
0.14378 
0.15143 

0.15575 
0.15807 
0.16008 
0.16196 
0.16372 

0.16535 
0.16683 
0.16818 
0.17046 
0.17136 

0.17212 
0.17271 
0.17315 
0.17342 
0.17352 

0.17325 
0.17283 
0.17228 
0.17154 
0.17063 

0.16834 
0.16695 
0.16537 
0.16368 
0.16182 

0.15766 
0.15536 
0.15036 
0.14484 
0,13569 

0.13242 
n. 12205 
0.11840 
0,11468 
0.11089 

0.10702 
0.10310 
0.09506 
0.09097 
0,08682 
0.08263 


log. S, 


0.31035 
0,30501 
0.29535 
0.29104 
0.28021 

0.27460 
0.27258 
0.27080 
0.26940 
0.26834 

0.26766 
0.26736 
0.26736 
26853 
0.26961 

0.27103 
0.27277 
0.27485 
0.27724 
0.27996 

0.28628 
0.28988 
0.29374 
0,29787 
0.30231 

0.31192 
0.31710 
0.32249 
0.32816 
0.33405 

0.34649 
0.35301 
0.36663 
0.38108 
0.40403 

0.41199 
0.43672 
0.44521 
0.45382 
0.46256 

0.47138 
48032 
0.49845 
0.50764 
0.51689 
0.52621 


log.7^. 


0.60531 
0.55509 
0.65610 
9.44716 
0.95809 

0.61805 
0.63448 
0.56585 
0.82086 
0.79727 

0.58092 
0.68931 
0.45332 
0.67486 
0.53020 

0,57519 
0,40140 
0.75358 
0.71600 
0.73239 

0.52114 
9.97.313 
0.36361 
710.33041 
0.29003 

0.40483 
0.30750 
0.32428 
0.46687 
0.62839 

0.52504 
0.32428 
0.34242 
0.35411 
719.98677 

710.18752 

0,36173 

0.05308 

710.48144 

710.38917 

719.88649 
710.27875 
710.34242 
710.36549 
nO. 30963 
710.24304 


h^. 


1.84 
1.87 
1.92 
1.94 
2.01 

2.05 
2.07 
2.09 
2.11 
2.13 

2.14 
2.16 
2.17 
2,19 
2.20 

2.21 
2.22 
2.22 
2.22 
2.22 

2.22 
2.22 
2.21 
2,20 
2,19 

2.17 
2.16 
2.14 
2.13 
2.11 

2.07 
2.05 
2.00 
1.95 

1.87 

1.84 
1.75 
1.73 
1.70 
1.67 

1.64 
1.61 
1.55 
1.52 
1,49 
1.46 


-j- 2.0434 
2.0184 
1,9740 
1.9545 
1.9064 

1.8819 
1.8732 
1.8655 
1.8595 
1.8550 

1.8521 
1.8508 
1.8508 
1.8558 
1.8604 

1.8665 
1.8740 
1.8830 
1.8934 
1.9053 

1.9332 
1.9493 
1.9667 
1.9856 
2.0059 

2.0508 
2.0754 
2.1013 
2.1289 
2.1580 

2.2207 
2,2543 
2.3261 
2.4048 
2.5353 

2.5822 
2.7335 
2,7875 
2,8433 
2.9011 

2.9606 
3.0222 
3.1510 

3.2184 

3.2877 

4- 3.3590 


Hosted by 


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EQUATIONS OF CONDITION. 


CCXXlll 


FOEMATION OF EQUATIONS OP CONDITION. 

MARS I. 

Equatorial^ Greenwich, 

(OBSERVED CENTRE.) 


N°. 

Date. 

log. 6. 

log. C. 

log. g. 

log. S, 

log. n. 

F. 

s. 

p. 

1 

1849.--NOV. 26 

nO. 24150 

0.08506 

nO. 05695 

719.82445 

0.0414 

1.300 

— 0.6675 

2.49 

2 

30 

nO. 18550 

9.97306 

n9. 86027 

719.50215 


0.526 

0.3178 


3 

Dec. 8 

710.05720 

9.71646 

n9. 94918 

719.70731 


0.792 

0.5097 


4 

15 

n9. 89563 

9.39332 

n9. 86045 

719.42193 

0.3802 

0.526 

0.2642 

3.62 

5 

27 

n9. 29508 

8.19222 

w9. 99382 

719.22427 

9.9031 

0.972 

— 0.1676 

4.15 

6 

1850— Jan. 4 

9.31989 

8.24184 

n9. 82577 

9.74578 

nO.2553 

0.448 

+ 0.5569 

3.21 

7 

5 

9.40716 

8.41638 

719.87292 

9.72852 

710.0414 

0.557 

0.5352 

3.52 

8 

7 

9.55207 

8.70620 

719.83910 

9.85546 

710.2788 

0.476 

+ 0.7169 

3.21 


FORMATION OF EQUATIONS OF CONDITION. 

MARS I. 

Meridian , Greenwich . 


N°. 

Date. 

Limb. 

log. 6. 

log. C. 

log. g. 

log. S. 

log. n. 

h\ 

s. 

1 

1849.— Nov. 1 

C. 

710.47393 

0.54932 

719.80336 

9.96783 

nO. 00000 

0.4043 

+ 0.9286 

2 

6 

c. 

710.43595 

0.47396 

719.81685 

9.77357 

0.47712 

0.4302 

0.5937 

3 

16 

c. 

710,34832 

0.29870 

719.84024 

8.82607 

0.60206 

0.4792 

0.0670 

4 

30 

N. 

710.18539 

9.97286 

719.86022 

9.83385 

0.69020 

0.5253 

0.6821 

5 

Dec. 4 

N. 

wO. 12490 

9.85186 

719.86196 

9.81298 

0.59106 

0.5296 

0.6501 

6 

8 

N. 

nO. 05461 

9.71128 

719.86214 

9.81451 

0.51851 

0.5300 

0.6524 

7 

15 

N. 

719.89508 

9.39222 

719.85809 

9.86929 

0.68124 

0.5202 

0.7401 

8 

17 

N. 

719.83617 

9.27440 

719.85590 

9.89470 

0.59106 

0.5150 

0.7847 

9 

19 

N. 

719.76802 

9.13810 

719.85324 

9.92^4 

0.54407 

0.5087 

0.8380 

10 

27 

N. 

719.27347 

8.14900 

719.83829 

0.05587 

9.00000 

0.4749 

1.1373 

11 

28 

N. 

719.13955 

7.88116 

719.83596 

0.07346 

0.20412 

0.4698 

1.1843 

12 

29 

N. 

718.94488 

7.49182 

719.83354 

0.09110 

0.04139 

0.4646 

1.2334 

13 

1850.— Jan. 4 

N. 

9.32394 

8.24994 

719.81704 

0.19656 

0.07918 

0.4306 

1.5724 

14 

5 

N. 

9.41608 

8.43422 

719.81399 

0.21376 

9.69897 

0.4246 

1.6363 

15 

7 

N. 

9.55668 

8.71442 

719.80765 

0.24795 

9.77815 

0.4124 

1.7699 

16 

23 

N. 

0.06366 

9.72938 

719.74777 

0.49620 

710.14613 

0.3130 

3.1347 

17 

30 

N. 

0.17810 

9.95826 

719.71835 

0.59024 

710.55^30 
7i0.7f600 

0.2733 

3.8926 

18 

Feb. 6 

N. 

0.26861 

0.13928 

n9. 68823 

0.67637 

0.2379 

4.7464 

19 

7 

N. 

0.28012 

0.16230 

719.68393 

0.68807 

tiO. 74819 

0.2333 

4.8761 

20 

9 

N. 

0.30229 

0.20664 

719.67529 

0.71110 

710.78533 

0.2242 

5.1416 

21 

13 

S. 

0.34349 

0.28904 

n9. 65815 

0.56771 

710.78533 

0.2072 

3.6958 

22 

16 

N. 

0.37200 

0.34606 

719.64544 

0.78757 

710.83251 

0.1954 

6.1316 

23 

21 

C. 

0.41574 

0.43354 

719.62466 

0.77062 

nO. 78533 

0.1775 

5.8968 

24 

22 

c. 

0.42400 

0.45006 

719.62065 

0.78217 

710.77815 

0.1743 

-f 6.0558 


Hosted by 


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CCXXIV 


EQUATIONS OF CONDITION, 

FORMATION OP EQUATIONS OF CONDITION. 


MARS I. 


Equatorial, Cambridge, 


N°, 

Date. 

Limb. 

log. &. 

log. C. 

log. e. 

log. g. 

log. S, 

log. 71. 

P 

S. 

p. 

1 

1849.— Nov. 14 

c. 

nO. 36537 

0,33280 


n9. 66331 

9.57031 

0.6812 

0.212 

4-0.3718 

3.05 

2 

15 

N. 

nO. 35469 

0.31144 

0.19304 

n9. 80830 

0.43171 

0.3979 

0.413 

4-2.7021 

1.61 

3 


S. 

nO. 35461 

0.31128 

nO. 19306 

n9. 82259 

nO. 38725 

0.7482 

0.442 

—2.4,392 

2.91 

4 

16 

c. 

nO. 34792 

0.29790 


n9. 83275 

8.88762 

0.6128 

0.463 

4-0.0772 

3.24 

5 


s. 

wO. 34473 

0.29152 

nO. 19598 

n9. 85888 

nO. 40618 

0.6232 

0.522 

—2.5479 

2.42 

6 

21 

0. 

nO. 29608 

0.19422 


n9. 79181 

n8. 51322 

0.6812 

0.383 

-0.0326 

3.89 

7 


0. 

nO. 29290 

0.18786 


n9. 85324 

n9. 13033 

0.7404 

0.508 

0.1350 

3.70 

8 

26 

s. 

nO. 23354 

0.06914 

nO. 22050 

n9. 91796 

n0.48l30 

0.7404 

0.686 

—3.0290 

3.62 

9 

30 

N. 

nO. 17980 

9.96166 

0.22754 

n9. 91300 

0.35658 

0.6628 

0.670 

4-2.2729 

2.28 

]0 

Dec. 11 

c. 

n9. 99349 

9.58904 


n9. 94817 

n9. 68520 

0.5798 

0.787 

—0.4844 

3.52 

11 

17 

N. 

n9. 83463 

9.27132 

0.23344 

n9. 84016 

0.40195 

0.4914 

0.479 

4-2.5232 

3.62 

12 

27 

N. 

n9. 26371 

8.12948 

0.21675 

w9. 77146 

0.46036 

0.2788 

0.349 

4-2.8864 

3.93 

13 

28 

S. 

n9. 13268 

7.86742 

nO. 21442 

n9. 73024 

nO. 36248 

n0.4150 

0.288 

—2.3040 

2.18 

14 


C. 

«9. 12292 

7.84790 


n9. 72652 

9.53339 

n9.7782 

0.284 

4-0.3415 

3.00 

15 

29 

N. 

n8. 80577 

7.21360 

0.21071 

wO. 04085 

0.39157 


1.208 

4-2.4636 


16 

31 

S. 

8.35917 

6.32040 

710.20589 

719.64671 

nO. 30758 

0.0792 

0.196 

—2.0304 

4.83 

17 

1850.-Jan. 1 

c. 

8.80777 

7.21760 


n9. 79451 

9.64631 

0.4771 

0.388 

4-0.4429 

4.75 

18 

4 

N. 

9.32923 

8.26052 

0,19416 

n9. 79596 

0.50109 

9. 3010 

0.391 

4-3.1702 

3.62 

19 

5 

C. 

9.43045 

8.46296 


n9. 62889 

9.94096 

9.9031 

0.181 

4-0.8729 

3.91 


FORMATION OF ADDITIONAL EQUATIONS OF CONDITION. 

MARS I. 

Equatorial, Cambridge, 


N°. 

Date. 

Wash. M.T. 

obs'd r. 

2r. 

IDA- 

^rDd. 

^0. 

n. 

log. e. 

log. S, 

log. 71. 

p. 

1 

1849.— Nov. 14 

.6120 

If 
9.12 

2.258 

II 
4- 0.665 

II 

4- 1.50 

II 
7.22 

II 

-0.40 

0.18972 

0.40617 

719.6021 

2.44 

4 'i 

16 

.4398 

6.80 

1.107 

0.683 

— 0.74 

7.31 

0.32 

0. 19507 

0.40942 

n9.5051 

2.67 

6 

21 

,4538 

9.81 

1.346 

0.714 

4- 0.95 

7.54 

1.22 

0.20855 

0.41770 

710.0864 

3.43 

7 


.7416 

8.16 

0.911 

0.715 

0.65 

7.55 

0.03 

0.20926 

0.41814 

718.4771 

3.13 

9 

30 

.7431 

9.06 

0.774 

0.670 

0.52 

7.88 

0.73 

0.22754 

0.42953 

7x9.8633 

1.54 

10 

Dec. 11 

.2979 

9.60 

0.816 

4- 0.430 

4- 0.35 

8.03 

2.00 

0.23611 

43494 

710.3010 

2.57 

13,14 

28 

.34^ 

.3886 

7.76 

0.674 

— 0.080 

— 0.05 

7.65 

0.12 

0.21427 

0.42125 

n9.0792 

3.00 

19 

1850 Jan. 5 

8.60 

1.854 

— 0.201 

— 0.37 

7.23 

-1.02 

0.19043 

0.40660 

?i0.0086 

3.00 


Hosted by 


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EQUATIONS OF CONDITION. 


CCXXV 


FORMATION OF EQUATIONS. 

MARS I. 

Meridian y Athens, 


N°. 


3 

4 
5 

6 

7 
8 
9 
10 

11 
12 
13 
14 
15 

16 
17 
18 
19 
20 

21 
22 
23 
24 
25 

26 
27 
28 
29 
30 

31 
32 
33 
34 
35 

36 
37 


Date. 


1849.— Nov. 22 
23 
25 

26 
28 

29 
30 
Dec. 4 
9 
14 

15 
T6 
17 
19 
21 


Limb. 


S. 

N. 
N. 
S. 

s. 

N. 
S. 

s. 

N. 
S. 

N. 
S. 
N. 
N. 
N. 


22 

S. 

23 

N. 

24 

S. 

28 

s. 

29 

N. 

.—Jan. 1 

N. 

2 

S. 

3 

N. 

5 

N. 

6 

S. 

8 

S. 

10 

S. 

15 

N. 

19 

N. 

26 

S. 

27 

N. 

29 

N. 

Feb. 1 

S. 

2 

S. 

3 

N. 

4 

S. 

5 

N. 

10 

S. 


log.&. 


logC. 


«0. 28654 
nO. 27521 
nO. 25161 
nO. 23931 
nO. 21363 

n0.20019 
nO. 18633 
nO. 12597 
nO. 03642 
w9. 92348 

n9. 89689 
n9. 86855 
w9. 83825 
w9. 77044 
n9. 69005 

n9. 64348 
«9. 59131 
n9. 53201 
n9. 14977 
n8. 96078 

8.76407 
9.03304 
9.19790 
9. 4] 056 
9.48742 

9.60944 
9.70461 
9.87837 
9.98006 
0.11534 

0.13163 
0.16250 
0.20505 
0.21835 
0.23126 

0.24380 
0.25599 
0.31226 


0.17514 
0.15248 
0.10528 
0.08068 
0.0^932 

0.00244 
9.97472 
9.85400 
9.67490 
9.44902 

9.39584 
9.33916 
9.27856 
9.14294 
8.98216 

8.88902 
8.78468 
8.66608 
7.90160 
7.52362 

7.13020 
7.66814 
7.99786 
8.42318 
8.57690 

8.82094 
9.01128 
9.35880 
9.56218 
9.83274 

9.86532 
9.92706 
0.01216 
0.03876 
0.06458 

0.08966 
0.11404 
0.22658 


log. e. 


nO. 21066 

0.21303 

0.21749 

wO. 21958 

nO. 22343 

0.22518 
nO. 92683 
nO. 23215 

0,23571 
wO. 23553 

0.23502 
nO. 23436 
0.23355 
0.23144 
0.22872 

nO. 22714 

0.22541 

nO. 22354 

«0. 21469 

0.21216 

0.20384 

nO. 20084 

0.19774 

0.19124 

nO. 18785 

wO. 18081 

nO. 17345 

0.15391 

0.13T39 

710.10733 

0.10297 

0.09422 

wO. 08107 

nO. 07669 

0.07231 

nO. 06794 

0.06357 

nO. 04186 


log. 


9' 


719.54970 
n9.. 55015 
»i9. 55073 
719.55077 
719.55080 

719.55073 
ri9. 55041 
719.54841 
719.54403 
719.53779 

719.53629 
7i9, 53483 
719.53328 
719.52992 
729.52639 

719.52450 
719.52259 
719.52059 
719.51212 
719.50983 

719.50264 
7Z9.5U014 
719.49753 
7^9.49214 
719.48937 

719.48356 
719.47755 
7i9. 46064 
719.44704 
719.42018 

719.41618 
719.40803 
719.39560 
719.39139 
r.9. 38719 

7x9.38294 
719.37875 
719.35728 


log. S, 


710.38321 

0.44937 

0.44467 

TiO. 40.557 

710.41394 

0.43840 
nO. 42052 
710.42849 

0.44031 
7i0. 41868 

0.45244 
710.41135 
0.45812 
0.46459 
0.47179 

710.37736 

0.47972 

7x0.36150 

710.32177 

0.50763 

0.52378 

710.25327 

0.53529 

0.54734 

710.17751 

7i0. 12933 

7zO. 07266 

0.61497 

0.64466 

9.64464 

0,70708 
0.72309 
0.07119 
0.11638 
0.76349 

0.19634 
0.77972 
0.38173 


log. n. 


1.11727 
0.91908 
0.94939 
1.12057 
1 . 13033 

0.90849 
0.97313 
1.07188 
0.93952 
1.09691 

0,91381 
1.07188 
0.89209 
0.90309 
0.84510 

1.00860 
0.90849 
1.02119 
1.01284 
0.80618 

0.83251 
0.96379 
0.46240 
0.41497 
0.83251 

0.86923 
0.91908 
0.53148 
0.17609 
0.59106 

7x0.04139 
9.00000 
0.38021 
0.74036 

710.00000 

0.55630 

7x0.14613 

9.778i5 


7.2 


+0.126 
0.126 
0.126 
0.126 
0.126 

0.126 
0.126 
0.125 
0.123 
0.119 

0.118 
0.117 
0.117 
0.115 
0.113 

0.112 
0,111 
0.110 
0.106 
0.105 

0.101 
0.100 
0.099 
0.096 
0.095 

0.093 
0.090 
0.083 
0.078 
0.069 

0.068 
0.066 
0.062 
0.061 
0.060 

0.058 

0.057 

-fO.052 


S, 


—2.4166 
+2,8143 
+2.7840 
—2.5443 
—2.5938 

+2r7441 
—2.6334 
—2.6822 
+2.7562 
—2 6223 

+2.8343 
—2.5784 
+2.8716 
+2.9147 
+2.9634 

-2.3843 
+3.0180 
—2.2988 
—2.0978 
+3.2183 

+3.3402 
—1.7917 
+3.430O 
+3.5265 
—1.5049 

—1.3478 
—1.1821 
+4.1207 
+4.4122 
+0.4412 

+5.0943 
+5.28.56 
+1.1781 
+1.3073 

+5.8008 

+1.5716 
+6.0217 

+2.4084 


z 50 


Hosted by 


Google 


CCXXVl 


EQUATIONS OF CONDITION. 


FORMATION OP EQUATIONS OF CONDITION. 

MAllS II. 

Equatorial, Santiago. 


w. 

Date. 

Limb. 

log. h. 

log. C. 

log. e. 

log. f. 

log. g. 

log. S. 

\og.n. 

F. 

s. 

p. 

1 

I851.-Dec. 16 

N. S. 

nO. 35634 

0.31474 


9.97918 

9.99454 

0.43667 

0.6628 

+ 0.975 

+ 2.7332 

4.60 

2 


N. S. 

wO. 35593 

0.31392 


0.00788 

0.00468 

0.45037 

0.7634 

1.022 

2.8208 

1.99 

3 

19 

N. S. 

nO. 32685 

0.25576 


0,07199 

0.00227 

0.45712 

0.7559 

1.011 

2.8650 

4.24 

4 


N. S. 

nO. 32654 

0.25514 


0.09695 

0.01213 

0.47082 

0.7708 

1.058 

2.9568 

3.60 

5 


N. S. 

n0.326S6 

0.25478 


0.10985 

0.01523 

0.47733 

0.7404 

1.073 

+ 3.C014 

3.00 

6 

20 

S. 

nO. 31640 

0.23485 

710.11690 

710.44127 

0.01031 

710.53171 

0.8633 

1.049 

— 3.4020 

4.97 

7 

21 

s. 

nO. 30586 

0.21378 

710.12017 

719.57875 

0.01292 

710.02288 

0.7924 

1.061 

— 1.0541 

5.17 

8 

22 

s. 

nO. 29505 

0.19216 

710,12340 

0.33021 

0.01528 

0.15534 

0.7160 

1.073 

-{- 1.4300 

5.10 

9 

24 

s. 

nO. 27228 

0.14662 

«0. 12982 

719.38952 

0.029.38 

77.9.99734 

0.7853 

1.145 

- 0.9939 

5.09 

10 

25 

s. 

710.26054 

0.12314 

710.13289 

0.42991 

0.03343 

0.28303 

0.7324 

1.167 

-}- 1.9188 

4.90 

11 

26 

s. 

710.24884 

0.07974 

710.13584 

710.22254 

0.02738 

710.39563 

0.8513 

1.1.34 

— 2,4867 

4.88 

12 


s. 

710.24829 

0.09S64 

710.13597 

71.0.18518 

0.04009 

710.36528 

0.8692 

1.203 

— 2.3189 

4.17 

13 

27 

s. 

710.2363L 

0.07468 

710.13882 

0.18589 

0.03526 

9.84924 

0.8976 

1.177 ' 

+ 0.7067 

4.91 

14 

28 

N. S. 

710.22343 

0.04892 


719.99007 

0.04193 

9.75618 

0.7853 

1.213 

0.5704 

4.91 

15 

29 

N. S. 

710.21054 

0.02314 


9.44122 

0.03893 

0.25548 

0.7324 

1.197 

1.8009 

4.15 

16 

30 

N. S. 

710.19695 

9.99598 


0.58293 

0.04354 

0.72835 

0.5682 

1.222 

+ 5. 3500 

4.24 

17 

31 

N. S. 

710.18303 

9.96812 


770.35732 

0.05528 

n9. 86694 

0.6434 

1.290 

— 0.7361 

4.57 

18 

1852.— Jan. 1 

N. S. 

710.16834 

9.93874 


710.05553 

0.05449 

9.59351 

0.6532 

1.285 

+ 0.3922 

4.64 

19 

2 

N. S. 

nO. 1.5361 

9.90928 


779.17493 

0.05288 

0.13580 

0.8451 

1.276 

1.3671 

4.89 

20 

4 

N. S. 

tjO. 12210 

9.84626 


0.17722 

0.05889 

0.48093 

0.5682 

1.311 

+ 3.0264 

4.46 

21 

5 

N. S. 

710.10529 

9.81264 


710.28391 

0.06491 

719.58692 


1.348 

— 0.3863 

4.50 

22 

6 

N. S. 

710.08778 

9.77762 


719.78154 

0.07072 

9.97653 

0.7482 

1.385 

-f 0.9474 

4.30 

23 

7 

N, S. 

TzO. 06985 

9.74178 


7^9.39980 

0.07141 

719.97987 

0.8921 

1.389 

— 0.9547 

4.46 

24 

8 

N. S. 

710.05173 

9.70552 


0.19805 

0.05845 

0.49178 

0.8195 

1.309 

4- 3.1C30 

3.91 

25 


N. S. 

710.05075 

9.70356 


0.25607 

0.07768 

0.52897 

0.7853 

1.430 

3.3804 

4.14 

26 

9 

N. S. 

710.03139 

9.66484 


719.64444 

0.07573 

0.05565 

0.8388 

1.418 

1.1367 

4.65 

27 

10 

N. S. 

710.01071 

9.62348 


719.79134 

0.07912 

9.98967 

0.7482 

1.440 

0.9765 

4.86 

28 

11 

N, S. 

719.98856 

9.57918 


8.53782 

0.08616 

0.21997 

0.7482 

1.487 

1.6594 

3.84 

29 

12 

N. S, 

719.96664 

9.53544 


9.51772 

0.07824 

0.28865 

0.6434 

1.434 

1.9438 

4.83 

30 


N. S. 

719.96563 

9.53332 


9.71966 

■ 0.08910 

0.33838 

0.6021 

1.508 

2.1696 

3.25 

31 

13 

N. S. 

719.94192 

9.48590 


9.49707 

0.08864 

0.29487 

0.6721 

1.504 

-f- 1.9718 

4.65 

32 

14 

N. S. 

719.91872 

9.43550 


710.27875 

0.08790 

719.35908 

0.8261 

1.499 

— 0.2286 

4.75 

S3 

IG 

N. S. 

rj9. 86109 

9.32424 


8.32838 

0.08864 

0.23865 

0.6812 

1.504 

-f. 1.7324 

4.36 

34 

17 

N. S. 

779.83043 

9.26292 


8.96614 

0.08786 

0.26081 

0.7076 

1.499 

1.8231 

4.34 

35 

20 

N. S. 

r/9. 72185 

9.04576 


710.06214 

0.09272 

9.82491 

0.6990 

1.533 

0.6682 

4.91 

38 


N. S. 

719.71970 

9.04146 


719.97197 

0.10083 

9.95875 

0.6902 

1.591 

0.9094 

4.65 

37 

21 

N. S. 

ri9. 67950 

8.96106 


0.24898 

0.08674 

0.55733 

0.8325 

1.491 

3.6085 

2.48 

38 

22 

N. S. 

719.62923 

8.86052 


0.02007 

0.10119 

0.47076 

0.4771 

1.594 

2.9564 

4.55 

39 

23 

N. S. 

7i9.. 57540 

8.752S6 


710.03810 

0.10107 

9. 92978 

0.6232 

1.592 

0.8507 

4.42 

40 

24 

N. S. 

719.51363 

8.62932 


710.06153 

0.10143 

9.91761 

0.6232 

1.596 

0.8272 

4.96 

41 

25 

N. S. 

719.44399 

8.49004 


719.77335 

0.09472 

0.14713 

0.3010 

1.547 

1.4032 

4.81 

42 

27 

N. S. 

719.24965 

8.10136 


710.04859 

0.09792 

9.98650 

0,6128 

1.569 

0.9694 

4.50 

43 

28 

N. S. 

719.10432 

7.81070 


9.21827 

0.10022 

0.36252 

0.3222 

1.587 

2.3042 

4.30 

44 

29 

N. S. 

718.88627 

7.37460 


0.24002 

0.10046 

0.59389 


1.589 

3.9236 


45 

30 

N. S. 

718.42886 

6.45978 


0.17551 

0.10006 

0.57179 

0.0414 

1.585 

3.7306 

4.90 

46 

31 

N. S. 

8.35927 

6.32060 


710.21772 

0.09902 

9.79817 

9.9542 

1.578 

0.6283 

4.42 

47 

Feb. 1 

N. S. 

8.85074 

7.30354 


710.34891 

0.09170 

8.87448 

0.0414 

1.526 

0.0749 

4.76 

48 

2 

N. S. 

9.08847 

7.77900 


9.66736 

0.09675 

0.45378 

9.6990 

1.562 

2.8430 

4.81 

49 

3 

N. S. 

9.23924 

8.08054 


9.58614 

0.09452 

0.44935 

0.1461 

1.545 

2.8142 

4.50 

50 

7 

N. S. 

9.56918 

8.74042 


0.28829 

0.08662 

9.84776 

0.1139 

1.490 

0.7043 

4.45 

51 

8 

N. S. 

9.62318 

8.84842 


719.35586 

0.091.52 

0.39669 

719.7782 

1.524 

2.4928 

4.51 

52 

9 

N. S. 

9.67181 

8.94568 


0.12662 

0.07895 

0.61234 

719.7782 

1.439 

4.0958 

4.09 

53 


N. S. 

9.67499 

8.95204 


0.15993 

0.08039 

0.62440 

719.9542 

1.448 

4.2111 

2.70 

54 

10 

N, S. 

9.71648 

9.03502 


719.79211 

0.08064 

0.34506 

719.6990 

1.450 

2.21.34 

4.28 

1" 

11 

N. S. 

9.75598 

9.11402 


9.82236 

0.07751 

0.55143 

710.1761 

-1- 1.4-29 

+ 3.5598 

1.95 


Hosted by 


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EQUATIONS OF CONDITION. 

Equatorial^ Santiago — Continued. 


CCXXVll 


N°. 

Date, 

Limb. 

log. 5. 

log. C. 

log. e, log. f. 

log. g. 

log. S, 

log. n. 

F. 

5. 

p. 

56 

1852.-Feb. 11 

N. S. 

9.75793 

9.11792 


9.86064 

0.07586 

0.55875 

n0.1461 

+1.417 

+ 3.6203 

3.22 

57 

13 

N.S. 

9.82595 

9.25396 


0.1i:067 

0.07227 

0.63856 

wO.1761 

1.395 

4.3507 

3.19 

58 


N. S. 

9.82747 

9.25700 


0.13621 

0.07132 

0.64343 

nO.2788 

1.389 

4.3998 

2,61 

59 

14 

N.S. 

9.85748 

9.31702 


719.96360 

0.07072 

0.33943 

n9.7782 

1.385 

2.1849 

4.58 

CO 

15 

N.S. 

9.88556 

9.37338 


n9. 32552 

0.06246 

0.46951 

710.0000 

1.334 

2.9479 

4.58 

61 

16 

N.S. 

9.91347 

9.42900 


9.60692 

0.06408 

0.56245 

710.2553 

1.344 

3.6514 

5.01 

62 

17 

N. S. 

9,93917 

9.48040 


9.94359 

0.06088 

0.62328 

720.3617 

1.323 

4.2003 

5.28 

63 

19 

N. S. 

9.98606 

9.57418 


0.16101 

0.05257 

0.69205 

710.6232 

1.274 

4.9210 

4.52 

64 

20 

N.S. 

0.00792 

9.61790 


0.18808 

0.04982 

0.70730 

710.6128 

1.258 

5.0969 

5.01 

65 

21 

N.S, 

0.02886 

9.65978 


0.18258 

0.04769 

0.71301 

7Z0.6232 

1.246 

5.1643 

4.90 

66 

22 

N. S. 

0.04837 

9.69880 


0.14264 

0.04175 

0.70819 

710.6434 

1.212 

5.1073 

3.62 

67 

23 

N.S. 

0.06728 

9.73662 


0.05910 

0.03773 

0.69457 

710.6902 

1. 190 

4.9495 

4.77 

68 

24 

N. S. 

0.08541 

9.77288 


9.89807 

0.03385 

0.67043 

710.6628 

1.168 

4.6820 

4.77 

69 

25 

N.S. 

0.10294 

9.80794 


nO. 11383 

0. 033 36 

0.42899 

7i0.55u3 

1.155 

2.6853 

4,65 

70 

26 

N.S. 

0.11973 

9.84152 


nO. 27103 

0.02805 

0.34477 

n0.5315 

1.138. 

2.2119 

4.65 

71 

27 

N.S. 

0.13669 

9.87544 


nO. 40583 

0.02418 

0.21275 

TiO. 7076 

1.118 

1.6321 

4.41 

72 

28 

N.S. 

0.15120 

9.90446 


0.31144 

0.01723 

0.79989 

w0.66£8 

1.083 

6.3080 

4.20 

73 


N. S. 

0. 15205 

9.90616 


0.30386 

0.02197 

0.79864 

720.7324 

1.107 

6.2899 

4,03 

74 

29 

N. S. 

0.16615 

9.934.36 


0.08303 

0.01184 

0.74540 

710.7243 

1.056 

5.5641 

4.03 

75 

Mar. 1 

N.S. 

0.18G82 

9.96370 


9.40773 

0.01090 

0.67370 

710.6812 

1.052 

4.7173 

4.99 

76 

2 

N.S. 

0.19503 

9.99212 


Ji9. 89774 

0.00922 

0.57751 

710.6232 

1.043 

3.7802 

5.20 

77 

3 

N.S. 

0.20840 

0.01886 


nO. 27717 

0.00136 

0.44253 

710.5315 

1.006 

2.7703 

4.75 

78 

4 

N.S. 

0.22187 

0.04580 


0.40128 

0.00171 

0.86339 

710.8385 

1.008 

7.3011 

4.34 

79 

6 

N. S. 

0.24725 

0.09656 


919.16732 

9.99479 

0.68639 

710.7782 

0.976 

4.8572 

4.40 

80 

7 

N.S. 

0.25918 

0.12042 


0.51424 

9.98792 

0.92304 

nO.8751 

0.946 

8.3760 

3,94 

81 

8 

N.S. 

0.27100 

0.14406 


0.24005 

9.98583 

0.84296 

nO.8195 

0.937 

6.9657 

4.36 

82 

9 

N.S. 

0.28239 

0.16684 


9.19562 

9.98104 

0.74025 

n0.8062 

0.916 

5.4986 

4.19 

83 

10 

N. S. 

0.29339 

0.18884 


riO. 17447 

9.97410 

0.59743 

710.6090 

0.888 

3.9576 

3.37 

84 

11 

N.S. 

0.30452 

0.21110 


0.25486 

9.97378 

0.86815 

711.0043 

0.886 

7.3817 

4.60' 

85 

12 

N.S. 

0.31480 

0.23166 


8.60531 

9.96321 

0.75803 

7i0. 9494 

0.844 

5.7284 

3.69 

86 


N.S. 

0.31521 

0.23248 


n8. 49415 

9.97010 

0.75410 

nO.9345 

0.871 

5.6767 

4.60 

87 

13 

N.S. 

0.32.542 

0.25290 


nO. 27402 

9.96464 

0.59640 

nO.9243 

0.850 

3.9482 

4.64 

88 

14 

N.S. 

0.33562 

0.273.30 


0.26829 

9.96128 

0.89274 

710.9638 

0.837 

7.8116 

4.58 

89 

15 

N.S. 

0.34550 

0.29306 


n9. 20303 

9.95710 

0.77273 

710.9191 

+0.821 

+ 5,9255 

4.82 


Hosted by 


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CCXXVIU 


EQUATIONS OF CONDITION. 


FOUMATION OF ADDITIONAL EQUATIONS OP CONDITION. 

MARS II. 

Equatorial y Santiago. 


N°. 

Date. 

Wash.M.T. 

Obs^d r. 

2r. 

IDA. 

=FrI>A. 

^0. 

n. 

log. e. 

log. S. 

log. n. 

p. 

1 

I851.--Dec. 16 

.5671 

// 
11.84 

5.655 

-|-0.f05 

II 

+ 3.41 

II 
5.91 

II 
—2.38 

0.10344 

0.35583 

nO.3766 

4.00 

2 
3 


.6104 

7.70 

0.022 

0.613 

0.01 

5.91 

1.78 

0.10353 

0.35588 

n0.2504 

1.26 

19 

.5502 

10.03 

2.860 

0.755 

2.15 

6.04 

1.76 

0.11354 

0.36150 

nO.2455 

4.00 

4 
5 


.5803 

7.87 

1.522 

0.756 

1.15 

6.04 

0.66 

0.11363 

0.36155 

n9.8195 

3.00 


.5972 

7.62 

0.294 

0.757 

0.22 

6.04 

1.36 

0.11369 

0.36158 

wO.1335 

2.25 

14 

28 

.5448 

8.42 

0.011 

1.178 

4- 0.13 

6 46 

1.83 

0.14174 

0.37766 

nO.2625 

4.82 

15 

29 

.5235 

6.77 

0.532 

1.209 

— 0.64 

6.50 

0.93 

0.14452 

0.37927 

n9.9685 

3.86 

16 

30 

.5236 

8.58 

0.607 

1.254 

+ 0.76 

6.55 

1.25 

0.14727 

0.38088 

710.0969 

4.00 

17 

31 

.5167 

7.97 

0.115 

1.282 

— 0.15 

6.58 

1.54 

0.14992 

0.38242 

n0.1b75 

4.37 

18 

1852.— Jan. X 

.5304 

8.45 

0.326 

1.317 

+ 0.43 

6.62 

1.40 

0.15249 

0.38393 

n0.1461 

4.50 

19 

2 

.5136 

8.74 

0.444 

1.348 

0.60 

6.66 

1.48 

0.15500 

0.38541 

n0.1703 

4.57 

20 

4 

.5072 

9.15 

0.770 

1.404 

1.08 

6.73 

1.32 

0.15969 

0.38828 

n0.1206 

3.69 

21 

5 

.5130 

8.17 

0.458 

1.428 

0.65 

6.77 

0.75 

0.16191 

0.38949 

n9.8751 

4.00 

22 

6 

.5199 

8.47 

0.475 

1.450 

0.69 

6.80 

0.98 

0.16401 

0.39074 

n9.9912 

3.69 

23 

7 

.5097 

9.26 

0.742 

1.468 

4- 1.09 

6.83 

1.32 

0.16598 

0.39190 

n0.1206 

3.69 

24 

8 

.4700 

7.07 

0.616 

1.483 

— 0.91 

6.86 

1.15 

0.16781 

0.39299 

710.0607 

3.00 



.5204 

6.70 

0.577 

1.484 

— 0.86 

6.87 

0.69 

0.16789 

0.39304 

n9.8388 

3.27 

26 

9 

.5007 

8.91 

0.737 

1 496 

+ 1.10 

6.89 

0.90 

0.16963 

0.39408 

719.9542 

4.00 

27 

10 

.5008 

8.55 

0.249 

1.505 

0.37 

6.92 

1.25 

0.17123 

0.39503 

710.1004 

4.93 

28 

11 

.5200 

9.00 

0.416 

1.511 

0.63 

6.94 

1.43 

0.17280 

0.39597 

710.1553 

3.00 

29 

12 

.4786 

9.10 

0.334 

1.514 

0.51 

6.96 

1.63 

0.17415 

0.39678 

7i0.2122 

4.24 

30 


.5220 

8.63 

0.414 

1.514 

0.63 

6.96 

1.04 

0.17420 

0.39681 

710.0170 

2.25 

31 

13 

.5037 

8.59 

0.258 

1.513 

0.39 

6.98 

1.22 

0.17542 

0.39754 

710.0864 

4.24 

' 32 

14 

.4899 

8.72 

0.267 

1.509 

0.40 

7.00 

1.32 

0.17654 

0.39821 

710.1206 

4.70 

33 

16 

.4747 

8.76 

0.494 

1.490 

0.74 

7.03 

0.99 

0.17835 

0.39930 

719.9956 

4.24 

34 

17 

.4649 

8.87 

0.653 

1.476 

0.96 

7.04 

0.85 

0.17906 

0.39973 

719.9345 

3.69 

35 

20 

.4589 

8.44 

0.217 

1.414 

4- 0.31 

7.05 

1.08 

0.18029 

0.40046 

710.0,334 

4.70 

36 


.5112 

7.99 

0.182 

1.412 

— 0.25 

7.06 

1.19 

0.18031 

0.40048 

710.0755 

4.24 

37 

21 

.4383 

9.40 

0.531 

1.387 

+ 0.74 

7.07 

1.57 

0.18040 

0. 40053 

710.1959 

1.71 

38 

22 

.4837 

9.19 

0.457 

1.355 

+ 0.62 

7.07 

1.50 

0.18038 

0.40052 

710.1761 

4.33 

39 

23 

.4763 

8.97 

0.533 

l.:>22 

— 0.70 

7.06 

1.21 

0.18020 

0.40041 

710.0828 

4.33 

40 

24 

.4738 

9.11 

0.385 

1.287 

4- 0.50 

7.05 

1.56 

0.17986 

0.40022 

710.1931 

4.93 

41 

25 

.4407 

8.88 

0.169 

1.250 

0.21 

7.04 

1.63 

0.17939 

0.39992 

710.2122 

4.64 

42 

27 

.4^63 

8.64 

0.660 

1.166 

0.77 

7.02 

0.85 

0.17798 

0.39909 

729.9294 

4.50 

43 

28 

.4570 

8.87 

0.834 

1.120 

0.93 

7.00 

0.94 

0.17704 

0.39851 

719.9731 

3.86 

44 

29 

.4608 

8.07 

0.204 

1.075 

0.22 

6.98 

0.87 

0.17597 

0.39787 

719.9395 

4.77 

45 

30 

.4631 

7.83 

0.208 

1.027 

0.21 

6.96 

0.66 

0.17475 

0.39694 

719.8195 

5.00 

46 

31 

.4574 

8.10 

0.455 

0.979 

0.45 

6.94 

0.71 

0.17341 

0.39633 

719.8513 

4.33 

47 

Feb. 1 

.4183 

7.74 

0.083 

0.931 

0.08 

6.92 

0.74 

0.17198 

0.39549 

719.8692 

4.42 

48 

2 

.4519 

8.18 

0.370 

0.879 

0.33 

6.90 

0.98 

0.17031 

0.39448 

719.9912 

4.50 

49 

3 

.4695 

7.84 

0,192 

0.827 

0.16 

6.87 

0.81 

0.16853 

0.39342 

719.9085 

4.50 

50 

7 

.4167 

7.84 

0.405 

0.624 

0.25 

6.73 

0.86 

0.16040 

0.38860 

7J9.9345 

4.33 

51 

8 

.3985 

7.83 

0.111 

0.574 

0.06 

6.70 

1.07 

0.15810 

0.38724 

710.0294 

4.46 

52 

9 

.3937 

7.79 

0.365 

0.523 

+ 0.19 

6.66 

0.94 

0.15566 

0.38580 

719.9731 

3.69 

53 


.4628 

6.96 

0.960 

0.520 

— 0.50 

6.66 

0.82 

0.15548 

0.38569 

719.9138 

1.95 

54 

10 

.4115 

7.85 

0.755 

0.472 

+ 0.36 

6.62 

0.87 

0. 15305 

0.38426 

719.9395 

3.86 

55 

11 

.4027 

7.53 

0.101 

0.423 

+ 0.04 

6.58 

0.91 

0.15041 

0.38271 

719.9590 

1.26 

56 


.4540 

7.10 

0.017 

0.420 

— 0.01 

6.58 

0.53 

0.15027 

0.38263 

719.7243 

2.44 

57 

13 

.3960 

7.23 

0,780 

0.325 

+ 0.25 

6,49 

0.49 

0.14483 

0.37945 

719.6902 

2.25 

58 


.4430 

7.48 

0.665 

0.323 

0.21 

6.49 

0.78 

0.14469 

0.37938 

719.8921 

1.71 

59 

14 

.4049 

7.30 

0.672 

0.277 

0.19 

6.45 

0.66 

0.14186 

0.37773 

719.8195 

3.86 

60 

15 

.3705 

7.55 

0.501 

0.232 

0.12 

6.40 

1.03 

0.13894 

0.37604 

710.0128 

3.86 

61 

16 

.3871 

7.43 

0.303 

0.186 

0.06 

6.36 

1.01 

0.13578 

0.37420 

7J 0.0043 

4.50 

62 

17 

.3859 

7.03 

0.262 

0.141 

0.04 

6.32 

0.67 

0.13260 

0.37237 

719.8261 

4.97 

63 

19 

.3683 

6.83 

0.004 

+ 0.055 

+ 0.00 

6.22 

-0.61 

0.12609 

0,36863 

719.7853 

3.77 


Hosted by 


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EQUATIONS OF CONDITION. 
Equatorial^ Santiago — Continued . 


ccxxix 


N*. 

Date. 

Wash. M. T. 

obs'd r. 

2r. 

IDA- 

^tD,8,. 

n. 

n. 

loge. 

log. S, 

log. n. 

p. 

64 

1852.— Feb. 20 

.3682 

II 
6.86 

0.417 

II 
+ 0.014 

+ 0.01 

II 
6.17 

II 

-0.68 

0.12270 

0.36670 

rj9.8325 

4.50 

65 

21 

.3740 

6.86 

0.589 

— 0.027 

— 0.02 

6.13 

0.75 

0.11924 

0.36473 

ri9.8751 

4.33 

66 

22 

.3561 

6.79 

0.538 

0.066 

0.04 

6.08 

0.75 

0.11583 

0.36279 

719.8751 

2.67 

67 

23 

.3510 

6.22 

0.626 

-0.104 

0.07 

6.03 

0.26 

0.11226 

0.36078 

n9.4150 

4.13 

68 

24 

.3469 

6.70 

1.027 

0.142 

0.15 

5 98 

0.85 

0.10867 

0.35876 

n9.9294 

4.13 

69 

25 

.3493 

6.50 

0.554 

0.178 

0.09 

5.93 

0.66 

0.10502 

0.35671 

W9.8195 

4.24 

70 

26 

.3485 

6.59 

0.571 

0.213 

0.12 

5.88 

0.83 

0.10135 

0.35466 

n9.9191 

4.24 

71 

27 

.3980 

6.53 

0.532 

0.249 

0.13 

5.82 

0.84 

0.09745 

0.35248 

n9.9243 

3.86 

72 

28 

.3290 

6.60 

0.356 

0.280 

0.10 

5.78 

0.93 

0.09395 

0.35054 

?i9.9685 

3.50 

73 


.3842 

6.33 

0.275 

0.282 

0.08 

5.77 

0.64 

0.09375 

0.35043 

n9.8062 

3.27 

74 

29 

.3210 

6.08 

0.173 

0.311 

05 

5.73 

0.40 

0.09020 

0.34847 

719.6021 

3.27 

75 

Mar. 1 

.3288 

6.24 

0.266 

0.343 

0.09 

5.68 

0.65 

0.08637 

0.34636 

719.8129 

4.75 

76 

2 

.3370 

6.37 

0.151 

0.373 

0.05 

5.63 

0.79 

0.08251 

0.34424 

719.8976 

5.14 

77 

3 

.3171 

6.21 

0.251 

0.402 

0.10 

5.58 

0.73 

0.07874 

0.34218 

719.8633 

4.33 

78 

4 

.3347 

5.89 

0.457 

0.431 

0.20 

5.53 

0.56 

0.07480 

0.34004 

719.7482 

4.13 

79 

6 

.3411 

5.90 

0.426 

0.487 

0.21 

5.43 

0.68 

0.06700 

0.33582 

719.8325 

4.24 

80 

7 

.3246 

6.06 

0.437 

0.514 

0.22 

5.38 

0.90 

0.06316 

0.33376 

719.9542 

3.50 

81 

8 

.3274 

5.86 

0.474 

0.540 

0.26 

5.33 

0.79 

0.05924 

33166 

719.8976 

4.24 

82 

9 

.3192 

5.90 

0.082 

0.565 

— 0.05 

5.28 

0.67 

0.05535 

0.32959 

719.8261 

3.93 

83 

10 

.3031 

6.99 

0.027 

0.590 

+ 0.02 

5.24 

1.73 

0.05149 

0.32743 

7x0.2380 

2.83 

84 

11 

.3225 

5.77 

0.3J2 

0.615 

-. 0.19 

5.19 

0.77 

0.04748 

0.32542 

719.8865 

4.42 

85 

12 

.2890 

5.84 

0.100 

0.639 

— 0.06 

5.14 

0.76 

0. 04368 

0.32342 

719.8808 

3.00 

86 


.3273 

5.98 

0.107 

0.640 

+ 0.07 

5.14 

0.77 

0.04353 

0.32334 

719.8865 

4.41 

87 

13 

.3111 

5.51 

0.346 

0.663 

— 0,23 

5.09 

0.65 

0.03968 

0.32132 

719.8129 

4.50 

88 

14 

.3157 

5.64 

0.279 

0.687 

0.19 

5.05 

0.78 

0.03573 

0.31926 

7J9.8921 

4.33 

89 

15 

.3128 

5.57 

0.238 

— 0.710 

— 0.17 

5.00 

—0.74 

0.03182 

0.31723 

719.8692 

4.80 


FORMATION OP EQUATIONS OP CONDITION. 

MARS II. 

Meridian^ Santiago. 


N°. 

Date, 

Limb. 

log. 5. 

log. C. 

log. e. 

log.g. 

log. S. 

log. n. 

k\ 

S. 

1 

1851.— D6C.19 

S. 

710.32615 

0.25436 

7x0.11378 

0.01665 

7x9.76589 

0.8976 

+ 1.080 

— 0.5833 

2 

21 

S. 

710.30522 

0.21250 

7x0.12038 

0.02396 

7x9.81351 

0.8692 

1.117 

0.6509 

3 

22 

s. 

710.29437 

0.19080 

7x0.12362 

0.02760 

7?9. 83347 

0.9494 

1.136 

0.6815 

4 

24 

s. 

710.27180 

0.14568 

7x0.12995 

0.03478 

7x9.86729 

0.7993 

1.174 

0.7367 

5 

•25 

s. 

710.26007 

0.12220 

7x0.13303 

0.03831 

7x9.88150 

1.0128 

1.193 

0.7612 

6 

26 

s. 

710.24801 

0.09808 

7x0.13606 

0.04182 

7x9.89409 

0.9085 

1.212 

0.7836 

7 

27 

s. 

710.23560 

0.07326 

7x0.13901 

0.04526 

7x9.90531 

0.9294 

1.232 

0.8041 

8 

28 

s. 

710.22389 

0.04984 

7x0.14190 

0.04865 

729.91408 

0,9494 

1.251 

0.8205 

9 

30 

s. 

710.19613 

9.99432 

7x0.14745 

0.05528 

7x9.93064 

0.7709 

1.290 

0.8524 

10 

31 

s. 

720.18212 

9.96630 

7x0.15011 

0.05849 

7x9.93671 

0.6990 

1.309 

— 0.8644 

11 

1852.— Jan. 1 

N. 

710.16745 

9.93696 

0.15268 

0.06264 

0.59890 

7x0.3424 

1.334 

+ 3.9710 

12 

2 

N, 

710.15269 

9.90744 

0.15516 

0.06471 

0.59955 

0.5682 

1.347 

3.9769 

13 

4 

N. 

nO. 12112 

9.84430 

0.16177 

0.07065 

0.60259 

0.3424 

1.385 

4.0049 

14 

5 

N. 

710.10443 

9.81092 

0.16389 

0.07308 

0.60389 

1.0212 

1.400 

+ 4.0169 

15 

6 

S. 

710.08707 

9.77620 

7x0.16422 

0.07606 

7x9.95080 

0.8195 

1.419 

— 0.8S29 

16 

7 

S. 

7x0.06899 

9.74004 

7x0.16779 

0.07865 

7x9.95216 

0.8325 

1.436 

— 0.8957 

17 

8 

N. 

7x0.05013 

9.70232 

0.16797 

0.08118 

60844 

0.7404 

1.453 

+ 4.0592 

18 

9 

S. 

7x0.03054 

9.66314 

7x0.16972 

0.08154 

719.94655 

0.8261 

1.456 

— 0.8842 

19 

10 

N. 

7x0.00976 

9.62158 

0.17134 

0.08581 

0.61256 

0.7076 

1.485 

-f 4.0979 

20 

11 

N. 

7x9.98807 

9.57820 

0.17285 

0.08794 

0.61479 

0.4771 

•f 1.499 

+ 4.1190 


Hosted by 


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ccxxx 


EQUATIONS OF CONDITION. 

Meridian^ Santiago — Continued. 


N°. 

Date. 

Limb. 

log. b. 

log. C. 

log. e. 

log. g. 

log. S, 

log. n. 

h^ 

s. 

21 

1852.-Jan. 12 

S. 

n9. 96524 

9.53254 

710.17423 

0.08893 

7x9.92727 

0.8129 

+ 1.513 

— 0.8458 

22 

13 

N. 

n9. 94105 

9.48435 

0.17547 

0.09183 

0.61965 

0.3424 

1.526 

+ 4.1653 

23 

14 

S. 

n9. 91564 

9.43334 

710.17658 

0.09353 

7x9.91046 

0.8388 

1.539 

— 0.8137 

24 

15 

N. 

n9. 88754 

9.37714 

0.17756 

0.09516 

0.62486 

0.4624 

1.550 

4- 4.2165 

25 

16 

S. 

n9. 85965 

9.32136 

7x0.17840 

0.09658 

7x9.88829 

0.3424 

1.560 

— 0.7732 

26 

17 

N. 

n9. 82868 

9.25942 

0.179C9 

0.09790 

0.63053 

0.2041 

1.570 

+ 4.2710 

27 

18 

S. 

719.79534 

9.19274 

7x0.17964 

0.09902 

7x9.86004 

0.8261 

1.578 

— 0.7245 

28 

19 

N. 

719.75923 

9.12052 

0.18005 

0.10002 

0.63652 

0.8921 

1.585 

+ 4.3303 

29 

20 

N. 

719.71984 

9.04174 

0.18030 

0.10086 

0.63964 

0.0000 

1.591 

4.3615 

30 

21 

N. 

7^9.67652 

8.95510 

0.18041 

0.10153 

0.64284 

O.OOOO 

1.596 

4.3938 

31 

22 

S. 

719.62839 

8.85884 

7x0.18037 

0.10205 

7j9 78017 

0.9085 

1.600 

0.6028 

32 

23 

N. 

719.57425 

8.75056 

0.18018 

0.10258 

0.64950 

7x9.8451 

1.604 

+ 4.4617 

33 

24 

S. 

719.51241 

8.62688 

7x0.17985 

0.10254 

7x9.72411 

0.1761 

1.603 

— 0.5298 

34 

25 

N. 

719.44026 

8 48258 

0.17936 

0.10256 

0.65634 

7x9.0000 

1.603 

+ 4.5325 

35 

27 

N. 

7x9.24545 

8.09293 

0.17794 

10209 

0.66349 

7x0,2041 

1.601 

4- 4.6078 

36 

28 

S. 

719.10096 

7.80398 

7x0.18000 

0.10159 

7x9.56808 

0.6812 

1.597 

— 0.3699 

37 

29 

N. 

718.88289 

7.36784 

0.17595 

0.10096 

0.67090 

0,3424 

1.592 

-f 4.6871 

38 

30 

S. 

718.42415 

6.45036 

7x0.17474 

0.10015 

7x9.41847 

7x9.6021 

1.586 

~ 0,2621 

39 

31 

N. 

8.36642 

6.33490 

0.17340 

0.09921 

0.67863 

7x0.1139 

1.579 

+ 4.7712 

40 

Feb. 1 

S. 

8.86368 

7.32942 

7x0.17192 

0.09809 

7x9.19818 

7x9.7782 

1.571 

— 0.1571 

41 

2 

N. 

9.08945 

7.78096 

0.17030 

0.09682 

0.68652 

7x0.1761 

1.562 

-j- 4.8587 

42 

3 

S. 

9.23724 

8.07654 

7x0.16856 

0.09539 

7x8.64345 

7x0.7076 

1.551 

— 0.0440 

43 

4 

N. 

9.34731 

8.29668 

0.16669 

0.09383 

0.69473 

9.0000 

1.541 

4- 4.9514 

44 

7 

S. 

9,57046 

8.74298 

7x0.16036 

0.08829 

9.31387 

0.1461 

1.502 

0.2060 

45 

8 

S. 

9.62506 

8.85218 

7x0.15802 

0.08618 

9.43696 

7x9.0000 

1.487 

0.2735 

46 

9 

N. 

9.67355 

8.94916 

0.15557 

0.08395 

0.71640 

7x0.0414 

1.472 

5.2047 

47 

10 

S. 

9.71718 

9.03638 

wO. 15300 

0.08154 

9.61731 

7x9.6990 

1.455 

0.4143 

48 

11 

N. 

9.75680 

9.11566 

0.150.36 

0.07910 

0.72552 

7x0.3817 

1.440 

5.3152 

49 

13 

N. 

9.82663 

9.25532 

0.14477 

0.07378 

0.73494 

7i9.3010 

1.405 

5.4:>17 

50 

14 

N. 

9.85776 

9.31758 

0.14183 

0.07096 

0.73975 

9.0000 

1.387 

5.4922 

51 

15 

N. 

9.88578 

9.37562 

0.13884 

0.06806 

0.74464 

7x0.1461 

1.368 

5.5514 

52 

16 

S. 

9.91399 

9.43004 

7x0.13572 

0,06501 

9.94655 

7x0.4914 

1.349 

0.8842 

53 

17 

N. 

9.93961 

9.48128 

0.13255 

0.0^191 

0.75459 

7x0.5798 

1.329 

5.6832 

54 

18 

S. 

9.96379 

9.52984 

7x0.12930 

0.05869 

0.02386 

7x0.4150 

1.310 

1.0565 

55 

19 

N. 

9.98670 

9.57546 

0.12601 

0.05541 

0.76483 

7x0.8751 

1.290 

5.8187 

56 

20 

S. 

0.00847 

9.61900 

7x0.12261 

0.05214 

0.09237 

7x0.6335 

1.272 

1.2370 

57 

21 

N. 

0.02919 

9.66044 

0.11918 

0.04862 

0.77534 

7x0.7243 

1.2.^1 

5.9613 

58 

22 

N. 

0.04897 

9.70000 

0.11569 

0.04512 

0.78070 

wO.7076 

1.231 

6.0353 

69 

23 

N. 

0.06789 

9.73784 

0.11215 

0.04153 

0.78610 

7x0,6233 

1.211 

6.1109 

60 

24 

S. 

0.08602 

9,77410 

7x0.10856 

0.03783 

0.20868 

7x0.3617 

1.191 

1.6206 

61 

25 

N. 

0.10343 

9.80892 

0.10492 

0.03422 

0.79714 

7x0,9294 

1.170 

6.2682 

62 

26 

S. 

0.12016 

9.84238 

7x0.10112 

0.03045 

0.26119 

7x0.6335 

1.151 

1.8247 

63 

27 

N. 

0.13627 

9.87460 

0.09754 

0.02667 

0.80840 

«0.7993 

1.131 

6.4329 

64 

28 

S. 

0.15182 

9.90570 

7x0.09382 

0.02281 

0.30870 

7x0.5563 

l.Uk 

2.0361 

65 

29 

N. 

0.16682 

9.93570 

0,09003 

0.01896 

0.81991 

7x1.1461 

1.091 

6.6056 

66 

Mar. 1 

N. 

0.18132 

9.96470 

0.08623 

0.01502 

0.82574 

7x0.3802 

1.072 

6.6948 

67 

2 

N. 

0.19536 

9.99278 

0.08242 

0.01103 

0.83162 

7x1.0792 

1.052 

6.7862 

68 

3 

N. 

0.20895 

0.01996 

0.07858 

0.00709 

0.83757 

7x0.9031 

1.033 

6.8797 

69 

4 

N. 

0.22213 

0.04632 

0.07472 

0,00307 

0.84355 

7x0.8513 

1.014 

6.9752 

70 

6 

N. 

0.24736 

0.09678 

0.06697 

9,99498 

0.85566 

7x0.9294 

0.977 

7.1723 

71 

7 

S. 

0.25943 

0.12092 

7x0.06307 

9.99087 

0,47148 

7x0.5185 

0.959 

2.9613 

72 

8 

N. 

0.27119 

0.14444 

0.05917 

9.98680 

0.8^793 

7x0.9294 

0.941 

7.3779 

73 

9 

S. 

0.28264 

0.16734 

7x0.05526 

9.98266 

0.50683 

7x0.8129 

0.923 

3.2124 

74 

10 

N, 

0.29379 

0,18964 

0.05134 

9.97854 

0.88035 

7x0.7708 

0.906 

7.5918 

75 

11 

S. 

0.30467 

0.21140 

7x0.04743 

9.97438 

0.54046 

7x0.7993 

0.889 

3.4711 

76 

12 

N. 

0.31528 

0.23262 

0.04351 

9.97023 

0.89289 

7x0.9912 

0.872 

7.8143 

77 

13 

S. 

32564 

0.25334 

7x0.03959 

9.96605 

0.57264 

7x0.9243 

0.855 

3.7380 

78 

14 

N. 

0.33575 

0.27356 

0.03568 

9.96189 

0,90555 

7x0.9731 

0.839 

8.0455 

79 

15 

S. 

0.34564 

0,29334 

7x0.03179 

9.95771 

0.60343 

7x0.8692 

+ 0.823 

+ 4.0126 


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EQUATIONS OF CONDITIONS CCXXXi 

FORMATION OP SUPPLEMENTARY EQUATIONS OP CONDITION. 

MARS II. 

Meridian, Sardiago, 


FORMATION OP ADDITIONAL EQUATIONS OP CONDITION. 


(mOM DIRECT MEASUREMENT OP DIAMETERS.) 

MARIS II. 

Meridian^ Santiago, 


N°. 

Date. 

Wash. M. T. 

37 

1852.— January 29 

.4727 

38 

30 

.4689 

39 

31 

.4650 

47 

Febru'y 10 

.4278 


obs'd r. 


8.10 
7.95 
7.55 
7.00 


6.99 
6.97 
6.95 
6.62 


- 1.11 

0.98 

0.60 

■ 0.38 


log. e. 


If^g. s. 


0.17595 
0.17474 
0.17340 
0.15300 


0.39785 
0.39712 
0.39032 
38422 


FORMATION OP EQUATIONS OP CONDITION. 

MARS II. 

Equatorial, Washington, 


N^ 

Dafe. 

Limb, 

log. h. 

log. C. 

log. e. 

log. g. 

log. S, 

log. n. 

7.2 

s. 

1 

1851.— Dec.21 

S. 

nO. 30522 

0.21250 

7?0. 12038 

0.02396 

719.81351 

0.8573 

+ 1.117 

— 0.6509 

2 

22 

S. 

?20.29437 

0.19080 

7:0.12362 

0.02760 

7?9. 83347 

0.4914 

1.136 

0.6315 

3 

26 

s. 

nO. 24801 

0.09808 

710.13606 

0.04182 

719.89409 

0.8388 

1.212 

0.7836 

4 

27 

s. 

nO. 2.3560 

0.07326 

710.13901 

0.04526 

7i9. 90.531 

0.5315 

1.232 

0.804L 

5 

30 

s. 

wO. 19613 

9.99432 

710.14745 

0.05528 

7:9.93064 

0.7634 

1.290 

0.8524 

6 

31 

s. 

710.18212 

9.96630 

710.15011 

0.05849 

n9. 93671 

0.7160 

1.309 

— 0.8644 

' 

1852.— Jan. 1 

N, 

710.16745 

9.93696 

0.15268 

0.06264 

0.59890 

7i0.5051 

1.334 

4- 3.9710 

4.0U49 

8 

4 

N. 

710.12112 

9.84430 

0.16177 

0.07065 

0.60259 

0.5911 

1.385 

9 

5 

N. 

710.10443 

9.81092 

0,16389 

0.07308 

0. 60389 

0.9243 

1.400 

4.0169 

10 

10 

N. 

710.00976 

9.62158 

0.17134 

0.08581 

0.61256 

0.8388 

1.485 

+ 4.0979 

11 

16 

S. 

7z9. 85965 

9.32136 

710.178^0 

0.09658 

729.88829 

0.7404 

1.560 

— 7732 

12 

17 

N. 

7i9.82t68 

9.25942 

0.17909 

0.09790 

0.63053 

0.6335 

i.-^ro 

+ 4.2710 
4.5325 

13 

25 

N. 

719.44026 

8.48258 

0.17936 

0.10256 

65634 

TiO.O 00 

1.G03 

14 

27 

N. 

719.24545 

8.09296 

0.17794 

0. 10209 

0G349 

0.6021 

1.601 

+ 4.6078 
— 0.1571 

15 

Feb. 1 

S. 

8.86368 

7.32942 

710.17192 

0.09809 

729.19618 

0.2041 

1.571 

16 

2 

N. 

9.08945 

7.78096 

0.17030 

0.09682 

0.68652 

710.0414 

1.562 

+ 4.8587 
4,9514 


4 

N. 

9.34731 

8.29608 

0.16669 

0.09383 

0.69473 

9.4771 

1.541 

18 

8 

S. 

9.62506 

8.85218 

710.15802 

0.08818 

9.43696 

719.3010 

1.487 

0.2735 

19 

9 

N. 

9.67355 

8.94915 

0.15557 

0.08395 

0.71640 

719.4771 

1 472 

5.2047 

20 

18 

S. 

9.96379 

9.52964 

710.12930 

0.05869 

0.02386 

9.6021 

1.310 

1.05G5 

21 

19 

N. 

9.98670 

9.57546 

0.12801 

0.05541 

0.76483 

710.4914 

1.290 

5.8187 

22 

20 

S. 

0.00847 

9.61900 

710.12261 

0. 052 14 

0.09237 

nO.5563 

1.272 

I 2370 

23 

21 

N. 

0.02919 

9.66044 

0.11918 

0.04862 

0.77534 

710.9294 

1.251 

5.9813 

24 

Mar. 12 

• N. 

0.31528 

0.23282 

0.01351 

9.97023 

0.89289 

711.0086 

0.872 

7.8143 

25 

13 

S. 

0., 32.564 

0.25334 

TiO. 03959 

9.96605 

0.57264 

710.9191 

0.855 

3.7380 

26 

14 

N. 

0.33575 

0.273.56 

0.03568 

9.96189 

, 90555 

710.9138 

0.839 

8.0455 

27 

15 

S. 

0.34564 

0.29334 

710.03179 

9.95771 

0.60343 

710.9031 

+ 0.823 

+ 4.0126 


log. n. 


710.0453 
7i9.9912 

719.7782 
7i9.5798 


w. 

D 3. 

Limb. 

log. h. 

log. C. 

log. g. 

log. S, 

log. n. 

k\ 

S, 

p. 

1 

1852.-Jan. 24 

N.S. 

7z9,51690 

8.63586 

719.66275 

9.405,52 

0.2041 

-fO.212 

4-0.2544 

3 92 

2 

23 

N.S. 

7J.9. 36013 

8.32232 

7t9. 65705 

9.52868 


0.206 

0.3378 


3 

33 

N.S. 

718.43862 

6.47930 

719.58689 

9.76827 


0.149 

0.5865 


4 

Feb. 2 

N.S. 

9.08058 

7.76322 

719.6137 i 

9.85449 

9.9542 

0.169 

0.7153 

4 31 

5 

3 

N.S. 

9.23163 

8.06526 

719.59988 

9.89437 

0.2304 

0.158 

+0.7841 

4.15 


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ccxxxu 


EQUATIONS OF CONDITION. 


FORMATION OF ADDITIONAL EQUATIONS OF CONDITION, 

MARS II. 

Equatorial^ WasMngton, 


N°. 

Date. 

Wash. M.T. 

obs'd r. 

2r. 

ii¥o. 

^-DA- 

*'o- 

n. 

log. e. 

log. S, 

log. n. 

p. 

1 

1852.— Jan. 24 

.4245 

10.17 

0.220 

// 
4- 1.288 

II 
+ 0.28 

II 
7.06 

II 

—2.78 

0.18003 

0.40031 

wO.4440 

3.14 

2 

26 

.4169 

9.64 

0.260 

1.209 

0.31 

7.04 

2.24 

0. 17905 

0.39972 

n0.3502 

3.86 

3 

30 

.4509 

9.57 

0.239 

1.027 

0.25 

6.97 

2.33 

0.17533 

0.39749 

nO.3674 

2.67 

4 

Feb. 2 

.4077 

9.53 

0.077 

0.881 

0.07 

6.91 

2.51 

0. 17039 

0.39453 

wO.3997 

3.69 

5 

3 

.4090 

9.74 

0.299 

+ 0.830 

4- 0.25 

6.88 

—2.58 

0.16864 

0.39348 

n0.4116 

3.86 


FORMATION OF EQUATIONS OF CONDITION. 

MARS II. 

Meridian^ Greenwich. 
(observed center, or both limbs.) 


N». 

D.ate. 

log. h. 

log. C. 

log. g. 

log. S, 

log. n. 

kK 

S, 

1 

1851.— Dec. 8 

nO. 42772 

0.45750 

7x9.79580 

9.75220 

7x9.30103 

4-0.3905 

4-0.5652 

2 

26 

nO. 25040 

0.10286 

n9. 84487 

7x9.32695 

0.74819 

0.4895 

—0.2123 

3 

1852.— Jan. 5 

,iO. 10775 

9.81756 

719.85804 

7x9.53882 

0.81954 

0.5201 

0.3458 

4 

7 

nO. 07260 

9 74726 

7x9.85916 

7x9.53920 

0.77815 

0.5228 

0.3461 

5 

9 

710.03435 

9.67076 

7x9.85961 

7x9.52840 

0.86923 

0,5239 

0.3376 

6 

20 

n9. 72785 

9.05776 

7x9.85241 

7x9.12090 

0.57978 

0.5068 

0.1321 

7 

22 

n9. 63826 

8.87858 

7x9.84938 

7x8.82020 

0.62325 

0.4998 

0.0661 

8 

23 

7x9.58541 

8.77288 

7x9.84770 

7x8.47567 

0.76343 

0.49J9 

—0.0299 

9 

28 

7x9.13333 

7.86872 

7x9.83752 

9.26387 

0.59106 

0.4732 

4-0.1836 

10 

29 

n8. 93513 

7.47232 

7x9.83517 

9.36680 

0.41497 

0.4681 

0.2327 

11 

30 

7x8.56015 

6.72236 

7x9.83274 

9.45301 

0.39794 

0.4629 

0.2838 

12 

Feb. 3 

9.21196 

8.02598 

7x9.82220 

9.70706 

9.95424 

0.4410 

0.5094 

13 

6 

9.49464 

8.59134 

7x9.81355 

9.84528 

9.30103 

0.4237 

0.7003 

14 

9 

9.66445 

8.93096 

7x9.80438 

9.95890 

7x9,60206 

0.4062 

0.9097 

15 

10 

9.70895 

9.01996 

7x9.80124 

9.99277 

7x9.47712 

0.4004 

0.9835 

16 

11 

9.74930 

9.10066 

7x9.79805 

0.02507 

7x9.95424 

0.3945 

1.0594 

17 

14 

9.85182 

9.30570 

7x9.78827 

0.11361 

7x0.32222 

0.3772 

1.2990 

18 

18 

9.95915 

9.52036 

7i9. 77484 

0.21648 

7x0.20412 

0.3546 

1.6462 

19 

20 

0.00428 

9.61062 

r.9. 76802 

0.26286 

7x0,65321 

0.3436 

1.8317 

20 

26 

0.11693 

9.83592 

7x9.74742 

0.38657 

7x0.74819 

0.3125 

2.4354 

21 

28 

0.14881 

9,89968 

7x9.74057 

0.42359 

7x0.72428 

0.3028 

2.6521 

22 

Mar. 2 

0.19264 

9.98734 

7x9.73038 

0.47.596 

7x0.73239 

0.2889 

2.9920 

23 

3 

0.20632 

0.01470 

7x9". 72701 

0.49263 

7x0.70757 

0.2845 

3.1091 

24 

4 

0.21957 

0.04120 

719.72365 

0.50900 

7x0.80618 

0.2801 

3.2283 

25 

5 

0.23245 

0.06696 

7x9.72033 

0.52496 

7x0,72428 

0.2758 

3.3493 

26 

6 

0.24495 

0.09196 

719.7170 1 

0.54062 

nO. 85126 

0.2717 

3.4723 

27 

8 

0.26892 

0.1399a 

«9. 71045 

0.57102 

nO. 86923 

0.2635 

3.7241 

28 

9 

0.28042 

0.16290 

7x9.70719 

0.58578 

7x0.82607 

O.2602 

3.8528 

29 

12 

0.31322 

0.22850 

7x9.69757 

0.62848 

7x0.86332 

0.2484 

4.2509 

30 

17 

0.36292 

0.32790 

7x9.68217 

0.69 180 

7x0.90849 

0.2314 

4.9529 

31 

18 

0.37222 

0.34650 

719.67918 

0.70751 

7x0.98677 

0.2282 

5.0992 

32 

20 

0.39023 

0.38252 

7x9.67331 

0.73229 

7x0.94448 

0.2221 

5.3975 

33 

22 

0.40752 

0.41710 

7x9.66780 

0.75612 

nO. 91908 

0.2166 

§.7032 

34 

23 

0.41592 

0.43390 

n9. 66477 

0.76785 

7x0 88649 

0.2136 

5.8594 

35 

25 

0.43224 

0.46654 

n9. 65924 

0.79078 

710.95904 

0.2082 

6.1770 

36 

27 

' 0.44796 

0.49798 

^9 65389 

0.81306 

rxO. 99564 

0.2031 

4-6.5021 


Hosted by 


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EQUATIONS OF CONDITION, 


CCXXXlll 


FORMATION OP EQUATIONS OP CONDITION, 

MARS II. 

Meridian^ Cape of Good Hope, 
(observed center.) 


^N°. 

Date. 

log. J. 

log. C. 

log. g. 

log. S. 

log. n. 

h\ 

S, 

1 

1851— Dec. 22 

nO. 29707 

0.19620 

0.02949 

0.21998 

0.60959 

1.15 

+1.6595 

2 

26 

n0.25102 

0.10410 

0.04369 

0.20252 

0.57634 

1.22 

1.5941 

3 

29 

nO. 21298 

0.02802 

0.05389 

0.19474 

0.54654 

1.28 

1.5658 

4 

30 

nO. 19951 

0.00108 

0.05717 

0.19318 

0.60206 

1.30 

1,5602 

5 

1852— Jan. 1 

nO. 17127 

9.94460 

0.06354 

0.19153 

0.65225 

1.34 

1.5543 

6 

2 

nO. 15644 

9.91494 

0.06661 

0.19151 

0.63043 

1.36 

1.5542 

7 

3 

nO. 14107 

9.88420 

0.06959 

0.19195 

0.47276 

1.38 

1.5558 

8 

5 

nO. 10861 

9.81928 

0.07532 

0.19451 

0.50651 

1.41 

1.5649 

9 

9 

wO. 03537 

9.67280 

0.08556 

0.20515 

0.41830 

1.48 

1.6038 

10 

10 

nO. 01494 

9.63194 

0.08783 

0.20890 

0.35793 

1.50 

1.6177 

11 

12 

n9. 97100 

9.54406 

0.09200 . 

0.21762 

0.44091 

1.53 

1.6505 

12 

13 

. n9. 94724 

9.49654 

0.09391 

0.22259 

0.52375 

1.54 

1.6695 

13 

14 

n9. 92210 

9.44626 

0.09566 

9.22789 

0.50651 

1.55 

1.6900 

14 

15 

719.89540 

9.39286 

0.09727 

0.23353 

0.37291 

1.57 

1.7121 

15 

16 

n9. 86698 

9.33602 

0.09875 

0.23952 

0.40140 

1.58 

1.7359 

16 

19 

n9. 76845 

9.13896 

0.10225 

0.25921 

0.30103 

1.60 

1.8154 

17 

20 

n9. 72992 

9.06190 

0.10311 

0.26633 

0.16732 

1.61 

1.8464 

18 

21 

n9. 68764 

8.97734 

0.10384 

0.27367 

0.42651 

1.61 

1.8779 

19 

22 

n9. 64080 

8.88369 

0.10435 

0.28122 

0.07188 

1.62 

1.9108 

20 

23 

n9. 58829 

8.77864 

0.10473 

0.28899 

9.86923 

1.62 

1.9453 

21 

24 

n9. 52855 

8.65916 

0.10493 

0.29693 

9.11394 

1.62 

1.9812 

22 

26 

n9. 37676 

8.35558 

0.10486 

0.31338 

9.70757 

1.62 

2.0577 

23 

27 

n9. 27484 

8.15174 

0.10456 

0.32183 

7x9.79934 

1.62 

2.0981 

24 

29 

718.94785 

7.49776 

0.10351 

0.33917 

719.51851 

1.61 

2.1836 

25 

Feb. 2 

9.04355 

7.68916 

0.09950 

0.37530 

710.26007 

1.58 

2.3730 

26 

3 

9.20509 

8.01224 

0.09809 

0.38455 

719.94939 

1.56 

2.4241 

27 

4 

9.32257 

8.24720 

0.09656 

0.39391 

710.10380 

1.56 

2.4769 

28 

5 

9.41411 

8.43028 

0.09488 

0.40324 

710.29447 

1.55 

2.5307 

29 

6 

9.49108 

8.58422 

0.09307 

0.41283 

710.25768 

1.54 

2.5872 

30 

7 

9.55583 

8.71372 

0.09112 

0.42238 

710.33646 

1.52 

2.6447 

31 

9 

9.66204 

8. 92614 

0.08682 

0.44168 

710.55991 

1.49 

2,7649 

32 

10 

9.70677 

9.01560 

0.08447 

0.45139 

710.58433 

1.48 

2.8274 

33 

11 

9.74732 

9.09670 

0.08201 

0.46114 

710.62014 

1.46 

2.8916 

34 

12 

9.78440 

9.17086 

0.07944 

0.47094 

nO. 51455 

1.44 

2.9576 

35 

13 

9,81857 

9.23920 

0.07675 

0.48077 

710.38021 

1.42 

3.0253 

36 

14 

9.85025 

9.30256 

0.07395 

0.49063 

^710.44248 

1.41 

3.0948 

37 

16 

9.90742 

9.41690 

0.06805 

0.51040 

^710.60097 

1.37 

3.2389 

38 

17 

9.93341 

9.46888 

0.06497 

0.52030 

710.69548 

1.35 

3.3136 

39 

18 

9.95793 

9.51792 

0.06179 

0.53021 

710.68305 

1.33 

3.3901 

40 

19 

9.98114 

9.56434 

0.05853 

0.54014 

710.70672 

1.31 

3.4685 

41 

20 

0.00318 

9.60842 

0.05517 

0.55008 

710.81090 

1.29 

3.5488 

42 

21 

0.02415 

9.65036 

0.05175 

0.56001 

710.58883 

1.27 

3.6309 

43 

23 

0.06329 

9.72864 

0.04470 

0.57985 

710.81491 

1.22 

3.8006 

44 

24 

0. 08161 

9.76528 

0.04109 

0.58977 

nO. 86510 

1.21 

3.8884 

45 

25 

0.09919 

9.80044 

0.03741 

0.59969 

710.87622 

1.19 

3.9782 

46 

28 

0.14802 

9.89810 

0.02607 

0.62920 

710.90526 

1.13 

+4.2579 


Z 60 


Hosted by 


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ccxxxiv 


EQUATIONS OF CONDITION. 


FORMATION OF EQUATIONS OF CONDITION. 

MARS II. 

Meridian, Kremsmunster. 

(observed center. ) 


N». 

Date. 

log. 6. 

log. C. 

log. g. 

log. S, 

log. n. 

h\ 

S, 

1 

1852--Jan. 

20 

n9. 72943 

9.06092 

n9. 80011 

718.71850 

0.00000 

+ 0.398 

— 0.0523 

2 


24 

n9. 52777 

8.65760 

n9. 79257 

8.94498 

0.39794 

0.385 

+ 0.0881 

3 

Feb. 

8 

9.61282 

8.82770 

n9. 75141 

9.96052 

9.47712 

0.318 

0.9131 

4 


9 

9.66261 

8.92728 

n9. 74818 

9,99317 

9.30103 

0.314 

0.9844 

5 


10 

9.70728 

9.01662 

719.74494 

0.02441 

9.47712 

0.309 

1.0578 

6 


24 

0.08183 

9,76572 

n9. 69755 

0.36021 

710.36173 

0.248 

2.2920 

7 


25 

0.09940 

9.80086 

n9. 69414 

0.37929 

nO. 76343 

0.245 

2.3949 

8 


26 

0.11628 

9.83462 

n9. 69075 

0.39789 

710.25527 

0.241 

2.4997 

9 

Mar. 

6 

0.24446 

0.09098 

n9. 66101 

0.54786 

0.43136 

0.210 

3.5307 

10 


7 

0.25663 

0.11532 

n9. 65783 

0.56288 

710.88081 

0.207 

3.6549 

11 


8 

0.26846 

0.13898 

719.65466 

0.57763 

710.54407 

0.204 

3.7812 

12 


14 

0.33340 

0.26886 

719.63630 

0.66079 

711.03743 

0.187 

4.5792 

13 


16 

0.35305 

0.30816 

719.63042 

0.68669 

710.88081 

+ 0.182 

-f. 4.8606 


Hosted by 


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EQUATIONS OF CONDITION, 


CCXXXV 


FORMATION OF EQUATIONS OF CONDITION. 

VENUS I, 

Equatorial^ Santiago, 


N\ 

Date. 

Limb. 

log. h. 

log. C. 

log. e. 

log./. 

1 

log. S, 

log. n. 

Z:2. 

5. 

p. 

1 

I850.-Oct. 19 

N. 

nO. 45226 

0.50658 

0.24506 

TzO. 36914 

9.91385 

0.41766 

0.5911 

+ 0.673 

+ 2.6161 

5.02 

2 

20 

N. 

nO. 44462 

0.49130 

0.25080 

710.11035 

9.89115 

0.55467 

0.4624 

0.606 

3.5865 

5.13 

3 

22 

N. 

nO. 42872 

0.45950 

0.26264 

0.23558 

9.90385 

0.81619 

0.2788 

0.642 

6.5493 

5.20 

4 

23 

N. 

wO. 42059 

0.44324 

0.26862 

710.45801 

9.90074 

0.28377 

0.6021 

0.633 

1.9221 

5.29 

5 

24 

N. 

wO. 41237 

0.42680 

0.27461 

710.02861 

9.87639 

0.56272 

0.5563 

0.566 

3,6536 

5.26 

6 

25 

N. 

nO. 40372 

0.40950 

0.28077 

0.23646 

9.94802 

0.81649 

0.1761 

0.787 

6.5537 

5.04 

7 

26 

N. 

nO. 39521 

0.39248 

0,28693 

0.27582 

9.89323 

0.81888 

0.6021 

0.612 

6.5899 

5.15 

8 

29 

N. 

nO. 36838 

0.33882 

0.30578 

0.77572 

9.85101 

1.02302 

710.1139 

0.504 

10.5444 

3.10 

9 


N. 

nO. 36782 

0.33770 

0.3G617 

0.75834 

0.00090 

1.02539 

710.0000 

1.004 

10.6020 

3.48 

10 

30 

N. 

«0.3i^64 

0.31934 

0.31246 

0.53606 

9.95368 

0.91332 

rt9.6990 

0.808 

8.1906 

3.75 

11 

31 

N. 

nO. 34900 

0.30006 

0.31899 

9.45834 

9.96579 

0.70396 

0.0792 

0.854 

5.0578 

3.38 

12 

Nov. 1 

N. 

wO. 33931 

0.28068 

0.32546 

0.52297 

9.93819 

0.90510 

0.0000 

0.745 

8.0372 

4.99 

13 

2 

N. 

nO. 32916 

0.26038 

0.33210 

0.28396 

9.96853 

0.82535 

0.0000 

0.865 

6.6888 

5.13 

14 

4 

N. 

nO. 30856 

0.21918 

0,34545 

8.67761 

9.92514 

0.67451 

0.1461 

0.708 

4.7262 

4.39 

15 

6 

N. 

nO. 28655 

0.17516 

0.35922 

0.24289 

9.97340 

0.81552 

9.9542 

0.885 

6.5391 

4.78 

16 

7 

N. 

nO. 27520 

0.15246 

0.36613 

0.27421 

9.97844 

0.82551 

710.0792 

0.905 

6.6913 

4.72 

17 

8 

N. 

nO. 26356 

0.12918 

0.37308 

0.35740 

9.98672 

0.85248 

77,9.6990 

0.941 

7.1197 

4.75 

18 

10 

N. 

710.23955 

0.08116 

0.S8699 

710.16224 

9.92688 

0.51843 

9.0000 

0.714 

3.2994 

1.66 

19 

11 

N. 

nO. 22639 

0.05484 

0.39435 

719.09061 

0.03273 

0.68885 

9.6021 

1.163 

4.8849 

4.95 

20 

13 

N. 

nO. 19984 

0.00174 

0.40866 

0.33949 

0.02824 

0.85940 

719.4771 

1.139 

7.2346 

4.98 

21 

14 

N. 

nO. 18590 

9.97386 

0.41587 

0.08486 

0.06303 

0.80515 

0.0792 

1.337 

6.3848 

5.05 

22 

15 

N. 

nO. 17200 

9.94606 

0.42285 

9.21139 

9.98703 

0.71418 

719.0000 

0.942 

5.1782 

3.06 

23 


N. 

nO. 17154 

9.94514 

0.42308 

9.40243 

0.06865 

0.73797 

9.3010 

1.372 

5.4697 

4.44 

24 

16 

N. 

nO> 15674 

9.91554 

0.43026 

710.16741 

0.06661 

0.57717 

0.1461 

1.359 

3.7772 

4.79 

25 

17 

N. 

nO. 14158 

9.88522 

0.43739 

0,15851 

0.04133 

0.823.50 

719.8451 

1.210 

6.6605 

4.40 

26 

18 

N. 

nO. 12533 

9.85272 

0.44474 

0.25924 

0.09638 

0.85898 

0.0792 

1.559 

7.2273 

4.69 

27 

21 

N. 

nO. 07387 

9.74980 

0.46613 

718.84361 

0.09161 

0.73774 

0.1761 

1.525 

5.4669 

5.20 

28 

24 

N. 

nO. 01487 

9.63180 

0.48724 

9.54432 

0.15911 

0.79637 

9.8451 

2.081 

6.2570 

2.61 

29 

25 

N. 

n9. 99326 

9.58858 

0.49410 

8.97081 

0.18257 

0.78809 

719.6021 

2.318 

6.1389 

4.17 

30 

26 

N. 

«9. 97003 

9.54212 

0.50099 

0.42493 

0.24616 

0.95460 

9.6990 

3.107 

9.0075 

3.12 

31 

28 

N. 

719.92158 

9.44522 

0.51380 

0.34820 

0.21362 

0.93314 

710.0792 

2.674 

8,5733 

4.13 

32 

29 

N. 

719.89453 

9.39112 

0.52010 

0.44737 

0.24244 

0.96955 

0.5315 

3.054 

9.3228 

1.64 

33 

30 

N. 

719.86609 

9.33424 

0.52613 

0.02551 

0.24467 

0.88404 

719.8451 

3.085 

+ 7.6567 

4.35 

34 

Dec. 3 

S. 

719.76708 

9.13622 

710.54287 

0.20978 

0.27371 

719.64286 

9.8451 

3.527 

— 0.4394 

3.82 

35 

1851 — Jan. 6 

S. 

0.05510 

9.71226 

710.48344 

710.26465 

0.18047 

710.23484 

0.8325 

2.295 

— 1.7173 

3.61 

36 

7 

s. 

0.07382 

9.74970 

710.47643 

9.19507 

0.17018 

9.58939 

0.8195 

2; 190 

+ 0.3885 

3.61 

37 

8 

s. 

0.09106 

9.78418 

710.46963 

0.24339 

0.15789 

0.31865 

710-2304 

2.069 

2.0828 

3.91 

38 

9 

s. 

0.10827 

9.81860 

710.46251 

0.46683 

0.15175 

0.53006 

710.3617 

2.011 

3.3889 

4.31 

39 

10 

s. 

0.12479 

9.85164 

710.45537 

0.57124 

0.14853 

0.63587 

710.4472 

1.982 

4.3238 

4.75 

40 

11 

s. 

0.14056 

9.88318 

710.44824 

0.61711 

0.15859 

0.69206 

tiO.6335 

2.076 

4.9211 

4.13 

41 

12 

s. 

0.15621 

9.91448 

710.44089 

0.62390 

0.12823 

0.70279 

nO.6532 

1.805 

5.0441 

5.11 

42 

14 

s. 

0.18558 

9.97322 

710.42634 

0.52292 

0.10123 

0.64350 

710.2304 

1.594 

4.4005 

5.31 

43 

15 

s. 

0.19946 

0.00098 

710.41911 

9.99034 

0.09731 

0.34033 

7iO.7404 

1.565 

2.1894 

5.13 

44 

16 

s. 

0.20295 

0.02796 

nO. 41188 

719.22737 

0.09001 

0.05771 

710.4914 

1.514 

+ 1.1421 

5.00 

45 

17 

s. 

0.22605 

0.05416 

710.40465 

nO. 18808 

0.08043 

718.79099 

nO.3424 

1.449 

— 0.0618 

4.74 

46 

18 

s. 

0.23866 

0.07938 

710.39751 

0.24180 

0.08232 

0.53011 

710.6532 

1.461 

+ 3.3893 

4.47 

47 

20 

s. 

0.26303 

0.12812 

nO. 38322 

719.77909 

0.06417 

0.11949 

710.5185 

1,344 

1,3167 

4.87 

48 

24 

s. 

0.30803 

0.21812 

710.35515 

0.24241 

0.02619 

0.62625 

710.6532 

1.128 

+ 4.2291 

4.43 

49 

26 

s. 

0.32890 

0.25986 

710.34144 

710.52856 

0.00847 

719.77866 

710.4150 

1.040 

— 0.6007 

4.96 

50 

27 

s. 

0.33896 

0.27998 

710.33467 

0.22290 

9.99928 

0.66238 

710.6721 

0.997 

+ 4.5960 

4.31 

51 

28 

s. 

0.34881 

0.29968 

710.32796 

719.99269 

9.98932 

0.32033 

710..5682 

0.952 

2.0909 

4.71 

52 

Feb. 5 

s. 

0.42038 

0.44282 

710.27670 

9.68726 

9.92999 

0.68588 

710.5052 

0.724 

4.8516 

5.15 

53 


N. 

0.42045 

0.44296 

0.27665 

9.91190 

9.91705 

1.03900 

710.7243 

0.682 1 

10.9394 

4.98 

54 

6 

N. S. 

0.42864 

0.45934 

— 

0.08575 

9.90467 

0.93369 

710.6721 

0.645 

8.5840 

5.12 1 

55 

7 

N. S. 

0.43660 

0.47526 

— 

719.86297 

9.91007 

0.83273 

710.3617 

0.661 

6.8035 

4.69 

56 

10 

N. S. 

0.45984 

0.52174 

— 

719.29710 

9.88174 

0.89048 

710,6990 

+ 0.580 

+ 7.7710 

4.79 


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CCXXXVl 


EQUATIONS OF CONDITIOK. 


FORMATION OF ADDITIONAL EQUATIONS OF CONDITION. 






VBarus I. 
Equatorial^ Santiago, 






N». 

Date. 

Wash. M.T. 

Obs'd r. 

2r. 

\i>A. 

^rD,8,, 

To' 

n. 

log. e. 

log. S, 

log. n. 

p. 

54 
55 
56 

1851.~Feb. 6 
7 
10 

. .6627 
.6551 
.6604 

17,03 
16.17 
15 94 

0.439 
0.603 
1.049 

—0.700 
0.653 

—0.488 

II 

—0.31 
—0.39 
—0.51 

II 
16.15 
15.92 
15.29 

II 
—1.32 
-0.69 
—1.25 

0.27052 
0.26451 
0.24672 

C. 45701 
0.45312 
0.44168 

ftO.1206 
710.8388 
n0.0969 

5.00 

4.24 
4.24 


FORMATION OF ADDITIONAL EQUATIONS OF CONDITION, 

VENUS I. 

Equatorial^ Santiago, 

(filOM DIRECT MEASUREMENT OF DIAMEl'ERS ) 


N°. 

Date. 

Wash. »I.T. 

obs'd r. 

N°. Obs. 

n. 

n. 

log. e. 

log. S, 

log. n. 

i>- 


1850.-lfov. 15 

.2796 

II 
23 69 

5 

// 
22.94 

II 

— 0.75 

0.42284 

0.56199 

n9.8751 

3.00 


19 

.30SO 

23.17 

4 

24.53 

+ 1.36 

0.45194 

0.58332 

0.1319 

2.68 


Dec. 5 

.3007 

31,55 

10 

30.93 

— 0.62 

0.55272 

0.65996 

n9.7959 

4.00 

48 

1851.— Jan. 24 

.6925 

20.06 

10 

19.62 

— 0.44 

0.35486 

0.51374 

n9.6484 

4.00 

49 

28 

.7000 

19.88 

10 

19.00 

— 0.88 

0.34111 

0.50425 

W9.9445 

4.00 

50 

27 

.7050 

19.04 

10 

18.71 

— 0.33 

0.33431 

0.49959 

n9. 5185 

4.00 

51 

28 

.6885 

18.90 

10 

18.43 

— 0.47 

0.32771 

0.49509 

n9.6721 

4.00 

52,53 

Feb. 5 

.7020 

17.06 

10 

16.37 

— 0.70 

0.27639 

0.46085 

n9.8420 

4.00 

54 

6 

.7077 

16.60 

10 

16.14 

— 0.46 

0.27024 

0.45684 

n9.6674 

4.00 

55 

7 

.7011 

16.81 

10 

15.92 

— 0.90 

0.26424 

0.45295 

W9.9518 

4.00 

56 

10 

.7087 

15.84 

10 

15.28 

— 0.56 

0.24644 

0.44150 

n9.7520 

4.00 


FORMATION OF EQUATIONS OF CONDITION. 

VENUS 1. 

31eridian, Santiago, 


N». 

Date. 

Limb. 

log. b. 

log. C, 

log. e. 

log.^. 

log. S, 

log. n. 

F. 

S. 

1 

I850.-Oct. 19 

N. 

nO. 45409 

0.51024 

0.24368 

9.31194 

0.63852 

1.11727 

-^ 0.042 

^ 4.3503 

2 

20 

N. 

nO. 44639 

a 49484 

0,24946 

9.30937 

0.63446 

1.08636 

0.042 

4,3098 

3 

21 

N. 

nO. 43855 

0.47916 

0.25535 _ 

9.30565 

0,63057 

0.77815 

0.041 

4.2714 

4 

22 

N. 

nO. 43057 

0.46320 

0.26128 

9.30210 

0,62693 

0.73239 

0,040 

4.2358 

5 

23 

N. 

nO. 42245 

0.44696 

0.26727 

9.29903 

0.62358 

0.84510 

0.040 

4,2032 

6 

24 

N. 

nO. 41416 

0.43088 

0.273.32 

9.29646 

0,62046 

0.92942 

0.039 

4.1731 

7 

25 

N. 

nO. 40571 

0.41348 

0,27944 

9.29450 

0.61763 

0.8061d 

0.039 

4.1460 

8 

26 

N. 

nO. 39709 

0.39624 

0.28562 

9.29313 

0.61509 


0.039 

4.1218 

9 

27 

N. 

nO. 38831 

0.37868 

0.29186 

9.29235 

0,61285 

0.75587 

0.038 

4.1007 

10 

SB 

N. 

nO. 37934 

0.36074 

0e29816 

9.29218 

0.61091 

0.84510 

0.038 

4,0824 

11 

30 

N. 

nO. 36082 

0.32370 

0.31098 

9.29398 

0.60804 

0.50515 

0,039 

4.0555 

12 

31 

N. 

nO. 35126 

0.30458 

0,31746 

9.29581 

0.60701 

0.74036 

0.039 

4.0459 

13 

Nov. 1 

N. 

nO. 34148 

9.28502 

0.32401 

9.29835 

0.60636 

0.90849 

0.040 

4.0399 

14 

2 

N. 

nO. 33149 

0.2B504 

0.33064 

9.30179 

0,60608 

0.56820 

0.040 

4,0372 

15 

4 

N. 

nO. 31077 

0.22360 

0.34405 

9.31063 

0.60646 


+ 0.042 

-f- 4.0408 


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EQUATIONS OF CONDITION, 

VJE-NUS. lo 

Meridian^ Santiago — Continued. 


CCXXXVll 


N°. 

Date. 

Limb. 

log. J. 

log. C. 

log. e. 

log. g. 

log. S, 

log. n. 

h\ 

s. 

16 
17 

1850,^^Nov. 5 

N. 

710.30002 

0.20210 

0.35085 

9.31623 

0.60717 

0.41497 

+ 0.043 

+ 4,0474 

7 

N. 

nO. 27771 

0.15748 

0.36461 

9.32945 

0.60963 

0.76343 

0.046 

4.0704 

18 

8 

N. 

nO, 26611 

0.13428 

0.37157 

9.33718 

0.61139 

0.79239 

0,047 

4.0869 

19 

10 

N. 

n0.24195 

0.08596 

0.38562 

9.35480 

0.61593 

0.68124 

0.051 

4.1298 

20 

11 

N. 

nO. 22935 

0.06076 

0.39272 

9.36454 

0.61869 

0.79934 

0.054 

4.1561 

21 

13 

N. 

nO. 20298 

0.00802 

0.40700 

9.38614 

0.62518 

0.30103 

0.059 

4.2187 

^ 

14 

N. 

nO. 18918 

9.98042 

0.41419 

9.39776 

0.62892 

0.49831 

0.062 

4. 2552 

23 

15 

N. 

nO. 17492 

9.95190 

0.42140 

9.40992 

0.63290 

0.88081 

0.066 

4.2944 

24 

16 

N. 

nO. 16019 

9.92244 

0.42861 

9.42273 

0.63730 

0.75587 

0.070 

4.3381 

25 

17 

N. 

nO. 14493 

9.89192 

0.43584 

9.43609 

0.64193 

0.44716 

0.074 

4.3846 

26 

18 

N. 

nO. 12910 

9.86026 

0.44306 

9.44991 

0.64682 

7x9.77815 

0.079 

4.4342 

27 

19 

N. 

nO. 11271 

9.82748 

0.45025 

9.46401 

0.65196 

0.62325 

0.085 

4.4870 

28 

20 

N. 

nO. 09566 

9.79338 

0.45742 

9.47862 

0.65733 

0.51851 

0,091 

4 . 5429 

29 

21 

N. 

nO. 07792 

9.75790 

0.46456 

9.49357 

0.66298 

0,66276 

0.097 

+ 4.6023 
— 3.2924 

30 

23 

S. 

«0. 04011 

9.68228 

nO. 47865 

9.52358 

7x0.51751 

0.14613 

0.111 

31 

26 

N. 

«9, 97644 

9.55494 

0.49917 

9.57266 

0.69387 

0.41497 

0.140 

+ 4.9417 
5.0177 

32 

27 

N. 

n9. 95293 

9.50792 

0.50577 

9.58931 

0.70050 

0.30103 

0.151 

33 

28 

N. 

n9. 92811 

9.45828 

0.51223 

9.60587 

0.70729 

0.69897 

0.163 

5.0968 

34 

30 

N. 

n9. 90189 

9.40584 

0.52460 

9.63925 

0.71926 

0.47712 

0.190 

5.2391 

35 

Dec. 2 

N. 

n9.81165 

9.22536 

0.53615 

9.67262 

0.73458 

0.49136 

0.221 

5.4273 

36 

4 

N. 

n9. 73916 

9.08038 

0.54664 

9.70557 

0.74819 

0.63347 

0.258 

5.6000 

37 

5 

N. 

n9. 69781 

8.99768 

0.55145 

9.72182 

0.75494 

0.59106 

0.271 

5.6878 

38 

8 

N. 

n9. 54316 

8.68838 

0.56382 

9.76895 

0.77450 

0.49136 

0.345 

5.9497 

39 

10 

N. 

719.39742 

8.39690 

0.57014 

9.79848 

0.78678 

0.75587 

0.395 

6.1205 

40 

(12) 

N. 

719.17649 

7.95504 

0.57471 

9.82605 

0.79829 

0.81291 

0.449 

+ 6.2847 

41 

(13) 

S. 

7^9.00156 

7.60206 

710.57622 

9.83811 

7x0.50195 

0.51851 

0.474 

— 3.1765 

42 

21 

S. 

9.54131 

8.68468 

710.56888 

9.92114 

7x0.39366 

0.74819 

0.695 

2.4755 

43 

22 

S. 

9.59926 

8.80058 

710.56574 

9.92620 

7x0.37562 

0.20412 

0.711 

2.3748 

44 

29 

s. 

9.87279 

9.34764 

nO. 53348 

9.93853 

7x0.10835 

0.56820 

0.754 

1.5789 

45 

31 

s. 

9.92714 

9.45634 

710.52168 

9.93539 

7x0.12424 

0.70757 

0.744 

1.3312 

46 

47 
48 

185] .—Jan. 5 
6 

7 

s. 
s. 
s. 

0.03942 
0.05877 
0.07729 

9.68090 
9.71960 
9.75664 

nO. 48901 
7t0. 48209 
710.47509 

9.91822 
9.91208 
9.90651 

7x9.83270 
7x9.73926 
7x9.61690 

9.60206 

0.686 
0.667 
0.650 

0.6803 
0.5486 
0.4139 

49 
50 

8 
9 

s. 
s. 

0.09504 
0.11211 

9.79214 
9.82628 

TiO. 46801 
710.46087 

9.90055 
9.89421 

7x9.44436 
7x9.14983 

0.07918 

0.633 
0.614 

0.2782 
0.1412 

51 

10 

s. 

0.12854 

9.85914 

7x0.45376 

9.88757 

7x7.55630 

9.90309 

0,596 

— 0.0036 

52 

11 

s. 

0.14437 

9.89080 

710.44648 

9.88058 

9.13354 

0.38021 

0.577 

+ 0.1360 
0.2761 

53 

12 

s. 

0.15964 

9.92134 

710.43925 

9.87337 

9.44107 

7x9.95424 

0.558 

54 

13 

s. 

0.17439 

9.95084 

710.43200 

9.86586 

9.62066 

9.60206 

0.539 

0.4175 

55 

14 

s. 

0.18866 

9.97938 

710.42475 

9.85812 

9.74796 

9,84510 

0.520 

0.5597 

56 

15 

s. 

0.20248 

0.00702 

710.41751 

9.85021 

9.84720 

9.47712 

0.502 

0.7034 

57 

16 

s. 

0.21587 

0.03380 

710.41028 

9.84210 

9.92834 

9.84510 

0.483 

0.8479 

58 

17 

s. 

0.22886 

0.05978 

7i0. 40307 

9.83382 

9.99730 

9.77815 

0.465 

0.9938 

59 

20 

s. 

0.26567 

0.13340 

nO. 38163 

9.80829 

0.15791 

7x0 32222 

0.414 

1.4385 
1.5891 

60 

21 

s. 

0.27728 

0.15662 

710.37456 

9. 79958 

0.20115 

7x0.00000 

0.397 

61 

23 

s. 

0.28858 

0.17922 

710,36754 

9.79084 

0.24075 

7x9.00000 

0.382 

1 . 7408 

62 

23 

s. 

0.29961 

0.20128 

»iO. 36571 

9.78720 

0.27286 

ttO. 43136 

0.375 

1.8744 
2 . 0492 

63 
64 

24 

s. 

0.31035 

0.22276 

7x0.35365 

9.77323 

0.31158 

7x0.27875 

0.352 

25 

s. 

0.32084 

0.24374 

710.34679 

9.76442 

0.34345 

7x0.51851 

0.338 

2.2052 
2.3628 

65 

26 

s. 

0.33108 

0.26422 

7x0.33998 

9.75557 

0.37342 

7x9.77815 

0.324 

66 
67 

27 

s. 

0.34109 

0.28424 

7x0.33323 

9.74679 

0.40170 

7x0.23045 

0.312 

2.5217 
2.6821 
3.6760 
4.0208 

28 

s. 

0.35087 

0.30380 

7x0.32655 

9.73805 

0.42848 

7x9.77815 

0.299 

68 

Feb. 3 

s. 

0.40536 

0,41278 

7x0.28781 

9.68717 

0.56538 

0.00000 

0.237 

69 
70 

5 

s. 

0.42210 

0.44626 

7x0.27541 

9.67111 

0.60431 

0.00000 

0.220 

6 

s. 

0.43024 

0.46254 

7x0.26932 

9.66339 

0.62277 

7x9.60206 

0.212 

4.1954 
4.3718 

71 
72 

7 

s. 

0.43823 

0.47852 

7x0.26329 

9.65570 

0.64066 

0.27875 

0.205 

10 

s. 

0.46134 

0.52474 

7x0.24976 

9.63813 

0.69001 

0.55630 

f 0.189 

+ 4.8979 


Hosted by 


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CCXXXVlll 


EQUATIONS OF CONDITION. 


FORMATION OF ADDITIONAL EQUATIONS OF CONDITION. 

VENUS I, 

Meridian^ Santiago, 

(FROM DIRECT MEASUREMENT OF DIAMETERS.) 


N°. 

Date. 

Wash. M.T. 

Obs'd r. 

n. 

n. 

log. e. 

log. 5. 

log. n. 

1 

1850.— Oct. 19 

.0986 

14.94 

15.18 

II 

+ 0.24 

0.24368 

0.43975 

9.3802 

2 

20 

.0985 

14.87 

15.39 

+ 0.52 

0.24946 

0.44.343 

9.7160 

3 

21 

.0984 

15,64 

15.59 

-. 0.05 

0.25535 

0.44721 

n8.6990 

4 

22 

.0983 

15,64 

15.81 

+ 0.17 

0,26128 

0.45103 

9.2304 

5 

23 

.0981 

15.92 

16.03 

0.11 

0.26727 

0.45491 

9.0414 

6 

24 

.0979 

15.64 

16.25 

0.61 

0.27332 

0.45885 

9.7853 

7 

25 

.0977 

15.78 

16.48 

0.70 

0.27944 

0.46285 

9.8451 

8 

26 

.0975 

15.78 

16.72 

0.94 

0.28562 

0.46691 

9.9731 

9 

27 

.0971 

15.78 

16.96 

1.18 

0.29186 

0.47103 

0.0719 

11 

30 

.0960 

16.61 

17.73 

1.11 

0.31098 

0.48377 

0.0473 

13 

Nov. 1 

.0950 

16.61 

18.27 

+ 1.65 

0.32401 

0.49258 

0.2188 

16 

5 

.0924 

19.69 

19.43 

— 0.26 

0.35085 

0.51097 

n9.4150 

17 

7 

.0907 

19.06 

20.06 

-f- 1.00 

0.36461 

0.52053 

0.0000 

]8 

8 

.0898 

19.83 

20.38 

+ 0.55 

0.37157 

0.52540 

9.7404 

19 

10 

.0876 

21.22 

21.05 

— 0.17 

0.38562 

0.53530 

n9.2430 

20 

11 

.0865 

21.36 

21.40 

+ 0.16 

0.39272 

0.54035 

9.2175 

21 

13 

.0839 

21.78 

22.11 

0.32 

0.40700 

0.55056 

9.5119 

22 

14 

.0824 

22.34 

22.48 

0.14 

0.41419 

0.55574 

9.1461 

24 

16 

.0793 

22.76 

23.24 

0.48 

0.42851 

0.56620 

9.6812 

25 

17 

.0776 

22.27 

23.63 

1.36 

0.43584 

0.57147 

0.1335 

26 

18 

,0757 

23.73 

24.03 

0.29 

0.44306 

0,57676 

9,4698 

27 

19 

.0738 

23.73 

24.43 

0.69 

0.45025 

0.58207 

9.8420 

28 

20 

.0717 

24.29 

24.84 

0.54 

0.45742 

0.58737 

9.7364 . 

29 

21 

.0696 

25.06 

25.25 

+ 0.18 

0.46456 

0.59267 

9.2672 

30 

23 

.0649 

26.46 

26,08 

— 0.38 

0.47865 

0.60321 

n9.5855 

31 

26 

.0562 

26.46 

27.34 

+ 0.87 

0.49917 

0.61870 

9.9420 

32 

27 

.0541 

26.67 

27.72 

1.05 

0.50577 

0.62373 

0.0212 

33 

28 

.0511 

27.16 

28.18 

1.02 

0.51223 

0.62865 

0.0086 

35 

Dec. 2 

.0379 

29.74 

29.77 

0.03 

0.53615 

0.64707 

8.4771 

35 

4 

.0305 

29.18 

30.50 

1.31 

0.54664 

0.65521 

0.1189 

37 

5 

.0267 

30.46 

30,84 

0.38 

0.55145 

0.65898 

9.5798 

38 

8 

.0146 

30.86 

31.74 

+ 0.88 

0.56382 

0.66865 

9.9445 

39 

10 

,0060 

32.53 

32.19 

— 0.34 

0.57014 

0.67362 

n9.5378 

40 

12 

.9973 

32.53 

32.53 

— 0.00 

0.57471 

0.67723 

n7.6990 

41 

13 

.9928 

31,83 

32.65 

+ 0.81 

0,57622 

0.67842 

9.9112 


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EQUATIONS OF CONDITION. 


CCXXXIX 


FORMATION OP EQUATIONS OP CONDITION. 

VENUS I. 

Equatorial, Washington, 

(OBSERVED BOTH LIMBS.) 


N°. 

Date. 

log. 6. 

log. C. 

log. g. 

log. S. 

log. n» 

¥ 

S. 

p. 

1 
2 

I850.-Oct. 19 
21 

nO. 45285 
nO. 43724 

0.50776 
0.47654 

nO. 13267 
nO. 14762 

i 8.40140 1 
1 w9. 16316) 

nO.1761 
710.5798 

+1.841 
1.974 

+0.0252 
—0.1456 

3.23 
3.54 

3 

22 

nO. 42936 

0.46078 

710.16277 

719.40329 

0.5682 

2.117 

0.2531 

3.61 

4 

28 

nO. 37795 

0.35796 

nO. 19912 

7x9.83841 

0.6434 

2.503 

0.6893 

3 10 

5 

Nov. 1 

«0. 34004 

0.28214 

nO. 23012 

719.98753 

0.6021 

2.887 

0.9717 

3.50 

6 

2 

nO. 33003 

0.26212 

nO. 23918 

710.01870 

0.5682 

3.009 

1.0440 

4.28 

7 

9 

nO. 25243 

0.10692 

nO. 28539 

710.15791 

0.4914 

3.721 

1.4385 

3.07 

8 

10 

nO. 24029 

0.08264 

nO. 30309 

710.18721 

9.3010 

4.038 

1.5389 

2.78 

9 

13 

nO. 20097 

0.00400 

nO. 31305 

nO. 21357 

0.5563 

4.227 

1.6352 

3.43 

10 

14 

«0. 18716 

9.97638 

nO. 32269 

710.22889 

0.2553 

4.420 

1.6939 

3.44 

11 

21 

wO. 07520 

9.75246 

nO. 36674 

nO. 29010 

719.0000 

5.582 

—1.9503 

4 65 

12 

1851.— Jan. 13 

0.17285 

9.94776 

nO. 31485 

0.11757 

710.9138 

4.263 

+1.3109 
1.6387 

4 81 

13 

15 

0.20084 

0.00374 

wO. 29178 

0.21450 

710.6232 

3.834 

4.83 

14 

24 

0.30913 

0.22032 

710.23293 

0.47549 

710.5911 

+2.922 

+2.9887 

3.43 


FORMATION OP ADDITIONAL EQUATIONS OP CONDITION. 


VENUS I. 

Equatorial, Washington, 


N°. 

Date. 

Wash. M.T. 

obs'd r. 

2r. 

iA<?o. 

^^A^o. 

n. 

n. 

log. e. 

log. 8, 

log. n. 

p. 

2 

I850.-Oct. 21 

.2638 

II 
17,57 

0.290 

II 
—1.789 

—0.52 

15.63 

II 

—2.37 

0.25633 

0.44784 

710.3747 

2.67 

3 

22 

.2482 

17.03 

0.017 

1.676 

+0.03 

15.84 

—1.25 

0.26217 

0.45160 

710.1303 

1.84 

4 

28 

.2485 

17.98 

0.204 

0.992 

—0.20 

17.26 

—0.82 

0.29913 

0.47586 

7t9.9138 

2 25 

5 

Nov. 1 

.2415 

19.25 

0.500 

0.552 

—0.28 

18.31 

—1.12 

0.32498 

0.49324 

n0.0492 

2 67 

6 

2 

.2382 

20.32 

0.118 

—0.444 

—0.05 

18.59 

—1,68 

0.33160 

0.49774 

nO.2253 

3.69 

7 

9 

.2346 

23.63 

0.332 

+0.283 

+0.09 

20.74 

—2.68 

0.37960 

0.53105 

»i0.4281 

2.25 

8 

10 

.2362 

19.83 

0.221 

0.385 

+0.09 

21.10 

+1.25 

0.38667 

0.53605 

0.0969 

1.71 

8 


.2208 

22.14 

0.404 

0.383 

—0.16 

21.10 

—1.09 

0.38656 

0.53597 

710.0374 

1.95 



13 

.2313 

22.32 

0.297 

0.677 

+0.20 

22.17 

+0.18 

0.40806 

0.55132 

9.2553 

2 67 

10 

14 

.2259 

22.73 

211 

0.774 

+0.16 

22.54 

—0.90 

0.41523 

0.55649 

719.9542 

2.67 

11 

21 

.2188 

25.07 

0.030 

+1.444 

—0.04 

25.31 

+0.06 

0.46562 

0,59347 

8.7782 

4.06 

12 

I851.-Jan. 13 

.7770 

24.82 

0.139 

—0.159 

—0.02 

23.47 

—1.45 

0.43277 

0.56923 

n0.1614 

4.24 

13 

15 

.7592 

24.55 

0.119 

-0.355 

—0.04 

22.70 

—1.98 

0.41839 

0.55877 

nO.2967 

4 57 

14 

24 

,7533 

20.59 

0.129 

+0.868 

-0.11 

19.60 

—1.18 

0.35444 

0.51345 

n0.0719 

2.67 


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ccxl 


EQUATIONS OF CONDITION. 


FORMATION OP EQUATIONS OP CONDITION. 


VENUS I. 


Meridian^ Greenwich, 


N°. 

Date. 

Limb. 

log. h. 

log. C. 

log. g. 

log. S, 

log. n. 

h^ 

5. 

1 

1850.— Oct. 15 

S. 

nO. 48361 

0.56928 

nO. 20788 

719.97763 

0.55991 

+ 2.605 

— 0.9498 

2 

16 

c. 

nO. 47642 

0.55490 

710.21377 

718.63043 

0.63949 

2.676 

— 0.0427 

3 

21 

N. 

wO. 43856 

0.47918 

710.24384 

9.71265 

0.93952 

3.074 

4- 0.5160 

4 

Nov. 11 

N. 

nO. 22905 

0.06016 

710.38264 

7i9. 98195 

0.58092 

5.825 

— 0.9593 

5 

28 

N. 

n9. 92572 

9.45350 

nO. 49961 

nO. 23505 

0.85248 

9.982 

1.7181 

6 

29 

N. 

n9. 89907 

9.40020 

nO. 50562 

710.24175 

0.919C8 

10.262 

1.7448 

7 

Dec. 6 

N. 

w9. 64481 

8.89168 

710.54083 

tiO. 26423 

0.83315 

12.069 

1.8375 

8 

27 

0. 

9.80392 

9.20990 

nO. 51795 

710.17519 

1.00432 

10.862 

— 1.4969 

9 

1851.— Jan. 8 

N. 

0.09162 

9.78530 

710.43816 

0.04230 

9.64345 

7.522 

+ 1.1023 

10 

17 

N. 

0.22635 

0.05476 

710.37348 

0.39010 

0.15534 

5.584 

2.4553 

11 

22 

N. 

0.28639 

0.17484 

7i0. 33861 

0.51171 

7i9. 74036 

4.756 

3.2487 

12 

29 

N. 

0.35858 

0.31922 

710.29234 

0.64430 

n9. 84510 

3.843 

4.4086 

13 

Feb. 2 

N. 

0.39502 

0.39210 

710.26725 

0.70754 

710.37291 

3.424 

5.0996 

14 

3 

S. 

0.40388 

0.40942 

710.26149 

0.51511 

710.40140 

3.334 

3.2742 

15 

5 

N. 

0.42049 

0.44.304 

710.24905 

0.75069 

710.41996 

3.148 

5.6324 

16 

7 

N. 

0.43667 

0.47540 

710.23720 

0.77777 

7i0. 14613 

2.981 

5.9947 

17 

16 

S. 

0.50286 

0.60778 

710.18635 

0.75589 

710.66464 

+ 2.359 

+ 5.7002 


FORMATION OP EQUATIONS OF CONDITION. 





VENUS I. 

Meridian y AUona, 

(OBSERVED CENTER.) 




N°. 

Date. 

log. &. 

log. C. 

log. g. 

log. S. 

log. n. 

Jc\ 

S. 

I 
2 

1851.— Jan. 27 
31 

0.33887 
0.37693 

0.27980 
0.35592 

710.31094 
710.28517 

0.48296 
0,57089 

n9.0000 
710.3802 

4- 4.187 
+ 3.718 

+ 3.041 
+ 3.723 


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EQUATIONS OF CONDITION. 


ccxli 


N°. 


9 
10 

11 
12 
13 
14 
15 

16 
17 
18 
19 
20 

21 
22 
23 
24 
25 

26 
27 


FOEMATION OF EQUATIONS OF CONDITION. 

VENUS II 

Equatorial^ Santiago, 


Date. 


1852.— May 30 

June 2 

3 

12 

15 

22 
23 
24 
July 6 


30 
31 
Aug. 4 
8 
12 

13 
16 
21 

22 

23 

28 

Sept. 1 

2 

3 


log. h. 


N. S. 
N. S. 
N. S. 
N. S. 
N. S. 

N. S. 
N. S. 
N.S. 

N. 
N. 

N.S. 
N.S. 
N.S. 
N.S. 
N.S. 

N.S. 
N.S. 
N.S. 
N.S. 
N. S. 

N.S. 
N.S. 
N.S. 
N.S. 
N.S. 

N.S. 
N.S. 
N.S. 


wO. 35929 
wO. 32994 
nO. 31966 
nO. 21424 
nO. 17254 

nO. 05608 
JiO. 03646 
710.01608 
n9. 64162 
n9. 46004 

9.89612 
9.92288 
0.01564 
0.09199 
0.15723 

0.17209 
0.21377 
0.27523 
0.27548 
0.28676 

0.29792 
0.34943 
0.38659 
0.39537 
0.40402 

0.42895 
0.43693 
0.44482 


log. C. 


0.32064 
0.26194 
0.24138 
0.03054 
9.94714 

9.71422 
9.67498 
9.63422 
8.88530 
8.52214 

9.39430 
9.44782 
9.63334 
9.78604 
9.91652 

9.94624 
0.02960 
0.15252 
0.15302 
0, 17558 

0.19790 
0.30092 
0.37524 
0.39280 
0.41010 

0.45996 
0.47592 
0.49170 


0.49487 
0.50991 


log./. 


wO. 33746 
wO. 45025 
0.22223 
nO. 26326 
n9. 37273 

wO. 14770 
n9. 93692 
wO,4C651 
nO. 01246 
w9.. 50461 

0.32862 

wO. 06696 

n9. 53567 

0.54521 

9.90244 

0.14554 
0.33141 
0.37526 
0.38360 
n0.20918 

n8. 76193 
9.38578 
0.26193 
0.20393 

nO. 42746 

719.33325 

TiO. 20828 
0.54732 


log.^. 


0,10111 
0.12686 
0.13209 
0.17892 
0.19429 

0.22779 
0.22713 
0.23395 
0.27915 
0.28769 

0.29677 
0.29634 
0.27895 
0.25372 
0.24430 

0.24041 
0.22129 
0.17332 
0.19234 
0.18127 

0.18194 
0.15584 
0.12868 
0.11831 
0.11322 

0.09292 
0.08345 
0.07942 


log. S. 


719.03180 

719.89790 

0.56575 

9.04610 

0.23702 

9.82217 
0.08196 
719.64640 
0.75100 
0.81955 

0.78865 
0.46679 
0.60467 
0.91114 
0.76456 

0.81341 
0.87315 
0.91215 
0.91825 
0.63676 

0.77999 
0.83949 
0.95332 
0.94784 
0.67471 

0.88036 
0.80092 
1.06499 


log. n. 


710.6532 
0.1761 

71,0.4150 
710.L461 

0.3010 
710.2041 
710.6990 
710.3010 
710.1139 

0.8261 
0.6628 
0.9395 
0.7559 
0.9138 

0.8865 
0.7076 
0.7243 
0.7324 
0.8261 

0.8195 
0.4914 
0.7559 
0.8573 
1.0899 

0.8129 
0.8921 
0.4150 


+ 1.593 
1.794 
1.838 
2.279 

2.447 

2.855 
2.846 
2,937 
3.616 
3.762 

3.921 
3.914 
3.613 
3.217 
3.080 

3.026 
2.771 
2.221 
2.425 
2.304 

2.311 

2.049 
1.809 
1.721 
1.685 

1.534 
1.469 


—0.1076 

—0.7905 

+3.6792 

0.1112 

1.7259 

0.6640 
+1.2077 
—0.4430 
+5.6364 

6.6001 

6.1469 
2.9295 
4.0241 
8.1497 
5.8152 

6.5074 
7.4670 
8.1686 
8,2841 
4.3327 

6.0254 
6.9101 


7.5921 
6.3230 


p. 


1.442 +11.6143 


3.13 
1.55 

1.45 

2.84 

3.00 
3.96 
2.57 

2.82 
4.00 

2.62 

2.18 
1.84 
1.50 
2.90 

2.57 
3.20 
3.02 
3.73 

1.84 

2.34 
1.41 

2.88 
3.20 
1.50 

3.00 
2.82 
3.43 


Z 70 


Hosted by 


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ccxlii 


EQUATIONS OF CONDITION. 


FORMATION OP ADDITIONAL EQUATIONS OF CONDITION. 

VENUS II. 

Equatorial y Santiago, 


N°. 

Date. 

Wash. M.T. 

Obs'd T 

2r. 

IDA. 

^rDA 

^^0- 

n. 

log. e. 

log. S. 

log. n. 

p. 

1 

1852.— May 30 

.2578 

II 
15.62 

0.445 

II 
—2.370 

II 
+ 1.05 

II 
15.40 

II 
4-0.87 

0.25000 

0.44378 

9.9395 

3.00 

2 

June 2 

.2471 

18.70 

0.450 

2.550 

1.15 

15.84 

—1.64 

0.26255 

0.45165 

710.2227 

3.50 

3 

3 

.2460 

18.08 

0.682 

2.602 

1.77 

16.07 

0.18 

0.27477 

0.45979 

n9.2553 

1.71 

4 

12 

.2456 

22.13 

0.573 

2.902 

1.66 

18.69 

1.73 

0.33411 

0.49945 

710.2380 

2.67 

5 

15 

.2442 

23.24 

0.974 

2.929 

2.86 

19.61 

0.67 

0.35478 

0.51369 

719.8261 

2.25 

6 

22 

.2431 

23.79 

0.366 

2.834 

1.04 

21.96 

0.75 

0.40390 

0.54834 

719.8751 

3.00 

7 

23 

.2484 

25.94 

0.508 

2.801 

1.42 

22.32 

2.13 

0.41096 

0.55341 

710.3284 

3.27 

8 

24 

.2456 

24.47 

0.699 

—2.764 

1.93 

22.68 

0.22 

0.41795 

0.55845 

9.3424 

2.25 

11 

July 30 

.7455 

31.45 

0.451 

-f 0.290 

+ 0.13 

28.42 

2.85 

0.51590 

0.63146 

710.4548 

1.95 

12 

31 

.7458 

29.42 

0.540 

0.355 

— 0.19 

28'. 13 

-1.54 

0.51162 

0.62819 

710.1875 

1.71 

13 

Aug. 4 

.7335 

25.74 

0.494 

0.572 

— 0.28 

26.88 

4-0.80 

0.49179 

0.61311 

9.9031 

1.36 

14 

8 

.7182 

24.54 

0.980 

0.707 

4- 0.71 

25.48 

4-1.76 

0.46854 

0.59564 

0.2455 

1.00 

15 

12 

.7247 

24.62 

0.022 

0.759 

— 0.02 

24.02 

—0.60 

0.44298 

0.57671 

719.7782 

2.83 

16 

13 

.7253 

25.42 

1.270 

0.762 

+ 0.97 

23.66 

0.67 

0.43638 

0.57177 

719.8261 

2.25 

17 

16 

.7189 

*"24.30 

0.593 

0.735 

+ 0.44 

22.60 

1.20 

0.41634 

0.55729 

710.0792 

2.67 

18 

21 

.6923 

21.98 

0.024 

0.600 

— 0.01 

20.91 

—1.08 

0.38265 

0.53320 

710.0334 

2.44 

19 

21 

.7144 

20.43' 

0.312 

0.600 

— 0.19 

20.91 

4-0.26 

0.38249 

0.53309 

9.4150 

3.50 

20 

22 

.7073 

21.18 

0.331 

0.561 

+ 0.19 

20.59 

—0.37 

0.3:579 

0.52836 

719.5682 

1.36 

21 

23 

.7146 

21.65 

0.348 

0.516 

- 0.18 

20.26 

1.60 

0.36901 

0.52361 

wO.2041 

1.95 

22 

28 

.7164 

20.47 

0.056 . 

-f 0.242 

+ 0.01 

18.77 

1.65 

0.33577 

0.50058 

710.2175 

2.44 

23 

Sept. 1 

.7104 

19.12 

0.605 

—0.037 

— 0.02 

17.69 

1.41 

0.31002 

0.48313 

7i0. 1492 

2.25 

24 

2 

.7044 

19.20 

0.896 

0.113 

— 0.10 

17.43 

1.80 

0.30373 

0.47892 

710.2553 

2.67 

25 

3 

.7052 

18.16 

0.664 

0.191 

+ 0.13 

17.18 

0.90 

0.29746 

0.47474 

719.9542 

3.00 

26 

6 

.7010 

17.16 

0.S92 

0.441 

0.17 

16.47 

0.55 

0.27905 

0.46259 

719.7404 

3.00 

27 

7 

.6962 

17.90 

0.529 

0.529 

+ 0.28 

16.25 

1.41 

0.27305 

0.45857 

7i0,1492 

2.67 

28 

8 

.6982 

16.78 

0.409 

0.617 

— 0.25 

16.03 

—0.97 

0.26705 

0.45476 

7i9.9868 

4.00 


FORMATION OF ADDITIONAL EQUATIONS OF CONDITION. 

VENUS II. 

Equatorial^ Santiago, 

(rROM DIUECT MEASUKEMENT OF DIAMETERS.) 


N°. 

Date. 

Wash. M.T. 

Obs'd r. 

No. Obs. 

^0. 

n. 

log. e. 

log. S, 

log, n. 

p. 


1852.— July 10 

.2148 

// 
28.86 

6 

23,31 

II 
— 0.56 

0.51428 

0.63022 

719.7443 

3.28 

12 

31 

.7562 

29.26 

5 

28.13 

1.14 

0.51158 

0.62816 

710.0550 

3.00 

13 

Aug. 4 

.7510 

28.42 

6 

26.87 

1.56 

0.49170 

0.61S04 

710.1917 

3.28 

15 

12 

.7460 

25.05 

6 

24.01 

1.05 

0.44284 

0.57660 

710.0191 

3.28 

16 

13 

.7420 

25.32 

6 

23.65 

1.67 

0.43627 

0.57179 

710,2227 

3.28 

17 

16 

.7400 

22.94 

6 

22.59 

0.35 

0.41620 

0.55719 

«9.5441 

3.28 

18 

21 

- .7395 

21.91 

6 

20.89 

1.02 

0.38233 

0.53297 

n0.0107 

3,28 

23 

Sept. 1 

.7290 

18.20 

6 

17.68 

— 0.52 

0.30990 

0.48305 

719.7202 

3.28 


Hosted by 


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EQUATIONS OF CONDITION. 


ccxliii 


FORMATION OF EQUATIONS OF CONDITION. 

VENUS II. 

Meridian , Santiago . 


9 
10 

11 
12 
13 
14 
15 

16 
17 

18 
19 

20 

21 
22 
23 
24 

25 

26 
27 

28 


31 
32 
33 
34 
35 

36 

37 
38 
39 
40 

41 
42 
43 
44 
45 
46 


Date. 


1852.— May 30 

31 

June 2 

3 

12 

13 
22 
23 

24 


30 

July 1 

5 


9 
10 
13 

<1S) 
26 
29 
SO 
31 

Aug. 4 
5 


10 
12 
13 
14 
16 

21 
22 
23 

28 
31 

Sept. 1 
2 
3 
6 

7 


N. 
S. 

N. 

S. 

N. 
S. 

IV. 
N. 

S.' 

N. 
N. 
N. 
N. 

N. 
N. 
N. 
N. 
N. 

N. 
N. 
N. 
N. 
N. 

N. 
N. 
N. 
N. 
N. 

N. 
N, 
N. 
N. 
N. 

N. 
N. 

N. 
N. 
N. 

N. 
N. 
N. 
N. 
N. 
N. 


log.&. 


710.36066 
nO. 35109 
nO. 33131 
wO.32107 
nO. 21614 

nO. 20275 
nO. 05908 
nO. 03974 
nO. 01951 
n9. 92761 

«9. 90124 
n9.873n 
n9. 84316 
w9, 69684 
?i9. 65151 

n9. 69980 
w9. 54173 
n9. 47467 
718.39535 

«8. 99525 

9.17516 
9.77651 
9.87338 
9.90141 
9.92773 

0.01952 
0.03973 
0.05905 ' 
0.07755 
0.09528 

0.12874 
0.15980 
0.17454 
0.18880 
0.21597 

0.27735 
0.28864 
0.29966 
0.35U90 
0.37898 

0.38795 
0.39676 
0.40548 
0.43024 
0.43822 
0.44606 


log. C. 


0.32338 
0.30424 
0.26468 
0.24420 
0.03434 

0.00755 
9.72022 
9.68154 
9.64108 
9.45728 

9.40454 
9.34840 

9.28838 
8.99574 
8.90508 

8.80166 
8.68552 
8.55140 
8.39276 
7.59456 

7.95238 
9.15508 
9.34882 
9.40488 
9.45752 

9.64110 
9.68152 
9.72016 
9.75716 
9.79262 

9.85954 
9.92166 
9.95114 
9.97966 
0.03400 

0.15676 
0.17934 
0.20138 
O.303S6 
0.33002 

0.37795 
0.39554 
41302 
0.46254 
0.47850 
0.49418 


log. e. 


«0. 24912 
nO. 25522 

0.26762 
710.27391 

0.33314 

710.33997 
0.40279 

710.40980 
0.41680 
0.44429 

nO. 45097 ■ 
0.45756 
0.46401 

0.48826 
0.49383 

0.49914 
0.50422 
0.50900 
0.51348 
0.52490 

0.53617 
0.52896 
0.51909 
0.51510 
0.51078 

0.49077 
0.48519 

0.47951 
0.47238 
0.46740 

0.45482 
0.44186 
0.43527 
0.42882 
0.41521 

0.38140 
0.37466 
0.36794 
0.33479 
0.31540 

0.30904 
0.30273 
0.29649 
0.27809 
0.27206 
0.26612 


log. g. 


0.17411 
0.17928 
0.18977 
0.19499 
0.24383 

0.24942 
0.30050 
0.30812 
0.31187 
0.33418 

0.33952 
0.34496 
0.35019 
0.36989 
0.37441 

0.37870 
0.38280 
0.38666 
0.39026 
0.39931 

0.40765 
0.39844 
0.38877 
0.38492 
0.38079 

0.36182 
0.35657 
0.35123 

0.34446 
0.33986 

0.32806 
0.31592 
0.30973 
0.30349 
0.29087 

0.25883 
0.25240 
0.24595 
0.21379 
0.19461 

0.18824 
0.18189 
0.17556 
0.15663 
0.15035 
0.14410 


log. S. 


719.67228 

719.71458 

0.70716 

719.81425 

0.72788 

?i9. 89524 
0.77122 

710.06491 
0.78198 
0.80484 

710.07269 
0.81672 
0.82266 
0.84651 
0.85239 

0.85813 
0.86379 . 
0.86933 
0.87473 
0.88995 

0.91127 
0.93570 
0.94065 
0.94208 
0.94342 

0.94841 
0.94964 
0.95096 
C. 95157 
0.95358 

0.95050 
0.95978 
0.96157 
0.96348 
0.96759 

0.97999 
0.98285 
0,98581 
1.00234 
1.01355 

1.01748 
1.02149 
1.02570 
1.033^3 
1.04286 
1.04736 


log. n. 


7x0.6628 
710.2788 
710.6812 
710.7634 
710.4314 

7x0.5051 
7x0.0414 
7x0.6721 
7x0.2553 
9.6990 

7x0.7782 

7x0.1139 

7x9.8451 

0.1461 

0.5051 

0.4314 
0.8195 
0.8976 
0.4314 
0.3979 

0.7243 
0.7559 
0.9294 
1.0492 
0.6335 

0.8633 
0.7853 

0.8592 
0.9770 

0.8808 

0.9770 

0.8751 
0.7482 
0.8129 
0.9395 

0.8-29 
0.7634 
0.8865 
0.8513 
0.8062 

0.8633 
0.6532 
0.73-34 
0.8692 
0.8808 
0.7993 


F. 


+2.229 
2.283 
2.396 
2.455 
3.074 

3.154 
3.990 
4.095 
4.204 
4.660 

4.775 
4.897 
5.016 
5.493 
5.608 

5.720 
5.829 
5,933 
6.033 
6.290 

6.535 
6.265 
5.991 

5.885 
5.774 

5.292 
5.165 
5.040 

4.886 
4.783 . 

4.. 530 
4.283 
4.164 
4.046 
3.817 

3.294 
3. 193 
3.104 
2.677 
2.450 

2.380 
2.311 
2.245 
2.058 
1.998 
1.942 


—0.4702 
—0.5183 
+5.0952 
—0.6520 
+5.3441 

—0.9891 
+5.9050 
—1.1612 
+6.0531 
+6.3803 

—1. 1822 

+6.5572 

6.6475 

7.0229 

7.1185 

7.2131 
7.3079 
7.4017 
7.4944 
7.7615 

8.1521 
8.6238 
8.7226 
8.7513 

8.7785 

8. 8799 
8.9052 
8.9332 
8.9449 
8.9863 

9.0470 
9.1158 
9.1532 
9.1935 
9.2809 

9.4499 
9.6127 
9.6783 
10.0541 
10.3168 

10.4106 
10.5074 
10.6094 
10.9253 
11.0371 
+ 11.1521 


Hosted by 


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ccxliv 


EQUATIONS OF CONDITION. 


FOEMATION OF ADDITIONAL EQUATIONS OF CONDITION. 

VENUS II. 

Meridian^ Santiago, 
(from direct measurement of diameters.) 


N°. 

Date. 

Wasli. M.T. 

Obs'd T. 

n 

n. 

log. e. 

log. 5. 

log. n. 

1 

1852»— May 30 

.1131 

II 
15.15 

// 
15.37 

II 

+0.22 

0.24912 

0.44322 

9.3424 

2 

31 

.1126 

16.06 

15.59 

—0.47 

0.25522 

0.44712 

n9.6721 

3 

June 2 

.1115 

15.50 

16.04 

4-0.54 

0.26762 

0,45513 

9.7324 

4 

3 

,1109 

16.89 

16.28 

—0.61 

0.27391 

0.45923 

n9.7889 

5 

12 

,1022 

18.57 

18.65 

-fO.08 

0.33314 

0.49879 

8.9031 

6 

33 

.1009 

18.64 

18.95 

0.31 

0,33997 

0.50347 

9.4914 

- 
7 

22 

.0855 

21.64 

21.90 

0.25 

0.40279 

0.54754 

9,4065 

8 

23 

.0833 

21.92 

22.26 

0.33 

0.40980 

0.55258 

9.5250 

9 

24 

.0810 

21.99 • 

22.62 

0.63 

0.41680 

0.55762 

9.7993 

10 

28 

.0708 

21.64 

24.10 

2,45 

0.44429 

0.57767 

0.3900 

31 

29 

.0680 

23.32 

24,47 

1.15 

0.45097 

0.58260 

0.0607 

12 

30 

,0651 

23.60 

24.85 

1.25 

0.45756 

0.58747 

0.0969 

13 

July 1 

.0620 

23.94 

25.21 

1.26 

0.46401 

0.59227 

0.1021 

14 

5 

.0488 

24.57 

26.67 

2.09 

0.48826 

0.61044 

0.3212 

15 

6 

.0452 

25.27 

27.00 

1.72 

0.49383 

0.61465 

0.2368 

16 

7 

.0415 

25.41 

27.34 

3.92 

0.49914 

0.61868 

0.2844 

17 

8 

.0376 

25.55 

27.66 

2.10 

0.50422 

0,622.54 

0,3232 

18 

9 

.0337 

26.74 

27.97 

1.23 

0.50900 

0.62619 

0.0899 

19 

10 

.0297 

26.69 

28.26 

1.57 

0.51348 

0.62961 

0.1959 

20 

13 

.0182 

27.51 

29,00 

4-1.49 

0.52490 

0.63837 

0,1732 

23 

29 

.9420 

28.62 

28.62 

—0.00 

0.51909 

0.63391 

n7.6990 

24 

30 

.9380 

27.57 

28.37 

+0.79 

0.51510 

0.63085 

9.9004 

25 

31 

.9340 

27.92 

28.08 

0.15 

0.51078 

0.62754 

9.1903 

26 

Aug. 4 

.9J94 

26.18 

26.82 

0.64 

0,49077 

0.61234 

9.8062 

27 

5 

.9160 

26.39 

26.48 

0.09 

0.48519 

0.60812 

8.9542 

28 

6 

.9128 

25.97 

26.13 

+0.16 

0.47961 

0.60385 

9.2041 

29 

7 

.9096 

26.25 

25.77 

-0.48 

0.47238 

0.59850 

n9.6812 

20 

8 

.9068 • 

25.83 

25.41 

0.42 

0.46740 

0.59479 

n9.6232 

31 

10 

.9009 

24.99 

24.68 

0.31 

0.45482 

0.58545 

n9.4983 

32 

12 

.8956 

24.15 

23.96 

—0.19 

0.44186 

0.57589 

W9.2900 

33 

33 

.8931 

25.20 

23.60 

+ 1.60 

0.43527 

0.57106 

«0.2055 

34 

14 

.8907 

23.11 

23.24 

0.13 

0.42862 

0.56620 

9.1139 

35 

16 

.8853 

22,41 

22.54 

+0.13 

0.41521 

0.55647 

9.1139 

36 

21 

.8769 

21.43 

20.85 

—0.58 

0.38140 

0.53232 

n9.7672 

37 

22 

.8753 

21.57 

20.53 

1.04 

0.37466 

0.52757 

710.0191 

38 

23 

.8738 

21.08 

20.21 

0.87 

0.38794 

0.52285 

719.9420 

39 

28 

.8672 

18.99 

18.73 

0.26 

0.33479 

0.49992 

719.4150 

40 

31 

.8641 

18.29 

17.91 

0.38 

0.31540 

0.48675 

719.5798 

41 

Sept. 1 

.8632 

18.43 

17.65 

0.78 

0.30904 

0.48248 

719.8921 

42 

2 

.8624 

17.87 

17.39 

0.48 

0.30273 

0.47826 

7i9.6e57 

43 

3 

.8616 

17.66 

17.14 

0.52 

0.29649 

0.47410 

719.7202 

44 

6 

.8595 

16.68 

16.49 

0.19 

0.27809 

0.46196 

719.2900 

45 

7 

.8589 

16.61 

16.21 

0.40 

0.27206 

0.45803 

719.6075 

46 

8 

.8583 

16.33 

15.99 

—0.34 

0.26612 

0.45416 

719.5378 


13 

.8555 

34.80 

14.96 

+0.16 

0.23728 

0.43568 

9.2041 


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EQUATIONS OF CONDITION. 


ccxlv 


FOEMATION OF EQUATIONS OP CONDITION. 

VENUS II. 

Equatorial^ Washington, 

(OBSERVED BOTH LIMBS.) 


N°. 

Date. 

log. 6. 

log. C. 

log. g. 

log. S. 

log. n. 

F. 

s. 

p. 

1 

1852.— May 31 

710.34887 

0.29980 

719.95198 

719.12678 

710.1461 . 

-f 0.802 

— 0.1339 

3.27 

2 

June 5 

710.29724 

0.19654 

710.00369 

7,9.62201 

7Z0.2788 

1.017 

0.4188 

3.43 

3 

9 

710.25106 

0.10418 

710.03S69 

719.78333 

7^0.1461 

1.201 

0.6072 

3.27 

4 

11 

710.22549 

0.05304 

710.11251 

719.92763 


1.679 

— 0.8465 


5 

Aug. 26 

0.32896 

0.25998 

nO. 10896 

0.56435 


1.652 

4- 3.6673 


6 

29 

0.35848 

0.31902 

710.08557 

0.61801 

0.8692 

1.483 

+ 4.1496 

3.59 


FOEMATION OF EQUATIONS OF CONDITION. 

VEIVUS II. 

Equatorial^ Washington, 


N°. 

Date. 

Wash. M.T. 

Obs'd r. 

2r. 

IDA. 

ttDA. 

^0 

n. 

log. e. 

log. S. 

log. n. 

p. 

1 

1852.— May 31 

.3422 

II 
15.50 

0.304 

II 
—2.439 

— 0.74 

It 
15.65 

II 

—0.69 

0.25664 

0.44804 

719.8388 

3.59 

2 

June 5 

.3474 

18.05 

0.077 

2.698 

— 0.21 

16.82 

1.55 

0.28820 

0,46861 

7^0.1903 

3.00 

3 

9 

.3476 

20.62 

0.410 

2.840 

+ 1.16 

17.87 

1.48 

0.31453 

0.48617 

n0.i703 

3.27 

4 

11 

.3860 

21.40 

0.484 

-2.886 

1.40 

18.44 

1.45 

0.32827 

0.49547 

710.1614 

3.00 

5 

Aug. 26 

.6570 

21.97 

0,492 

+0.364 

0.18 

19.36 

2.52 

0.34935 

0.50992 

7i0.40l4 

2.67 

6 

29 

.6568 

20.63 

0.228 

-f 0.180 

+ 0.04 

18.51 

—2.16 

0.32964 

0.49641 

710.3345 

2.67 


FORMATION OF EQUATIONS OF CONDITION. 

VENUS II. 

3Ieridian, Greenwich, 


N°. 

Date. 

Limb. 

log. h. 

log. C. 

log. g. 

log. S, 

log. n. 

F. 

S, 

1 

1852.-May 24 

S. 

710.41429 

0.43064 

719.85546 

ri9. 79050 

720.62325 

+ 0.514 

— 0.6173 

2 

July 3 

S. 

719.77306 

9.14818 

710.22774 

nO. 33076 

710.38739 

2.854 

2.1417 

3 

5 

s. 

719.69256 

8.98718 

710.24342 

710.33185 

9.70757 

3.068 

2.1471 

4 

6 

s. 

«9. 64590 

8.89386 

710.25080 

710.33159 

710.17026 

3.174 

2,1458 

5 

7 

s. 

719.59363 

8.789.32 

wO. 25788 

710.33072 

719.63347 

3.279 

2.1415 

6 

8 

s. 

« 9. 53 11 8 

8.67042 

710.26462 

710.32929 

9.44716 

3.383 

2.1345 

7 

12 

s. 

719.15017 

7.90240 

710.28769 

7Z0.31656 

718.90309 

3.762 

2.0728 

8 

13 

s. 

718.95952 

7.52110 

710.29240 

710.31141 

0.12710 

3.844 

2.0484 

9 

16 

s. 

8.956J6 

7.51478 

710.30366 

710.28294 

0.13033 

4.049 

— 1.9184 

10 

22 

N. 

9.58979 

8.78164 

710.31199 

9.60021 

0.48001 

4.207 

+ 0.3983 

11 

Aug. 4 

s. 

0.01544 

9.63294 

710.26544 

719.57623 

0.72591 

3.395 

— 0.3769 

12 

12 

s. 

0.15685 

9.91576 

nO. 21215 

9,79851 

0.84386 

2.656 

+ 0.6288 

13 

24 

s. 

0.30821 

0.21848 

nO. 12470 

0.37199 

0.84572 

1.776 

2.3550 

14 

30 

N. 

0,36800 

0.33806 

710.08380 

0.72416 

0.77452 

1.471 

5.2986 

15 

Sept. 1 

N. 

0.38621 

0.. 37448 

nO. 07095 

0.75C08 

0.77305 

1.386 

5.6244 

16 

2 

N. 

0.39503 

0.39212 

710.06469 

0.76263 

0.79727 

1.347 

5.7894 

17 

13 

N. 

0.48188 

0.56582 

710.00449 

0.88662 

0.79099 

1.021 

+ 7.7024 


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ccxlvi 


EQUATIONS OF CONDITION. 


FOEMATION OP EQUATIONS OF CONDITION. 

VENUS II. 

Meridian J Cracoiv, 

(observed centeb.) 


N°. 

Bate. 

log. 6. 

log. C. 

log. g. 

log. S, 

log. 71. 

F. 

s. 

1 

1852. -June 2 

710.33385 

0.26976 

9.91132 

0.18181 

0.30103 

4- 0.666 

4- 1.5199 

2 

3 

nO, 32367 

0.24940 

9.92102 

0.17681 

710.07918 

0.695 

1.5025 

3 

4 

?^0. 31324 

0.22854 

9.93052 

0.1^251 

710.50515 

0.726 

1.4877 

4 

5 

ri0.3G257 

0.20720 

9.94007 

0.16891 

710.80618 

0.759 

1.4754 

5 

7 

7^0.28039 

0.16284 

9.95949 

0.16S94 

710.07918 

0.830 

1.4586 

6 

8 

710.268 6 

0.13978 

9.96931 

0.16265 

719.60206 

0.868 

1.4.543 

7 

11 

710.23233 

0.06372 

9.99308 

0.16334 

9.30103 

0.996 

1.4566 

8 

12 

nO.21944 

0.04094 

0. 00909 

0.16509 

0.17609 

1.043 

1.4625 

9 

14 

710.19245 

0.98696 

0.02922 

0.17097 

710.74036 

1.144 

1.4824 

10 

17 

nO. 14854 

9.89914 

0.0595L 

0.18523 

0.71600 

1.315 

1.5319 

11 

18 

710.13286 

9.86778 

0.069.59 

0.19128 

710.43133 

1.378 

1.5534 

12 

23 

710.04469 

9.69144 

0.11951 

0.23040 

719.00000 

1.734 

1.6098 

13 

26 

'n9.98l70 

9.56546 

0.14863 

0.25859 

710.23045 

1.983 

1.8138 

14 

27 

7z9. 95850 

9.51906 

0.15811 

0.25968 

0.80018 

2.017 

1.8607 

15 

Aug. 17 

0.22574 

0.06354 

0.16082 

0.72108 

1.13354 

2.097 

5 2611 

16 

18 

0.23844 

0.06894 

0.15344 

0.72651 

0.79934 

2.027 

5.3274 


§ lO.-WEIGHTS AND MEAN ERUOES. 

It is manifest that, whatever efforts may be directed to the investigation of the relative value 
of the several classes of observations, and to the relative precision of measurements made with 
different instruments and by different observers, the ultimate combination of these observations 
must be in a great^ degree empirical, and, if not directly, yet certainly implicitly dependent 
upon the judgment and discretion of the investigator. Under no circumstances can this fact be 
better illustrated than the present. 

We are to endeavor to deduce a correction for the adopted parallax from the materials furnished 
by observations of two different planets, the one superior, the other inferior, and each of them 
during two oppositions or conjimctions. A measure of relative value for these four diverse 
cases seems unattainable, and the course of this discussion is directed to the attainment, from 
each of these four series, of the best independent value which they can be made to yield. 

But in each planet-series the case is analogous. We have different classes of observations, 
some absolute, and some relative ; different instruments, some powerful and some but mediocre ; 
different stations, some favorable for comparison with the others, and some the reverse; different 
climates, some offering a cloudless and transparent sky, and some seldom permitting the 
planet's disc to be distinctly seen ; while the so-called observation itself is in some cases deduced 
from forty or fifty single comparisons which have occupied a period of several hours, and in 
others simply the result of a single pointing. To establish a unit of weight common to all, 
and to determine with correctness the proportionate value of each observation, is purely 
impossible. 


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WEIGHTS AND MEAN ERRORS. CCxlvii 

One serious difficulty is encountered on the threshold. Whatever principle we adopt for the 
determination of the relative weight of an observation from the number of comparisons of which 
it is composed, it is palpable that the accuracy of a position for a given epoch, deduced from 
successive measurements of the position of a body in motion, is governed by a different law from 
that which regulates the precision of the mean of numerous independent measurements, with 
the same implements, of the position of a body at rest. The discrepancies of the several observa- 
tions from their mean will be distributed according to a somewhat different law in these two 
cases ; for the circumstances under which the several comparisons are made are constant in the 
one and slowly varying in the other. The formation of an observation from a number of com- 
parisons at different times is, in fact, the construction of a normal place; whether the intervals 
between the several measurements be counted in minutes, hours, or even days. There can be 
no reasonable doubt, since the investigations of Professor Teirce upon the theory of errors, that 
in repeated measurements of the same quantity by the same instrument a limit is soon attained 
beyond which an increase of precision by an increase of the number of measurements is either 
absolutely nothing, or, at the most, inappreciable. To determine this limit is a matter of 
experiment ; and it is very certain that it will not be the same for a variable and for a constant 
quantity. In fact, the limit for a variable quantity may be regarded as a function of two limits, 
one of which is the same as for a constant, while the other is not. Therefore our first problem 
is to determine the relation between the number of comparisons of a planet's limb with a star, 
and the weight which is to be assigned to the resultant determination of the distance. 

The assumption of a probable error inversely proportional to the square root of the number 
of observations leads, in fact, to palpable absurdity ; and if rigorously followed v/ould imply 
that the mean of a very large number of coarse approximations is preferable to that of a few 
delicate measurements. It may be pardonable to express, in this connection, the strong belief 
that a practical adoption of some such principle for guidance seems to be exerting a highly 
prejudicial influence on astronomical observations in many parts of the world ; tendino* to 
profligate expenditure of an amount of labor upon the repetition and multiplication of observa- 
tions, one-fourth of which, if directed to the increase of delicacy rather than the increase of 
number — to quality, in short, rather than to quantity— would result in a rapid advance, not 
only of theoretical and sidereal astronomy, but, through these, of all departments of the science. 
No multiplication of the number of observations can afford a mean entitled to higher reliance 
than the nature of the instrument permits, or than the methods, manipulations, and sensibility 
of the observer are competent to attain ; and the theory of probabilities soon ceases to contribute 
to the refinement of an accuracy, of which instrument and observer are incapable of taking 
cognizance. 

Some rule for guidance having been determined upon, we are next to fix the relative weight 
of positions of the center or measures of diameter^ derived from the combination of an unequal 
number of comparisons for the two limbs. 

The probable error of a pointing, too, is entirely different for a planetary limb, for an 
estimated center, and for a fixed star ; and finally, the great inequality in the trustworthiness 
of the places adopted for the comparison-stars exerts its full influence upon the weight to be 
assigned to the deduced places of the planet. 

These points being disposed of^ and values of the several observations of every group being 
referred to a common unit of weight, we have different groups to be combined with one another 
the results of meridian observations with those of equatorial ones, and that uncomfortably 


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ccxlviii 


WEIGHTS AND MEAN EREORS. 


embarrassing problem of relative Weight to be solved, which always arises when observations at 
different places and of widely different orders of merit are to be blended. The criterion for 
estimating their relative values is clearly to be supplied by the respective probable errors ; but 
the attainment of these probable errors is environed with obstacles. The probable errors, as 
determined by the deviation of the individual comparisons from their average, are clearly not 
available for this purpose, as the first attempt renders very manifest. Cases are not unfrequent 
in which the mean error, thus determined, is least for the poorest observations ; and in the 
present discussion it w^as found that for one observatory the average deviation of the individual 
comparisons from their mean was both less than the probable error of this mean, as derived 
from the discussion of the entire series, and than its actual deviation from the truth. 

Nevertheless the investigation of the first-named conventional mean error of observation is a 
matter of considerable interest, and the results which it furnishes are here appended. They 
were obtained by reducing the places given by the several comparisons to the corresponding 
places for the time of their mean, correcting, of course, for differential refraction and differential 
parallax. For the Santiago equatorial, — in which a correction to the adopted value of the 
revolution of the micrometer-screw, amounting to OJ^OOB^ or to about one-half of the last unit 
employed by Lieutenant Gilliss, was indicated by the solution of the fundamental equations — the 
values have been corrected also for the change in this constant of reduction. On the other hand 
the observations of one night, (1849, December 12,) were rejected, being evidently affected by 
some abnormal source of error. The columns headed e show the mean variation of each com- 
parison from the mean for each date. 


Mean Errors for Comparisons of Mars at Santiago, 


Date. 

Number. 

Ivv, 

£. 

Date. 

Number. 

Ivv, 

£. 

1849.— Dec. 11 

32 — 2 

20.32 

// 
± 1.604 

1850.-Jan. 12 

20 — 2 

1,Y1 

// 
± 1.230 

15 

46 — 2 

43.28 

1.934 

14 

24—2 

14.35 

1.574 

17 

45 — 2 

11.83 

1.022 

22 

24 — 2 

11.02 

1.379 

18 

25 — 2 

13.89 

1.515 

29 

22 — 2 

3.32 

0.794 

21 

6 — 2 

1.84 

1.322 

1852.— Jan. 24 

46 — 2 

42.63 

J. 918 

27 

39 -- 2 

13.50 

1.177 

30 

50 — 2 

22.58 

1.337 

1849.-Dec. 31 

36 — 2 

14.84 

1.288 

Feb. 2 

30 — 2 

3.19 

0.658 

1850.— Jan. 1 

45 — 2 

9.33 

0.908 

3 

30 — 2 

3.54 

0.693 

4 
6 

50 — 2 
17 — 2 

13.96 

1.051 





5.54 

1.184 

Total .... 

652 -42 

282.38 

± 1.326 

7 

27 — 2 

11.24 . 

1.307 





9 

20 — 2 

3.34 

0.840 





10 

18 — 2 

11.67 

1.666 






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ccxlix 


3Iean Errors for Comparisons of Venus at Santiago. 


Date. 

Number, 

Ivv. 

S, 

Bate. 

Number. 

Ivv. 

e. 

1850.— Oct. 19 
22 

33 — 1 
45 — 1 

r. 

29.86 
16.84 

II 
± 1.88 
1.21 

1851.-~Jan. 24 
Feb. 5 

8-1 
40-2 

r. 

1.60 

4.95 

II 

± 0.93 
0.70 

25 

21 — 1 

6.08 

1.08 

6 

50—2 

26.44 

] .45 

29 
Nov. 1 

7 — 1 

22- 1 

2.91 
3.11 

1.36 
0.75 

10 

24 — 2 

24 — 2 

2.62 
2.83 

0.67 
0.70 

2 

31—1 

17.36 

1.48 

1852.-June 2 

13 — 2 

3.17 

1.05 

7 

17 - 1 

2.23 

0.73 

23 

12-2 

12.92 

2 22 

13 
14 

24 — 1 
27 — 1 

4.58 
5.42 

0.87 
0,89 

Aug. 12 
16 

9 — 2 

8 — 2 

6.45 
1.05 

1.87 
0.82 

21 
1851.— Jan. 15 

22 — 1 
30 — 1 

3.10 
5.80 

0.75 
0.87 

Sept. 3 
8 

Total 

10 — 2 
20 — 2 

2.16 
19.52 

1.01 
2.03 

497 -32 

181.00 

± 1.216 


Mean Errors for Comparisons of Mars at Washington. 


Date. 

Number. 

Ivv, 

e. 

Date. 

Number. 

Ivv. 

e. 

1849.— Nov. 24 

10 — 2 

r. 

8.01 

II 

± 1.54 

1850.— Jan. 9 

14 — 2 

r. 
49.57 

II 

±3.12 
1.45 

26 

80-2 

148.90 

2.17 

12 

14 — 2 

10,75 

Dec. 6 

17 — 2 

17.49 

1.66 

14 

4 — 2 

2.66 

1.77 

11 

11—2 

28.42 

2 73 

22 

21 — 2 

2T.87 

J, 86 

12 

15 — 2 

19.91 

1.90 

29 

6 — 2 

19.84 

3 42 

17 

37 — 2 

28.53 

1.39 

1852.— Jan." 24 

12 — 2 

11.91 

1 68 

27 

42 — 2 

94.64 

2.36 

30 

8 — 2 

10.48 

2.03 

31 

24 — 2 

66.31 

2.61 

Feb. 2 

16 — 2 

5.65 

97 

1850.- Jan. 5 

24 — 2 

50.68 

2.33 

3 

Total 

18 — 2 

7.49 

1.05 

373 —36 

609.11 

± 2.067 


Mean Errors for Comparisons of Venus at Wasliingt 


on. 


Date. 

1 Number. 

1 

Ivv. 

e. 

Date, 

Number. 

Ivv. 

s. 

1850.- Oct. 19 

7 — 2 

r. 
4.12 

II 

±1.40 

1851.— Jan. 15 

32 — 2 

r. 
29.13 

II 
± 1.51 
1.15 

22 

9 — 2 

4.00 

1.16 

24 

8 — 2 

3.37 

Nov. 1 

8 — 2 

4.29 

1.30 

1852— May 31 

15 — 2 

15.75 

1.69 

2 

15 — 2 

15.91 

1.70 i 

June 5 

10 — 2 

6.22 

1.36 

13 

8 — 2 

3.68 

1.21 1 

9 

12-2 

3.94 

0.96 

14 

8 — 2 

5.74 

1.50 1 

11 

10-2 

6.12 

1.34 

21 

21 — 2 

14.54 

1.34 1 

Aug. 26 

8 — 2 

13.66 

2.32 

1851.— Jan, 13 

24-2 

20 38 

1.48 1 

1 

29 
Total 

8 — 2 

8.40 

1.82 

203 —32 \ 

159.25 

± 1.487 


Z 80 


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WEIGHTS AND MEAN EERORS. 


Mean Errors for Comparison of 3Iars at the Cape of Good Hope, 


Date. 

Number. 

Ivv, 

e. 

Date. 

Number. 

Ivv. 

s. 

1849.~Nov. 21 

4 — 2 

6.90 

II 

± 1.86 

1849.— Dec. 17 

10 — 2 

r. 

8.82 

ii 
± 1.05 

21 

4 — 2 

0.62 

0.56 

18 

10 — 2 

8.80 

1.05 

24 

4 — 2 

0.86 

0.66 

18 

10 — 2 

10.98 

1.17 

26 

6 — 2 

23.5